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Islamic Slaughtering and Meat Quality

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1 Islamic Slaughtering and Meat Quality
Dr. Javaid Aziz Awan National Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 4/12/2017

2 INTRODUCTION Meat indispensable for sound human health
Provides several essential nutrients: Amino acids Mineral elements Vitamins 4/12/2017

3 INTRODUCTION Meat subject to spoilage by: Chemical reactions
Biochemical reactions Biological agents, including bacteria Responsible for food-borne diseases Hence meat be produced so as to: Minimize chemical and biochemical changes Prevent chances of bacterial contamination and growth to preserve quality 4/12/2017

4 INTRODUCTION Slaughtering of lawful animals and birds essential to prepare for food purposes Pre-slaughter management and bleeding methods regulated by religious practices and legislations Earliest recorded laws on handling, care and slaughter of animals - Ahadith by the Holy Prophet (pbuh) These often in response to queries or result of his (pbuh) personal observations These guidelines laid down over 1430 years Modern scientific discoveries just testified implications 4/12/2017

Islamic method of slaughtering - based on two important principles: Tasmiya Tazkiyah Tasmiya refers to invoking name of Allah means slaughter being done with His permission This in accordance with several commands given in the Holy Quran 4/12/2017

“Forbidden to you (for food,) are: dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine, and that on which hath been invoked the name of other than God; that which hath been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a head long fall, or by being gored to death; that which hath been partly eaten by a wild animal, unless ye are able to slaughter it (in due form) ….…………. (V:4) 4/12/2017

Tazkiyah means purification - cleaning meat of blood by slaughter Consumption of blood prohibited in Holy Scriptures: Holy Bible - Leviticus 3:17 and 7:26 Holy Quran - VI:146 All lawful animals and birds contain blood Blood must be drained as per these commands 4/12/2017

The Holy Prophet (pbuh) gave comprehensive guidelines on slaughtering of animals in following Hadith: “Verily Allah, has prescribed proficiency in all things. Thus, if you kill, kill well; and if you slaughter, slaughter well. Let each one of you sharpen his blade and let him spare suffering to the animal he slaughters”. 4/12/2017

Process of slaughtering in Islam - consolidated Slaughterer: Must be adult Muslim or One who believes in Holy Scriptures Should be in possession of his mental faculties 4/12/2017

Lay animal (except camel) on its left flank, preferably facing Kibla Recite name of Allah (Subhan Allah, or La illaha illila ho, or Allah-o-Akbar or Bismillah Allah-o-Akbar) 4/12/2017

Give quick incision using very sharp knife on front of the neck to severe: Wind pipe Oesophagus Carotid arteries Jugular veins Prohibited - practice of cutting off part of an animal or removing its skin while still alive 4/12/2017

12 PRE-SLAUGHTER HANDLING OF ANIMALS - 1. Selection of animals
Islam permits consumption of few animals and birds only Strictly prohibited: Pork Blood Carrion Dead animals ………. 4/12/2017

13 PRE-SLAUGHTER HANDLING OF ANIMALS - 1. Selection of animals
Animals died natural death Animals died as result of: Beating Strangling Falling from a height Goring of horns Devoured of wild beasts Animals dedicated to others than Allah Animals immolated to idols 4/12/2017

14 1. Selection of animals Also prohibited: All carnivorous animals
All birds of prey 4/12/2017

15 1. Selection of animals Permitted animals:
All herbivorous, even-toed, ruminants Animal meant for slaughtering be: Healthy Free from any apparent or hidden impurities/diseases Must be legally owned. 4/12/2017

16 2. Rest prior to slaughtering
Islam promotes calm and rested animals prior to slaughtering: Not fatigued Not excited Not nervous Slaughtering Instrument The Holy Prophet (pbuh) advised companions to sharpen knives to their best Further instructed not to perform this operation in front of slaying animal 4/12/2017

17 2. Rest prior to slaughtering
Not Permitted - Any act that causes neurosis or excitement or other abnormal behavioural changes in animal Prohibited in Islam - Practice of collective slaughtering - other animals do not view their companion being killed Research reveals practices inhumane 4/12/2017

18 2. Rest prior to slaughtering
Rough handling of animals in pre-slaughter period adversely affects meat quality Result - dark, firm and dry meat (dark cutting meat) Fatigued or starved animals - Organisms from gut may invade blood stream and eventually muscles 4/12/2017

19 2. Rest prior to slaughtering
Modern methods require animal prior to slaughtering not be subjected to: Stress Fatigue Neurotic Otherwise excited 4/12/2017

20 2. Rest prior to slaughtering
Proper relaxation before slaughtering: Helps animal to bleed well Builds up muscle glycogen essential to lower pH of meat Increases storage life by reducing chances of microbial growth Improves taste due to conditioning/ tenderness Helps delay or reduce fermentation in stomach - may otherwise give meat characteristic smell known as ‘bone taint’. 4/12/2017

21 2. Rest prior to slaughtering
Generally regarded undesirable that animal awaiting slaughter view slaughtering process – cause stress Animals under stress - lead to undue emotional instability, fatigue, anorexia, etc., Discharge hormones from adrenal glands: adrenaline from adrenal medulla 17 hydroxy- and 11-deoxycorticosterones from adrenal cortex Hormones deplete muscle glycogen and potassium Deleterious effects on meat quality To prevent these adverse effects, tranquilizers recommended to calm stocks in transit. 4/12/2017

22 3. Feeding the animals Holy Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) advised that animals destined for slaughtering be: well fed provided with drinking water Preferable that animals have free access to feed and water prior to slaughtering. 4/12/2017

23 3. Feeding the animals Two schools of thoughts:
Animal to remain hungry - Fasting Animal be well fed Fasting animals - Fasting animals before slaughter recommended in modern abattoirs 4/12/2017

24 3. Feeding the animals Fasting Animals Advantages claimed:
Bleed better Carcass easier to dress Carcass has brighter appearance Reduced bulk of animal’s stomach Reduced chances of bacterial contamination from gut 4/12/2017

25 3. Feeding the animals Fasting Animals
Disadvantages of fasted animals: Loss in weight of carcass and liver Lower glycogen reserves in muscles Reduced gustative quality of meat 4/12/2017

26 3. Feeding the animals Well-fed animals:
Glycogen level in muscle reaches higher level Ensures production of adequate lactic acid Lowers pH of meat Such meat has good: Appearance Taste Tenderness Longer shelf-life 4/12/2017

27 3. Feeding the animals Well-fed animals
Meat spoilage bacteria prefer growth at high pH levels - around pH 7.0 Most bacteria, especially food poisoning ones do not grow at pH below 3.5 Any decrease from normal value of about 6.8 reduces chances of bacterial multiplication, especially food poisoning ones 4/12/2017

28 3. Feeding the animals Meat of soothed and well-fed animals:
pH attains 5.5 or even lower level Meat of fatigued or neurotic animals: pH varies from 6.5 to 7.0 To produce meat of good keeping and eating quality, often recommended to feed animals prior to slaughtering In some cases sugar solution fed to quickly restore glycogen level in tissues 4/12/2017

Slaughtering rules apply to animals and birds in complete physical control of man - all domesticated birds and animals (except camel) Camel slaughtered by method known as ‘nahr’ Involves piercing throat with sharp, spear-like instrument while standing Blood streams out, bleeding makes animal fall lifeless to ground Any animal or bird gone wild and cannot be reached or caught, falls under category of ‘game animal’ - different rituals apply 4/12/2017

Conventionally, slaughtering process consists of two to three different stages Depends on religious practices and legislations Muslims and Jews not in favour of stunning Western countries require animals be stunned before slaughtering Posture of animal and bleeding method governed by religious and national legislations 4/12/2017

Stunning widely practiced in Western abattoirs Main objective - make animal unconscious for gentle and painless death No standard method for all animals under all conditions Stunning effective in having calm animal 4/12/2017

Stunning may adversely affect quality of carcass - cause injury to medulla oblongata in brain - controls blood circulation and respiration Desirable these systems continue to function - help pump blood out of carcass when blood vessels cut 4/12/2017

Stunning Methods Older method involved hitting animal on its head with a hammer Stunning methods in vogue: Pole-axe Free bullet Captive bolt pistol Concussion stunner Electrical stunning Carbon dioxide anesthesia 4/12/2017

Method of shooting by free bullet - too dangerous to use in abattoirs Captive bolt - discarded Carbon dioxide anesthesia - exact dose of gas important for specific length of time does not seem possible with all animals under all conditions. 4/12/2017

Electrical stunning widely used now-a-days increases frequency of ‘blood splash” - appearance of small dark red areas in meat also lowers glycogen reserves of muscle estimated approximately in 5 % electrically stunned animals heart failure - animal dead before incision made consumers eat carrion and not meat Objectionable in West, also prohibited by Holy Scriptures 4/12/2017

Stunning - outcome of industrial revolution in West Maximum animals be slaughtered in least time Reality - no relation with mercy on animals Industrial revolution - provided mankind with innumerable benefits inflicted damaging blows on some aspects of human nutrition Example - refinement of wheat flour Stunning might turn out harmful 4/12/2017

Debates - Muslims could eat meat of animals bled after stunning, even if all other requirements fulfilled Views expressed in favour and against Some Muslim countries accept, some do not 4/12/2017

38 SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 2. Animal positioning
Islamic method - lay animal on left flank preferably facing Kibla When laid on left flank, likelihood of more blood to drain owing to body pressure on heart Laying animal enables it to convulse - results from contraction of muscles due to lack of oxygen in brain cells when incision made in neck 4/12/2017

39 SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 2. Animal positioning
During convulsions blood squeezed out of vessels Hence more blood drains out - a pre-requisite for meat of superior quality Evidence suggests more blood lost from sheep in horizontal position than those hung vertically 4/12/2017

40 SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 3. Bleeding techniques
Islam permits use of knife or any sharp object for bleeding except finger nail and bone In an emergency use of sharp stone, white stone, bamboo and sharp arrow permitted Incision made in neck with simultaneous recitation of the name of Allah - Takbir Takbir has religious significance to believer who makes submission to Allah, since assumed that life taken out of animal with His permission 4/12/2017

41 SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 3. Bleeding techniques
Slaughtering actually done in the name of Allah Slaughtering not in name of any person or deity in accordance with following commands: “So eat of (meats) on which God’s name has been pronounced if ye have faith in His Signs” (Vl:118). “Eat not of meats on which God’s name has not been pronounced: that would be impiety. But the evil ones ever inspire their friends to commit end with you if ye were to obey them, ye would indeed be Pagans” (Vl:121). 4/12/2017

42 SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 3. Bleeding techniques
Modern methods - domestic fowls and turkeys may be slaughtered instantaneously by means of decapitation or dislocation of neck Present-day slaughterhouses anterior vena cava severed on one side in cattle carotid arteries in goats and sheep 4/12/2017

43 SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 3. Bleeding techniques
Islamic method: Cut throat transversely to severe carotid arteries, jugular veins, oesophagus and trachea without injuring spinal cord Two essentials in slaughter of animals for meat: animals be dispatched without unnecessary suffering bleeding be as complete as possible 4/12/2017

44 SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 3. Bleeding techniques
When both carotid arteries severed unconsciousness in sheep induced between 3 to 6 seconds Islamic method ensures maximum blood drainage from body before completion of death process Connection between brain and body retained via spinal cord Brain sends messages to heart and lungs Heart pumps blood to parts of body - drained out from severed blood vessels in neck 4/12/2017

45 SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 3. Bleeding techniques
Results of a comparative study Three different methods of slaughtering employed: Maximum blood lost in Kosher method Jewish method similar to Islamic as regards physical details Minimum when chicken simply beheaded 4/12/2017

46 SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 3. Bleeding techniques
Blood excellent medium for growth of microorganisms Meat retaining more blood than critical level liable to bacterial spoilage Blood retention in tissues can cause unpleasant appearance and discolouration in meat Keeping and eating qualities of meat depend, in part, on removal of maximum blood from carcass 4/12/2017

47 SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 3. Bleeding techniques
To produce good carcass animal be bled effectively Heart and respiratory system must function continuously as long as possible after severance This attained most thoroughly when heart and respiratory functions retained by maintaining medulla oblongata/spinal cord 4/12/2017

48 SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 3. Bleeding techniques
Positioning of animal in Islamic method: clearly prevents retraction of carotids ensures rapid onset of unconsciousness and painless death In Islamic method of slaughtering maximum blood drained - outranks other slaughtering techniques 4/12/2017

49 EXTRODUCTION Islam recognized animal rights long before human rights recognized in Western World Numerous Ahadiths reflect Islam advocates kindness and mercy towards animals Holy Prophet (pbuh) advised: Nourish animals wel Save animals from hunger and thirst Show kindness to animals Do not hit or mark animal on its face Do not shoot arrows at cattle or bird tied or held up Do not fight animals for sports or recreation Do not unjustly killing even a sparrow or smaller bird (other than for food) 4/12/2017

50 EXTRODUCTION Current scientific data reveals Islamic recommendations for slaughtering animals highly rational Good physique and health considered basic requirement for selection of food animals Pre-slaughter management of animals requires they should not be fatigued, excited or neurotic Proper rest, absence of hunger and thirst and use of sharp knife alleviate pains of death 4/12/2017

51 Thank You Open for Discussion 4/12/2017

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