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© Boardworks Ltd 2004 1 of 21 Adaptation KS4 Biology.

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Presentation on theme: "© Boardworks Ltd 2004 1 of 21 Adaptation KS4 Biology."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 1 of 21 Adaptation KS4 Biology

2 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 2 of 21 Adaptation Contents What is an adaptation? Adaptations for a cold climate Other adaptations Adaptation activities Adaptations for a dry climate

3 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 3 of 21 Different types of habitat In general, there are three major habitat types in the world. land habitats marine habitats freshwater habitats How do organisms survive in such different habitats?

4 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 4 of 21 What is an adaptation? A habitat is only populated by organisms that are adapted to survive there. Adaptations are special features or behaviours that make an organism particularly suited to its environment. Adaptations are a part of the evolutionary process. Why is it important that living things are adapted to their environment? Adaptations increase an organism’s chance of survival and so increase its chance of reproducing. Why is reproduction so important for all living species?

5 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 5 of 21 Matching organisms to their habitat

6 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 6 of 21 Adaptation Contents What is an adaptation? Adaptations for a cold climate Other adaptations Adaptation activities Adaptations for a dry climate

7 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 7 of 21 How are polar bears adapted to life in an extremely cold climate? White fur acts as camouflage. Large feet spread the body’s weight. The wide paws act as good paddles How are polar bears adapted? Thick fur and a thick layer of body fat insulate from the cold. Small ears help to reduce heat loss. and snow shoes.

8 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 8 of 21 Other adaptations that polar bears have evolved to cope with conditions in the harsh polar environment are: How are polar bears adapted? Skin is actually black to absorb any heat transmitted through the hairs. Greasy fur repels water and keeps the bear dry. Eyes have brown irises to reduce the glare from sunlight reflection. Body surface area is small compared to volume to reduce heat loss.

9 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 9 of 21 Adaptation Contents What is an adaptation? Adaptations for a cold climate Other adaptations Adaptation activities Adaptations for a dry climate

10 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 10 of 21 Curious camel facts …camels have three stomachs....some camels live to over 40 years old. …some Bactrian camels can transport 450 kg. …archaeological finds show that they originated in North America. …Somalia is home to over 6 million camels! Camels are amazing creatures! Did you know that…

11 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 11 of 21 Wide feet for spreading How is a camel adapted to life in a very hot, dry climate? Fat is stored in the hump. There is no other body fat to prevent overheating. How is a camel adapted? Brown coat for camouflage. Long, thin legs mean the body surface area is large compared to volume to increase heat loss. Loses little water through sweating or urine. shifting sand. body weight over soft

12 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 12 of 21 Nostrils can close when needed to protect the camel in sandstorms. How is a camel adapted? Long eyelashes protect the eyes from sand and dust. A very varied diet, ranging from grass and bark to thorns and bones, is eaten. Ears are lined with fur to prevent sand and dust from getting in. Other adaptations that camels have evolved to cope with conditions in the harsh desert environment are:

13 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 13 of 21 Leaves are narrow spines that reduce water loss and protect from predators. Stores water in fleshy stem. How is a cactus adapted? Thick, waxy surface to reduce water loss. How is a cactus adapted to life in a very hot, dry climate? Plant surface area is small compared to volume to reduce water loss. Some have shallow, spreading roots for surface water, others have deep roots.

14 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 14 of 21 A very varied diet ranging from grass and bark to thorns and bones. Nostrils can closed when needed to protect the camel in sandstorms. How is a kangaroo rat adapted? Long tail for balance when hopping. Brown fur for camouflage and only goes out at night when it is much cooler. A kangaroo rat is a mammal that lives in dry desert habitats. How is this small animal adapted to this harsh environment? Large back feet to escape from predators allow it to hop 2 metres at a time! Most water comes from its diet of seeds. Does not sweat, or pant, to reduce water loss.

15 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 15 of 21 Adaptation Contents What is an adaptation? Adaptations for a cold climate Other adaptations Adaptation activities Adaptations for a dry climate

16 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 16 of 21 How is this barracuda adapted to an aquatic environment? Aquatic adaptations Streamlined shape to reduce friction when moving through water. Gills have a large surface area so that oxygen can be extracted from the surrounding water. Silver colouring allows the fish to be camouflaged.

17 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 17 of 21 Unusual plant adaptations Plants can live in acid or waterlogged soils where there is little nitrate. Some plants have evolved a rather cunning adaptation to obtain the nutrients they need. Hairs on the slippery inside of the plant are angled down to ensure that the victim cannot escape! Pitcher plants have a large hollow filled with fluid that traps insects or other small organisms that may fall in. The plant digests its victims to absorb the nitrates it needs!

18 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 18 of 21 Adaptation Contents What is an adaptation? Adaptations for a cold climate Other adaptations Adaptation activities Adaptations for a dry climate

19 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 19 of 21 True or false?

20 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 20 of 21 Matching adaptations

21 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 21 of 21 Multiple-choice quiz


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