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© Boardworks Ltd 20061 of 37. © Boardworks Ltd 20062 of 37.

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Presentation on theme: "© Boardworks Ltd 20061 of 37. © Boardworks Ltd 20062 of 37."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Boardworks Ltd 20061 of 37

2 © Boardworks Ltd 20062 of 37

3 © Boardworks Ltd 20063 of 37 There are three major types of environment. What are they? landfreshwatermarine How do organisms survive in such different environments? Different types of environment

4 © Boardworks Ltd 20064 of 37 What is adaptation? All organisms are adapted to life in general, such as having legs for walking, wings for flying or leaves for photosynthesizing. These are general adaptations. Organisms also have specific adaptations. These are special features or behaviours that have evolved to make an organism particularly suited to its environmental niche.

5 © Boardworks Ltd 20065 of 37 What are a shark’s general adaptations to life in an aquatic environment? A shark’s general adaptations streamlined shape to reduce friction when moving through water gills have a large surface area so that oxygen can be extracted from the surrounding water fins provide stability, power and control

6 © Boardworks Ltd 20066 of 37 What are a shark’s specific adaptations to life as an aquatic predator? A shark’s specific adaptations highly sensitive sense of smell that can detect drops of blood from miles away lots of very sharp teeth that are constantly replaced silver colouring underneath acts as camouflage specialized sense organs can detect the sound, movement and electrical fields of other organisms

7 © Boardworks Ltd 20067 of 37 This increases the organism’s chance of survival and so increases its chance of reproducing and passing on its genes. The importance of adaptation Why is it important that organisms are adapted to their environment? The better adapted an organism is to its habitat, the more successful it will be when competing for resources such as food and mates.

8 © Boardworks Ltd 20068 of 37 True or false?

9 © Boardworks Ltd 20069 of 37

10 © Boardworks Ltd 200610 of 37 A predator is an animal that hunts and kills other animals for food. A prey animal is one that is attacked and eaten by a predator. Predators can be either: Animals that eat other animals carnivorous (eat meat only) e.g. wolves omnivorous (eat meat and vegetation) e.g. humans.

11 © Boardworks Ltd 200611 of 37 Predators are adapted to hunt, catch and eat prey. Prey are adapted to avoid capture from predators. How are predators and prey adapted?

12 © Boardworks Ltd 200612 of 37 Adaptations of predators What are common predator adaptations for hunting and killing? Excellent vision – For spotting prey from far away. Many predators have binocular vision to accurately judge the distance of their prey. High speed – For chasing after prey. Predators often stalk their prey using stealth and sometimes camouflage to get as close as possible without being detected. Weapons – For killing prey. These are predominantly sharp teeth, claws and beaks, which enable the predator to hold their prey and tear their flesh.

13 © Boardworks Ltd 200613 of 37 Adaptations of prey What are common prey adaptations for avoiding capture by predators? Excellent vision – For spotting predators from far away. Many prey have a wide field of view to see predators approaching from all different directions. High speed – For escaping from predators. Prey animals such as deer and antelopes often have a high stamina to keep running for longer than their predators. Camouflage – For hiding from predators. For example, the stripes on a zebra break up their outline, stick insects look like twigs, some insects look like leaves. Defence – For protection against attack. Examples include armour plating, horns and tusks.

14 © Boardworks Ltd 200614 of 37 The snowshoe hare lives in northern parts of North America. How is it adapted to avoid predators such as lynxes? Adaptations of the snowshoe hare greyish-brown fur turns white in winter for camouflage large furry feet act as snow shoes and protect the soles from cold large ears help in detecting predators monocular vision with a wide field of view to see predators approaching

15 © Boardworks Ltd 200615 of 37 How are lynxes adapted for catching snowshoe hares? Adaptations of the lynx excellent binocular vision for judging distances warm thick furry coat protects from the cold extra large paws act as snow shoes sharp teeth and claws for puncturing flesh very strong hind leg muscles capable of pouncing 6.5 metres!

16 © Boardworks Ltd 200616 of 37 Using poison Poison has evolved as an adaptation of predators and prey. Organisms such as snakes, spiders and insects use poison to paralyze or kill prey. Other organisms use poison as a defence. Certain tropical frogs have poisonous skin that can make predators very ill or even die. They are often brightly coloured to deter predators from even trying to attack them.

17 © Boardworks Ltd 200617 of 37 Let’s pretend Some harmless organisms have become adapted to look like dangerous species. This is called mimicry. For example, stingless hoverflies have black and yellow bands on their bodies that resemble those on wasps or bees. This warns predators to stay away, even though the hoverfly is incapable of stinging.

18 © Boardworks Ltd 200618 of 37 Whose adaptation?

19 © Boardworks Ltd 200619 of 37

20 © Boardworks Ltd 200620 of 37 How is a polar bear adapted to its extremely cold climate? How is a polar bear adapted? white greasy fur repels water and acts as camouflage thick fur and body fat insulate from the cold large, wide feet spread the body’s weight and act as good paddles and snow shoes

21 © Boardworks Ltd 200621 of 37 Other adaptations that polar bears have evolved to cope with conditions in the harsh polar environment include: More polar bears adaptations small ears and small body surface area to volume ratio reduces heat loss eyes have brown irises to reduce the glare from the Sun’s reflection black skin is a good absorber of heat

22 © Boardworks Ltd 200622 of 37 camels have three stomachs Camels are amazing creatures! Did you know that: Curious camel facts some camels live to over 40 years old some Bactrian camels can transport 450 kg archaeological finds show that camels originated in North America Somalia is home to over six million camels!

23 © Boardworks Ltd 200623 of 37 How is a camel adapted to life in a very hot, dry climate? How is a camel adapted? fat is stored in the hump to reduce overheating little water is lost through sweating or urination long, thin legs help to increase body surface area and increase heat loss wide feet spread out body weight on shifting sand

24 © Boardworks Ltd 200624 of 37 What other adaptations have camels evolved to cope with the harsh desert environment? More camel adaptations nostrils can be closed for protection during sandstorms very varied diet, ranging from grass and bark to thorns and bones. long eyelashes and furry ears prevent sand and dust from getting in

25 © Boardworks Ltd 200625 of 37 Which adaptation?

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27 © Boardworks Ltd 200627 of 37 How is a cactus adapted to life in a very hot, dry climate? How is a cactus adapted? water stored in a fleshy stem, and a thick, waxy surface reduces water loss leaves are narrow spines to reduce water loss and protect from predators roots are either very deep, or shallow and widespread to catch surface water

28 © Boardworks Ltd 200628 of 37 What do flowers do? Flowers enable plants to reproduce sexually. For this to happen, pollen from one flower must be carried to another flower – either on the same plant or on a different plant. This is called pollination. In what ways can pollination take place? Pollen is carried by insects from one flower to another. Pollen is blown by wind from one flower to another.

29 © Boardworks Ltd 200629 of 37 Adaptations for insect pollination How are flowers adapted for pollination by insects such as bees and butterflies? colourful, scented petals attract insects large, sticky pollen grains become attached to the insect’s body nectar, a source of food for insects, is deep within the flower stiff anthers and stigmas are positioned where insects must brush past them

30 © Boardworks Ltd 200630 of 37 Adaptations for wind pollination How are flowers adapted for pollination by the wind? small, dull- coloured petals anthers hang loosely outside flower so wind can blow pollen huge numbers of light, tiny pollen grains long, feathery stigma hanging outside flower so pollen can be trapped

31 © Boardworks Ltd 200631 of 37 Plants can live in acid or waterlogged soils where there is little nitrate. Some plants have evolved a rather cunning adaptation to obtain the nutrients they need. Hairs on the slippery inside of the plant are angled down to ensure that the victim cannot escape! Pitcher plants have a large hollow filled with fluid that traps insects or other small organisms that may fall in. The plant digests its victims to absorb the nitrates it needs! Unusual plant adaptations

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33 © Boardworks Ltd 200633 of 37 Glossary (1/2) adaptation – A special feature or behaviour that makes an organism particularly suited to its habitat. camouflage – An adaptation that helps an organism to remain undetected by a predator or prey. general – A type of adaptation that makes an organism suited to life overall. mimicry – The resemblance of one species to a more dangerous species, for protection against predation.

34 © Boardworks Ltd 200634 of 37 Glossary (2/2) pollination – The transfer of pollen from one flower to another, and which is assisted by insects or wind. predator – An organism that hunts and kills other organisms for food. prey – An organism that is killed and eaten by another organism. specific – A type of adaptation that makes an organism particularly suited to its environmental niche.

35 © Boardworks Ltd 200635 of 37 Anagrams

36 © Boardworks Ltd 200636 of 37 Which organism?

37 © Boardworks Ltd 200637 of 37 Multiple-choice quiz

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