Presentation on theme: "“Camels & Bats & MERS Oh My” The Economist May 14, 2014 www.economist.com/node/21602198 www.economist.com/node/21602198 Andrea L. Williams, PhD, RN EMS."— Presentation transcript:
“Camels & Bats & MERS Oh My” The Economist May 14, Andrea L. Williams, PhD, RN EMS Education Specialist Clinical Associate Professor UW Emergency Education Center & UW-SON
Recent MERS–nCoV News Reports CNN Medical Report - MERS CoV Virus Report ers-camels/ USA Today Report w/2014/05/17/mers-corona-virus-saudi- arabia-illinois-indiana-infection/ / CNN MERS CoV Camel Report ers-camels
Saudi Arabia – To prevent Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, Saudis wear mouth and nose masks to watch camels at their farm, outside Riyadh. Photographer: Fayez Nureldine/AFP via Getty Images
Understand the possible mechanisms of transmission, pathophysiology, signs & symptoms and treatment for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Describe precautions that need to occur for pre- hospital & hospital providers OBJECTIVES
MERS-nCoV: Mechanism of Transmission Identified in September 2012 Similar to coronaviruses found in bats Isolated in camels in Qatar, Egypt and Saudi Arabia-unknown if camels are the source of the virus Human to human infection in health care workers noted Lab test for active infection and antibody test for previous infection
MERS-nCoV Transmission Transmitted through the air through droplets from coughing or sneezing Transmitted through close personal contact: touching or shaking hands Spread by touching contaminated objects or surfaces and then touching your eyes, nose, or mouth Transmitted in the Middle East by the same mechanisms when in close contact with dromedary camels used for racing, transportation, food, and as pets. Virus found in camel feces & urine, unpasteurized camel milk & cheese, and in camel meat Virus found in camel feces which may be dried and used for fuel.
Countries in the Arabian Peninsula with Lab-Confirmed MERS Cases Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates (UAE) Qatar Oman Jordan Kuwait Yemen Lebanon Iran
Countries with Travel-Associated Cases United Kingdom (UK) France Tunisia Italy Malaysia Philippines Greece Egypt United States of America (USA) Netherlands ***CDC takes back report of MERS spread person to person in U.S.
MERS nCoV Cases and Deaths 562 Cases of MERS CoV worldwide with 180 deaths Recently spread to Iran Saudi Health Minister fired after a spike in Mers CoV cases (49 new cases), in April perspective/2014/04/two-mers- antibody-studies-may-help- quest-treatment
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-nCoV is caused by a novel beta coronavirus that usually causes a severe respiratory illness which has resulted in deaths in ~ 30% of individuals with confirmed infections. It is called a coronal virus because it appears to be surrounded by a crown. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome
History & Symptoms of MERS-nCoV History of travel to Middle Eastern Countries where MERS- nCoV is prevalent Upper Respiratory Symptoms Fever Cough Shortness of breath Hypoxemia Pneumonia Gastrointestinal Symptoms Nausea Vomiting Diarrhea Kidney Failure
Treatment Supportive Care No vaccine to date Researchers have found that monoclonal antibodies - MERS-4 and MERS-27, have strong neutralizing activity against MERS-CoV.
Prevention While in Flying Wash hands often Avoid touching your face Avoid close contact with sick people Don’t share cups or eating utensils. Clean and disinfect surfaces like door handles, toys, tray tops, etc. Practice the "Canadian salute" of coughing and sneezing into your elbow.
Prevention in Middle East MERS-CoV can survive for a long time in milk and suggested that consumption of unpasteruized milk, common on the Arabian Peninsula, could be a source of infection. Pasteurization kills the virus. Don’t drink unpasteurized milk or eat unpasteurized cheese. Camel meat should be thoroughly cooked, not eaten raw Don’t drink camel urine (Believed to have medicinal benefits) What should be done about camel feces dried for fuel?
New Prevention Guidelines Qatar June 2014 Qatari has put into effect standards for protection of camel workers. Frequent hand washing Use of protective facemasks—although temperatures of up to 50°C make this almost impossible Use of protective clothing and gloves
Prevention of Transmission to Healthcare Providers Airborne Infection Isolation Room (AIIR) Limit the number of healthcare providers present during the aerosol-generating procedures (ETT placement) to only those essential for patient care and support. Conduct the procedures in a private room and ideally in an AIIR Gloves Gowns Eye protection (goggles or face shield) Respiratory protection that is at least as protective as a fit- tested NIOSH-certified disposable N95 filtering face piece respirator. If a respirator is unavailable, a facemask should be worn. In this situation respirators should be made available as quickly as possible Monitor healthcare providers for 14 days after the last known contact with the sick patient. Healthcare providers should stay home when sick!
Do Not Eat Anything You Cannot Positively ID “ Every mushroom is edible, but some only once." Galerina autumnalis Brown cap, small fragile ring on the stem. The lower part of the stem is usually darker brown, sometimes with little tufts of hyphae. Above the ring the stem is usually lighter tan in color and lacks ornamentation. The gills are ~ the same color as the top of the stem and darken with age. The mushrooms are only about 2-5 cm in diameter and the stems are usually less than 2 inches (5 cm). The spore print is a rusty brown.
False Chanterelle False Chanterelle, is an orange funnel-shaped mushroom which has been confused at times with the true chanterelle Orange cap up to 8 cm across, initially convex but becoming funnel-shaped. The decurrent gill-like structures are orange, rib- like folds and forked. The orange stem is ~ 5 cm high and lacks a ring The spore print is white.
Chanterelle Look-a-like Mushrooms Jack O'lanterns grow in large groups with the stems attached. Chanterelles are usually solitary or in a small bunch with separate stems. Jack o'lanterns are more orange, less yellow. Chanterelles will always be near trees due as they are mycorrhizal fungi. Jack O'lanterns may appear where there are no trees.
False Chanterelle “Poisoning” Symptoms Tom Volk, a leader in mycology from the University of Wisconsin, describes the False Chanterelle or Jack-o-lantern mushroom poisoning as, "Omphalotus olearius won't kill you - it will just make you wish you were dead." Due to vomiting and diarrhea for several days after ingestion.
Isoxazole Derivatives Poisoning Mushrooms - Amanita muscaria, A. pantherina, A. gemmata, A. cothurnata, A. frostiana, A. crenulata, A. strobiliformus, Tricholoma muscarium Symptoms occur 30 minute to 2 hours after ingestion, and last for several hours.
Symptoms of Isoxazole Derivatives Poisoning Nausea and vomiting are quite common, Central nervous system effects: confusion, visual distortion, a feeling of greater strength, delusions, convulsions, drowsiness, fall asleep and can not be roused. In rare cases the coma-like state can last for more than 24 hours. No deaths in 100 years Spontaneously awaken
Case Presentation A 24 y/o calls 911 with complaints of abdominal pain and sweating. On arrival to the scene or on arrival to your ED you find the patient to be diaphoretic, with drenching sweats, copious salivation and lacrimation, as well as crampy abdominal pain. He vomits twice and has another episode of diarrhea. Otherwise, his vital signs were stable. His pupils were measured at 3 mm bilaterally and were reactive to light. On auscultation of the lungs, there were coarse crackles up to the mid lung bilaterally. What is your differential diagnosis? A 32 y/o family member calls 911 after having episodes of crampy abdominal pain with diarrhea and vomiting as well as blurred vision 2 h after consuming the mushrooms. She also had profuse sweating, lacrimation, and coarse crackles
Inocybe species, Clitocybe dealbata - Muscarine Symptoms of Poisoning GI Symptoms 20 minutes to 4 hours of ingesting the mushrooms, and include nausea, vomiting, cramps, and diarrhea Muscarine Symptoms – SLUDGE-M Excessive salivation, sweating, tears, lactation (in pregnant women), severe vomiting and diarrhea. May be accompanied by visual disturbances, constriction of the pupils, irregular pulse, decreased blood pressure, and difficulty breathing. Death can occur from respiratory failure.
Treatment of Muscarine Poisoning Supportive care Atropine
2014 Muscoda Morel Mushroom Festival 2014 Muscoda Morel Mushroom Festival
Case Presentation The Communication Center dispatches you to the home of an elderly couple (or an elderly couple arrive in the ED), who are complaining of headache, severe nausea, vomiting and diarrhea a couple of hours after eating Morel mushrooms they picked in the woods near their home.
Gyromitrin Poisoning Symptoms Symptoms occur within 2 to 24 hours after eating a False Morel/Gyromitra esculenta s Headaches Abdominal distress Severe diarrhea, and vomiting In severe cases, liver and kidney damage Red blood cell damage Convulsions & coma can occur
Gyromitrin Poisoning Treatment Supportive Care Gastric decontamination with activated charcoal may be beneficial within a few hours of consumption. Treat severe vomiting or diarrhea with intravenous fluids. Monitoring of methemoglobin levels, electrolytes, liver and kidney function Dialysis Blood transfusions for hemolysis of red blood cells Methylene blue for methemogloinemia Vitamine B6 Pyridoxine for neurologic symptoms Folinic acid replacement
Case Presentation You receive a 911 call or the 55 y/o female is admitted to your ED with complaints of severe abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. They are lightheaded with dizziness. What are your concerns? What is your differential diagnosis?
Amanitas - The Death Cap & the Destroying Angel Mushrooms : Amanita phallodies, A. ocreata, A. verna, A. bisporigera, Conocybe filaris, Galerina autumnalis, G. marginata, G. venenata, Lepiotia castanea, L. helveola, L. josserandii & close relatives. Account for 90 percent of all poisonous mushroom cases. Amanitas have a bulbous base Death Cap Caps are generally greenish in color, with a white stem and gills. The Death Destroying Angel smells sickly sweet White stalk and gills Bulbous base The cap can be pure white, or white at the edge and yellowish, pinkish, or tan at the center. Has a partial veil, or ring (annulus) circling the upper stalk, and the gills are "free," not attached to the stalk. The most telltale of the features is the presence of a volva, or universal veil,
Mechanism and Symptoms of Amanitas Poisoning a-amanitin slowly attacks the enzyme RNA polymerase in all body cells, particularly the liver. Ultimately affects the central nervous system and kidneys. As little as 1/3 of the cap may be eaten resulting in death
Stages & Symptoms of Amanita Poisoning First stage is a latency period of 5 to 24 hours after ingestion, in which the toxins are actively destroying the victim's kidneys and liver, but the victim experiences no discomfort. There may be a feeling of unease Second stage is a period of about 24 hours characterized by violent vomiting, bloody diarrhea (cholera-like), and severe abdominal cramps. Third stage is a period of 24 hours during which the victim appears to recover (if hospitalized, the patient is sometimes released!) Fourth stage is a relapse, during which kidney and liver failure often occurs, leading to death. There may be more than one relapse.
Amanitas Poisoning Treatment Fluid and electrolyte replacement Oral activated charcoal and lactulose IV penicillin Combined hemodialysis and hemoperfusion in two 8-hour sessions some with "IV thioctic acid, others IV silibinin Milk thistle
Prevention of Mushroom Poisoning Only eat mushrooms you have positively identified yourself. Identify mushrooms a second time during preparation and cook them properly, unless you know that the species can be eaten raw. Do not combine mushroom types. Retain a sample of any mushroom you are not well- experienced with for analysis in case of poisoning. Inform yourself about deadly mushrooms that are look-alikes of edible ones. "Deadly twins" differ regionally, so take into account regional variation. Do not gather mushrooms that are difficult to identify, unless you have expert knowledge. Consume only a small amount the first time
Mushroom Safety Tips Be cautious with white-capped mushrooms or mushrooms with white gills; this eliminates many hard-to-identify species, including several deadly species. Do not eat wrinkled, brain-like, or saddle-shaped mushrooms. Beware of any mushroom with a ring on its stalk or any mushroom that grows out of a cup or has an enlarged base. Avoid LBM's. Species of Little Brown Mushrooms can rarely be determined by non-professionals. Avoid Boletes which have red pore mouths or which bruise blue or taste bitter. Do not eat any puffball that is not pure white and uniform in texture inside. Keep each species that you collect in a separate container. Be aware that some mushrooms cause reactions when consumed with alcohol.
Wisconsin Creates New Crossbow Season “With the official signature of Governor Scott Walker the dawn of a new age is finally upon Wisconsin hunters. Once only legal for hunters age 65 or older, or those with physical disabilities preventing them from using a compound or traditional bow, crossbows will now be legal for hunters of all ages throughout the state's archery deer hunting season.”
Longbows, Crossbows, Composite Bows & Arrow Injuries A Wisconsin man was injured when fired the crossbow and stuck his thumb in the path of the bow string. In so doing, he severed part of his thumb. EMS and first responders had a difficult time locating the amputated part, which could not be attached. Injury prevention education – Teach users to, “Never allow your fore-grip hand’s fingers or thumb to move above the barrel’s flight deck or into the bow string or cables’ release path.”
Types of Bows
Case A 16-year-old boy sustained a penetrating injury to his left wrist and hand from a broken arrow shaft. This occurred when a hollow carbon fiber arrow broke while he was attempting to shoot it from a compound bow. The shaft of the arrow, broken at its mid portion, entered the left wrist
Treatment of Patient with Arrow Impalement Xray CT scan to map the track Surgical Removal
Pre-hospital & Emergency Treatment of Arrow Impalement 1. Stabilize the arrow/treat as an impaled object by applying adhesive tape or another stabilizer to the base of the shaft. 2. Wrap a clean towel or gauze around the base of the shaft, and then apply direct pressure on the bleeding wound. 3. Assess for and treat airway, breathing issues and shock 4. Avoid moving or bumping the arrow during transport. 5. Provide a duplicate arrow if possible to healthcare providers. A duplicate arrow will help medical professionals determine the size and shape of the arrow and know if they have retrieved all the pieces of the arrow from the victim.
Pro’s and Con’s of Crossbow Hunting Pro’s - Crossbows allow hunters to get out in the woods more often, and allow them to be more successful hunters. Pro’s - Crossbow hunting has increased hunting license revenue and has increased the number of bow hunters. Pro’s – Crossbows provide an effective game control management tool. Con’s – Increased harvest of deer will decrease the numbers available for gun season. Con’s – Bow Season may need to be shortened in the future due to increases in harvest affecting long bow hunters. Con’s – Rifle hunters will move to crossbows shifting more hunter’s into Bow Season resulting in shortening of the season.
Flood Warnings are in Effect for Nearly all of the Local River Gauge Sites in Southern Wisconsin.
Firefighters Save 2 from Truck that Rolled into Flooded Ditch – Ashley Luthern Milwaukee Journal Sentinel June 18, 2014 Two men were injured when their truck rolled over on Highway 41/45 on Wednesday morning and landed in a flooded ditch, the Germantown fire chief said. "They were very lucky it didn't end up upside down because they could have drowned," Fire Chief Gary Weiss said.
Firefighters Save 2 from Truck that Rolled into Flooded Ditch Firefighters had to deal with chest-high water in the ditch from heavy rainfall and crossed the ditch by laying ladders across the water to the truck.
Flash Flooding in Wisconsin LAKE DELTON, Wis. — Flash floods inundated a southwest Wisconsin town Monday for the second time in 10 months, while 60 miles away an embankment along a man- made lake gave way, unleashing a powerful current that ripped homes off their foundations. The swollen Kickapoo River engulfed nearly the entire village of Gays Mills, WI, forcing about 150 people to evacuate. The town was reduced to a grid of canals with cars submerged up to their windows and parking lots looking like lakes, just as it was last August.
Flash Flood Statistics Thousands of Wisconsinites live along rivers that are periodically swollen from melting snow or rains associated with thunderstorms Flash flooding is the Number One killer during thunderstorms One of the most common and widespread of all natural disasters 84 Americans died from floods in 2013 Six inches of fast moving water can move a vehicle & knock over an adult Two feet of water is enough to make most cars float At least a couple people in Wisconsin had to be saved from raging waters in April 2014 Flooding in McFarland, WI
Flash Floods - Floods That Happen in a Flash! Flash floods generally develop within 6 hours of the immediate cause. A rapid rise of water over low-lying areas. Flooding may occur well away from where heavy rain initially fell. (This is especially common in the western United States where low lying areas may be very dry one minute, and filled with rushing water from upstream the next) Rainfall from slow-moving or multiple thunderstorms over the same area, rapidly changing the water levels in stream or creeks and can turn small waterways into violent, raging rivers Urban areas are especially prone to flash floods due to the large amounts of concrete and asphalt surfaces that do not allow water to penetrate into the soil
Causes & Effects of Flash Floods Heavy rains falling over a short period of time (a few hours or less) Ice jams or debris jams on rivers Dam or levee breaks. The sudden buildup of water can cause a large crest of water to move quickly downstream, wiping out most everything in its path. Capable of rolling boulders, tearing out trees and destroying buildings quickly with little or no warning Can cause mudslides. June 2013 a mudslide from a flash flood & debris left on Highway 78 outside of Mazomanie resulted in rerouting traffic
Flash Floods from Rainfall & Snow Melt
Wisconsin Flash Floods 1884 Eau Claire – A 27-foot flood carried away houses and all the bridges in Eau Claire, WI 1911 Sparta - Heavy rains filled the upstream tributaries to the Black River, two dams above Black River Falls gave way. The river rose 20 feet over its already high level and rushed through city all day. 80 buildings and 42 acres of land, including entire hillside neighborhoods, were swept away 1943 Black River Falls - Bear Creek jumped its banks after torrential rains. Homes and businesses were inundated 3-4 feet deep, bridges were washed out, and roads destroyed. In addition, water mains broke, which not only reduced the water supply but contaminated water still available. At least one person drowned 1993 Statewide Flooding in WI – Snowy winter, 2-3 times normal rainfall in Upper Mississippi Valley. Thunderstorms with 2 to 7 inches of additional rain on June resulted in every major river in Wisconsin flooding; 20 dams were overtopped, broken, or washed away. 2008 Southern Wisconsin – Seven southern counties received more than a foot of rainfall in June. The town of Ontario received more the 6 inches on June 8, and Baraboo more than 17 inches during the month. Lake Delton, in the Wisconsin Dells, breached its dam and emptied into the nearby Wisconsin River on the 9th
Dangers of a Flash Flood Rescue Land Rescues from Raging Water australian-boy-flash-flood_n_ html Most rescue boats can only accommodate three or four people Boat Rescues of Flash Flood Victims If someone falls into the water, a spotter on the boat would try to keep them in sight for as long as possible. Rescuers need to prioritize the injured, young and elderly Most rescue boats can only accommodate three or four people
Hazards to Rescuers Environmental Hazards Extreme temperatures Heat & Cold – Hypothermia, hyperthermia, exhaustion Weather – rain, snow, winds, fog Water/Aquatic Hazards – Seaweed, bacteria/viruses, biohazards, sharp objects, crushing objects, raging water Electrical hazards Operation hazards Sieves, Strainers Eddies, waves, upstream V’s, downstream V’s Personal hazards Tripping Steep slippery terrain Drop offs Stationary objects Holes, manholes Entanglement or injury from hidden obstructions above and below the water Drowning
Swift Water Characteristics Eddies - Upstream water flows around obstructions in the current leaving a void on the downstream side of the obstruction, causing the downstream to flow upstream to fill in the void behind the obstruction. Upstream V's – Caused by water striking an object and water going around it. An area that may be trapping a subject against an obstacle. Downstream V's - Caused by water moving around several obstacles coming together in the path of least resistance. These Downstream V's will contain some of the fastest moving water in the channel. If the subject does not become trapped, the downstream V's have the highest probability of containing the subject. Pillows are also indicators of a submerged or partially submerged obstacle. The pillow will lie upstream if the obstacle is completely below the surface & downstream if the obstacle extends above the surface. Holes - Void formed by water swirling around the obstacle. Water flows back into the hole to fill the void which may cause a strong flow of upstream current immediately following the obstacle.
Swift Water Characteristics Strainers – Debris forms a colander to trap A Sluice is a narrow section of the waterway.
PPE Proper PPE Wet suit, dry suit, exposure suit Personal Floatation Device Kayak Helmet Lifelines/ropes Leather gloves Hiking or work boots Waterproof flashlight or headlamp Whistle Knife
Scene Assessment Scope, magnitude and type of water rescue Equipment & resource needs Boats Tow trucks Rescue lines Pike poles Air-charged hoselines Inflatables that can be dropped Environmental factors including Changing weather Amount of remaining daylight Water levels Current change Hazards Number of victims Risk:Benefit – Rescue vs Recovery Access Evaluate the victim – Condition of the victim. Can they assist in the rescue
Water-Rescue Principles Reach – Throw - Row – Go Reach using long, handled tools, such as pike poles, to try to reach victims. Throw ropes with life rings or other floating devices victims. Air-filled objects, such as footballs or soccer balls, can be thrown to victims so they have something to hold onto while in the water. Push, motor or row boats to victims if necessary. Row - Boats can be extremely dangerous in fast water rescues. Propellers on outboard motors can become entangled in branches, vines or other debris or even in fences in higher floodwaters Go - Rescuers entering the water, need PPE floatation gear, head and foot protection, survival or flotation suits. Boots are tied tightly to reduce the amount of water, hydrocarbons, chemicals or other hazards that can get in. Tie off rescuers so they can be retrieved quickly. They need to carry a knife to cut the rope if they become entangled
Receiver Position Instructions
Stabilization Line Allows victim to maintain head above water
Shallow Water Crossing
Crossing to Vehicle
Go For Help!
Mechanism of Injury in Flash Floods Low water crossings – drownings EOS/30SEC/30SEC.MOV EOS/30SEC/30SEC.MOV Most vehicles will then tend to roll over, trapping those inside and washing them downstream Electrocution - Water covering the electrical outlets or cords are submerged. If you see sparks or hear buzzing, crackling, snapping or popping noises --get out! Stay out of water that may have electricity in it! Trauma due to fast moving sharp and dull objects in the water – punctures, lacerations, crush injuries
Assessment of Victims of Flash Floods Scene Safety ABC’s or MARCH = Massive Bleeding, Airway, Respirations, Circulation, Head & Hypothermia Secondary Survey
Temperature 37 (98.6) 36 35 (95) 33 (91.4) 32 (89.6) 31 (87.8) ( ) 27 (80.6) 20 (68) Clinical Findings Normal Increased metabolism Maximal shivering Altered mental status Shivering stops/pupils dilate Non-palpable pulses LOC / V-fib / Muscle rigidity No DTR / No pupillary reflex Asystole Features of Hypothermia
Rewarming Techniques Passive External Rewarming Active External Rewarming Active Core Rewarming
Core temperature continues to fall after rewarming is instituted Simple temperature equilibration Restoration of peripheral circulation sets up a countercurrent flow with cold, acidotic blood shunted to the core Core Temperature Afterdrop
Treatment Hypothermia can be rewarmed passively if mild (> 32 o C) and the patient is stable Unstable and temp < 32 o C - aggressive active core rewarming & partial cardiac bypass if condition deteriorates Cardiac instability and risk of V-fib begins < 30 o C Vital signs are difficult to assess at temperatures < 30 o C Do not begin CPR if organized rhythm is present and temp is < 30 o C
Soft Tissue, Musculoskeletal & a Variety of Injuries from Debris in Flood Water Abrasions Lacerations Puncture wounds Avulsions Hematomas Crush injuries Limb entrapment Sprains & strains Fractures & dislocations Head injries Other
Drowning Half of the drowning deaths in 48 states occur in motor vehicles Steps to Get Out of a Vehicle that is Submerging Don’t Panic, Don’t Use Cell Phone – You have ~ 1 minute to get out 1st Unclick seatbelts 2 nd Roll down or break the window (Preferably back) 3rd Don’t open the door 4th Children out first (Youngest to oldest) 5th Get out through the open window ASAP! 6th If you can’t break the window hold your breath till the pressures equalize then open the door. escape-a-submerged-car
Prevention of Injury During Flash Floods Avoid flooded bridges Never drive through flooded roadways. Turn around, don't drown. Be especially cautious at night when it is harder to recognize flood dangers. When a flash flood is headed your way, you may only have seconds to save your life. Abandon all personal property and flee to higher ground if a flash flood is approaching. Any delay, even for a second, could be the difference between life and death If your vehicle stalls, abandon it and seek higher ground immediately Camp well above the stream level. It is also a good idea to plan an escape route in advance should a flood occur Don’t allow children to play near high water, storm drains, or ditches Flash Flood Watch is a warning to be alert to rising water & prepare to move to higher ground Flash Flood Warning a flash flood is occurring or is imminent in a specific area. Residents need to get out of the danger area and head to higher ground immediately warning
Turn Around Don’t Drown Flooding can undermine roadbeds
Other Injury Prevention Reminders Stay out of basement, or any room, if water covers the electrical outlets or if cords are submerged. Monitor local radio and television (including NOAA Weather Radio), internet and social media for information and updates. Get out of areas subject to flooding and get to higher ground. If told to evacuate, do so immediately. Be sure to lock your home as you leave. If you have time, disconnect utilities and appliances Do not walk through flood waters.
Disaster Supplies & Communications Have disaster supplies on hand. Flashlights, headlights & extra batteries Portable, battery-operated radio and extra batteries First aid kit and manual Emergency food and water/pet provisions Non-electric can opener Essential medicines Cash and credit cards Sturdy shoes Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family contact” since it is easier to call out on long distance lines
Remember Post Traumatic Stress for Victims & Rescuers