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Today there are about a billion sheep all over the world, divided into more than 200 breeds. The largest producing countries are Australia and New Zealand,

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Presentation on theme: "Today there are about a billion sheep all over the world, divided into more than 200 breeds. The largest producing countries are Australia and New Zealand,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Today there are about a billion sheep all over the world, divided into more than 200 breeds. The largest producing countries are Australia and New Zealand, and the most common breeds are Lincoln and Merino. Merino sheep produce exceptionally fine and crimpy wool. WOOL INSULATES AGAINST BOTH HEAT AND COLD Wool has several characteristics that contribute to its excellent insulating properties: the loftiness and scaly surface of the fiber, the fatty substance lanolin that surrounds the fiber, and its degree of moisture absorption.

2 Camel Family (Alpaca/Llama/Camel/Vicuna) Yarns made from the fibers of these animals are very soft, lustrous, lightweight and warm.

3 Camel Family (Alpaca/Llama/Camel/Vicuna) Yarns made from the fibers of these animals are very soft, lustrous, lightweight and warm.

4 The llama is a South American camelid. The height of a full-grown, full-size llama is between 5.5 ft and 6 ft tall. They can weigh between approximately 280 lb and 450 lb. Yarns made from the fibers of these animals are very soft, lustrous, lightweight, warm, and lanoline free.

5 The Vicuña is the smallest and rarest of the South American camelids, and its hair is considered the finest animal fiber in the world. small amounts of extremely fine wool, which is very expensive because the animal can only be shorn every 3 years. Historical chronicles indicate that Vicuña textiles were reserved for Inca royalty. Because of the quest for its highly coveted luxurious fiber, the Vicuña was driven nearly to extinction by the 1960s. Various conservation programs have ensured survival of the Vicuña, and this wonderful fiber is once again available to the textile industry. There are now approximately 150,000 Vicuñas in South America, about 80% of which inhabit Peru.

6 Camel's thick coat reflects sunlight, and also insulates it from the intense heat radiated from desert sand. A shorn camel has to sweat 50% more to avoid overheating. Their long legs help by keeping them further from the hot ground.

7 Cotton is a soft fiber that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant. Cool, soft and comfortable, cotton is presently the world's most used fiber. Every part of the cotton plant is useful and we see its application in industries such as apparel, home furnishings, medical and surgical, automobile, etc.

8 Linen cloth recovered from Qumran Cave 1 near the Dead Sea. Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant. Linen is labor-intensive to manufacture, but when it is made into garments, it is valued for its exceptional coolness and freshness in hot weather. Linen textiles appear to be some of the oldest in the world: their history goes back many thousands of years. Fragments of straw, seeds, fibers, yarns, and various types of fabrics which date back to about 8000 BC have been found in Swiss lake dwellings. Dyed flax fibers found in a prehistoric cave in the Republic of Georgia suggest the use of woven linen fabrics from wild flax may date back even earlier to 36,000 BP. Linen was sometimes used as currency in ancient Egypt. Egyptian mummies were wrapped in linen because it was seen as a symbol of light and purity, and as a display of wealth. Some of these fabrics, woven from hand spun yarns, were very fine for their day, but are coarse compared to modern linen.

9 Jute Jute is a long, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. Jute is comprised mostly of cellulose plant material AND lignin (a wood derivative). It is thus a ligno-cellulosic fiber –partially a textile fiber and partially wood (see Wikipedia for more).Wikipedia for more) The fibers are off-white to brown, and 1–4 meters (3–12 feet) long. Bangladesh is the world’s largest exporter of jute. Jute is grown in the same land-water area as rice and is a very difficult crop to grow and harvest. Other important jute export countries include India, China, Burma (Myanmar), Pakistan, Nepal and Thailand.

10 Ramie

11 Hemp

12 Bamboo fiber is the new innovation in textile fibers. Bamboo is perfectly ecological. Bamboo fabric is incredibly soft even softer than cotton smooth and luxuriously comfortable. What is Bamboo? Bamboo is actually a tropical plant. Bamboo is 100% naturally grown, without assistance from man. Bamboo is the fastest growing plant in the world. Bamboo grows to its maximum height in about 3 months and reaches maturity in 3-4 years and growing to heights of approximately 60 feet. Bamboo keeps you dry due to its extraordinary property of absorption. It's 3-4 times more absorbent than cotton. Bamboo fabric absorbs and evaporates sweat in a split second. It doesn't stick to the skin. Its extraordinary natural breathing ability keeps you comfortable and dry for longer. It is a fantastic clothing fabric, baby diaper, house items and accessories.

13 Silk cultivation is a difficult process that begins with the silk moth. The moth lays hundreds of eggs about the size of a pinhead that are examined and discarded if they are diseased. The eggs are then put in cold storage for six to ten months until the mulberry trees bud. After incubation, the eggs hatch into larvae. For about a month these larvae live in a carefully controlled environment eating cleaned, chopped mulberry leaves. They grow quickly and become caterpillars called silk worms. The silk worm is quite discerning about its environment. If the conditions are less than ideal, the silkworm produces inferior silk, or no silk. The silkworm then starts to spin a cocoon for itself to protect it while it transforms into a moth. A single cocoon yields 1,600 - 5280 feet of continuous filament. It is this length of fiber that makes silk fabric unlike any other type of fiber.

14 An 11-foot-long cloth of thread from golden orb spiders will be at the American Museum of Natural History starting Thursday. Only the females produce the silk, which is renowned for both its striking saffron color and its tensile strength (five to six times stronger than steel by weight). But these females are notoriously cannibalistic and if left to their own devices will quickly reduce the entire silk assembly line to arachnid carnage. ner=rss&emc=rss ner=rss&emc=rss

15 Golden orb spiders. The largest spiders, the females, can grow to about the size of a small adult human hand, with hairy stiletto legs and the ability to eat large, flying insects.

16 These 24 threads were then hand-twisted into one and joined into 96-thread strands that served as the foundation of the textile. The filament spider silk can be up to 400 yards long and 5 times the strength of steel.

17 Nicholas Godley, left, and Simon Peers at the American Museum of Natural History with the hand-woven cloth, made of silken thread from spiders. After many fits and starts, the two men put together an almost Victorian spider-silk harvesting operation that hired local people to comb the countryside with long bamboo poles, carefully collecting live female spiders — about 3,000 a day — in boxes. The spiders were taken to Mr. Godley, who set up a system in which workers, all women, would handle each spider, gently pulling out the thread that dangled from its spinnerets. (The spiders bite if provoked, but their bites are not dangerous.) The two men say they hope that the textile, which cost more than half a million dollars to make, ends up being acquired by a public institution and displayed. (It is on loan to the American Museum of Natural History.)

18 A detail of the textile, with its traditional Malagasy motifs. “Not one thread ever broke on the loom — it’s that strong,” Mr. Godley said. (He asked a reporter looking at the cloth recently at the museum to grab a strand in one of the tassels at the end of the textile and try to break it. The thread had about as much give as a chain used to lock up a New York City messenger’s bike.)

19 What is TFPIA?

20 Introduction to Fibers Spinning, Knitting, and Crochet

21 Audrey Hepburn from Breakfast at Tiffany's

22 Knitting Apprentice You've got the basics down pat and you might just be falling in love with this hobby. Big needles, funky yarns and simple shapes are the name of the game, but it doesn't mean you don't experiment a bit, here and there. As an apprentice, you probably fall back on other people to get you through those rough spots, and if you don't know anyone who knits, you probably have a few books or online sources to tap.

23 Yarn Stash an aunt with a shameful addiction.




27 Carol Hummel Tree Cozy: In 2005 I crocheted a cozy on a tree in front of City Hall as part of a public art project for Heights Arts in Cleveland Heights, Ohio (USA). I covered the tree – a natural object representing masculinity and strength – with a cozy – a handmade covering representing femininity and comfort. The cozy simultaneously caresses and encases the tree fluctuating between a comforting blanket and a confining cover-up. But to many, it’s simply a delight of beauty, color and crochet. “Tree Cozy” is one of the happiest projects I’ve ever done. It connected with people of every age, sex, ethnicity and economic level. The brightly colored crocheted cozy seemed to touch a place deep within that evoked memories of people, places and times when life was good and the future full of hope and promise. With the help of numerous volunteers, we have crocheted cozies for nearly 200 parking meters, 15 light poles, and 5 trees in Cleveland Heights and 44 trees in Larchmere. We used approximately 167,000 feet of macrame cord and spent around 1,300 hours on the projects.

28 YARN BOMBING VIDEO YARN BOMBING! Yarn bombing, also known as Knit Graffiti is a new trend on the scene. Knit Graffiti groups are popping up across the globe to improve the urban environment “one stitch at a time”. Magda Sayeg of Knitta Please covered a bus in Mexico City, November 2008.Knitta Please

29 Sweater Bike, 2004 by Janet Morton YARN BOMBING!YARN BOMBING! Magda Sayeg of Knitta Please covered a bus in Mexico City, November 2008.Knitta Please

30 Artist-in-residence Jerilea Zempel was featured on the Colbert Report as part of the segment, “Nailed ’Em: Radical Knitting.” The clip satirically recounted Zempel’s experience of being held at the border between the United States and Canada after returning from creating an art installation she has since named “Homeland Security Blanket”—a crocheted cozy designed to completely ensconce a Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV).




34 1000 Strands - Extreme Knitting by Rachel John Dec 8th, 2008 You Tube

35 HISTORY OF KNITTING Socks from Egypt. Dating back to 1000 CE.

36 Meister Bertram von Minden. C 1400-1410

37 Knitting Machines

38 Knitting becomes Popular!


40 Missoni Throughout its five decades in the fashion world, Missoni has come to symbolise chic knitwear with soft, comfortable ‘put together’ shapes that create an unmistakable image. Their knitwear creations are instantly recognisable by their distinctive rainbow stripes and zigzags.

41 Bjork in freeform crochet

42 Knit wear by Roman Mersh

43 Knit wear by Roman Mersh Fashion as a metaphore

44 Knit wear by Roman Mersh

45 Clare Tough is not your typical English fashion designer. At not even 30 she is already a phenomenon with a style, vision and experience that are unique in the fashion world. Her shapes and colour blends are surprising. Inevitably the majority of Tough’s designs are hand-knitted.

46 Clare Tough

47 Johan Ku



50 Liz Collins is recognized internationally for her use of machine knitting to create ground breaking clothing, textiles, and installations. After five years as an independent designer of ready-to-wear collections in New York, in the fall of 2003 Collins returned to her alma mater, Rhode Island School of Design (BFA'91/ MFA'99), as an Assistant Professor in the Textile Department. In addition to teaching,Collins currently designs knitwear and collaborates with other designers, producing signature knit pieces and collections for them. In the spring of 2005, a new facet of Collins' work emerged: a series of performance-based installations called "KNITTING NATION", that employ uniformed machine knitters to create a multi-sensory experience that examines the relationship of humans to manufacturing and the process of machine knitting. Collins is a 2006 United States Artists Target Fellow in Crafts and Traditional Arts and a member of the Council of Fashion Designers of America. Her work was included in the celebrated exhibition "Radical Lace and Subversive Knitting" at the Museum of Arts and Design in 2007, "Evolution/Revolution" at the RISD Museum of Art in 2008, and can be seen the books Fashioning Fabrics, by Sandy Black and Elyssa da Cruz, Knitknit: Presenting 27 Innovative Knitters and Their Projects, by Sabrina Gschwandtner, and Designing a Knitwear Collection:From Inspiration to Finished Garment, by Lisa Donofrio and Marylin Heffernen. mgrefurl

51 Left:Liz Collin and Cal Lane Right: Liz Collin “Ape Cape”

52 ISSEY MIYAKE Miyake’s vision to create clothing for everyone and his subsequent exploration of the relationship between clothing and the body set him apart. His touchstone eventually became creating clothing from a single piece of cloth. In 1978, he published East Meets West, a seminal book in which he chronicled his experiments making clothing from “one piece of cloth” that transcended the boundaries of East/West traditions and innovations.

53 Issey Miyake “Pleat Please” collection

54 Fashion designer Issey Miyake, who was born and raised in Hiroshima, Japan, was only seven years old when the nuclear bomb was dropped in Hiroshima on Aug. 6, 1945. Now 71 years old, Miyake reveals the impact of that day on his life in his recent op-ed piece for The New York Times. “When I close my eyes, I still see things no one should ever experience: a bright red light, the black cloud soon after, people running in every direction trying desperately to escape — I remember it all. Within three years, my mother died from radiation exposure.” He urge all citizens of the world to take action in moving towards peace. Thinking about that fateful day in Hiroshima, which left an estimated 140,000 casualties, in light of the recent, ongoing nuclear threats from North Korea, shows the magnitude of what a nuclear threat means today. As Miyake advocates, “For there to be any hope of peace, people around the world must add their voices to President Obama’s.” From the words of a true survivor, let’s start talking.

55 Issey Miyake "Minaret" Dress, spring/ summer 1994 Polyester, plain weave; pleated and heat- and pressure-set; plastic hoops

56 Fair Trade Who is making the clothes you are wearing? Amani's has paired with companies that only works with factories that use fair trade practices. We do not want our name on anything unless we know that the people involved in making the garments (from field workers to sewers) are being paid a fair living wage, have a clean and safe work environment, and that no one under the age of 18 years old is making any of our garments. Fair trade garments are significantly more expensive than non-fair trade garments to manufacture, but we think it's worth it.

57 Gina Pinnock Elizabethan-style jacket, knit for Shakespeare’s Globe Theater production of Julius Caesar, in 2003. Designed for the character “Portia”, the fabric of the jacket was patterned after a period brocade jacket, circa 1697, that Gina unearthed at the Victoria and Albert Museum, in London. Wool for Portia’s jacket was hand-dyed, using only natural dyes that would have been available at the time. Knit in an intricate two-color fair isle, by both hand and machine

58 Sari Yarns Nepali Women Empowerment Group The NGO Organization N-WEG to help women who have been rescued from abusive situations. The women who come to the shelter are able to use their spinning and knitting skills to rebuild their lives, while continuing to care for their children. Proceeds provide a safe shelter, health care, education and the dignity of financial independence.



61 SUPERSTITIONS “Sweater’s Curse” aka “Curse of the Love Sweater” Empty needles attract bad luck Stabbing needles into wool brings bad luck down on the wearer of the garment. Never hand knitting needles to someone with points facing them, stabbing a friendship Fishermen’s wives would knit for safe return

62 Patricia Brown Sculptural - Installation

63 Demakersvan.php

64 Hassan uses crochet and knitting in her work for a different purpose: to emphasize common bonds between women. Of her mixed-media Knit Painting series, which depicts women either knitting alone or in separate frames held together by a joint knitting project, Hassan, who sells her work, was inspired by her fascination with knitting and love for painting. “I think about how it links me to my mother, and her mother, and all the women that came before them,” she says. 2/viewer_wide/

65 Waller has been crocheting wool since the early ’90s. “I was looking forv materials not yet established in the arts,” she says. “I wanted to become independent from machines and electricity supplies. All my colleagues were making fun of me for working with such an old-fashioned material.” Waller’s dark yet whimsical work captures viewers with humor before evoking their discomfort. In her series How to Kill Your First Love, she features cute, intricately crocheted toys in the throes of stabbings, beheadings and other sadistic acts. “The series is about the aggressive potential of children, child abuse, and violence against animals,” Waller explains. By confronting us with disturbing imagery, Waller seeks to alter our ways of thinking about particular objects. She uses crocheted wool, a substance that provides “safety and warmth to human beings,” to create creatures both cuddly and grotesque. The discrepancy between the material and the object revises our perceptions of both. “Through de-familiarization, I question our ways of seeing,” says Waller. ide/

66 Antlion Bug © Deirdre Nelson

67 Spoon © Deirdre Nelson work crosses boundaries between traditional craft and contemporary art. Research and ideas determine the choice of techniques and methods of presentation within gallery and museum context. The work employs a variety of techniques and materials, fusing traditional textile skills and contemporary

68 Knitted Pence Jug, England, 1775-99

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