Presentation on theme: "Authored by Rich Simerson 01-Mar-2004 Updated 01-APR-2010 Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For Local Training Rev."— Presentation transcript:
1Authored by Rich Simerson 01-Mar-2004 Updated 01-APR-2010 Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For Local Training Rev Jan-2014
2This Training Slide Show is a project undertaken by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell of the TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron, Fort Worth, TX for local use to assist those CAP Members interested in advancing their skills. The information contained herein is for CAP Member’s personal use and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for any of the CAP National Training Programs. Users should review the presentation’s Revision Number at the end of each file name to ensure that they have the most current publication.
3Objectives State MP duties & responsibilities. Discuss safety matters related to CAP activities.Identify where to find the rules on transportation flights.Discuss special precautions needed for flying CAP missions at night.Discuss special precautions needed for flying CAP missions in IMC.
4Objectives (Continued) Discuss the special considerations for video imaging missions, and discuss the typical video imaging flight profile.Discuss proficiency.Discuss security and airspace restrictions. Describe the three phases of an aircraft interception, your actions when intercepted, and discuss visual intercepting/intercepted signals.Describe the types of items that should be kept in the aircraft glove box.
5Objectives (Continued) Discuss aircraft paperwork, documents and minimum equipment, loading, W&B fuel assumptions and reserve, and pre-start.Discuss startup checks, leaning the engine, and taxi.State crosswind limitations and discuss takeoff, climb and departure.Discuss transit to the search area, in the search area, and departing the search area.Discuss approach, descent and landing.
6Objectives (Continued) State MP duties & responsibilities.Discuss safety matters related to CAP activities.Concerning transportation flights:State where to find out if someone is authorized to fly in CAP aircraftState the pilot requirements needed to transport the typical non-CAP person in CAP aircraftDiscuss special precautions needed for flying CAP missions at night.Discuss special precautions needed for flying CAP missions in IMC.
7Objectives (Continued) Discuss the special considerations for video imaging missions, and discuss the typical video imaging flight profile.Discuss proficiency.Discuss security and airspace restrictions.Describe the three phases of an aircraft interception, your actions when intercepted, and discuss visual intercepting/intercepted signals.Describe the types of items that should be kept in the aircraft glove box.
8Objectives (Continued) Discuss the importance of the Aircraft Flight Log and the Discrepancy Log. List the entries you should be able to locate in the aircraft log.Discuss startup checks, leaning the engine, and taxi.Discuss climb and departure, state crosswind limitations and describe how to determine crosswind.Discuss approach, descent and landing, and your after-landing actions.
9Objectives (Continued) Discuss those items you can control to affect POD.State the normal, assumed number of aircrew needed for a mission.Discuss how you must alter normal search patterns if you only have one scanner onboard.Discuss special considerations while flying CAP searches.Discuss "go/no go" decision-making.
10Mission Pilot Duties & Responsibilities Primary Responsibility: Be the Pilot-in-Command. That means fly the aircraft in a safe and proficient manner, following all FAA and CAP rules and regulations.Remember that you are a pilot, not a scanner.In addition to these duties, the pilot is responsible for the non-scanning duties if no qualified observer is on board (navigation, radio communication).
11Mission Pilot Duties & Responsibilities (Continued) Thoroughly brief the aircrew before flight, including a briefing on their responsibilities during all phases of the upcoming flightResponsible for obtaining complete briefings and for planning sortiesObtain a proper flight releaseUtilize CRM techniques and procedures
12Mission Pilot Duties & Responsibilities (Continued) Fly search patterns as completely and precisely as possible; report any deviations from the prescribed patterns during debriefingMonitor the observer and scanner; ensure all events, sightings and reports are recorded and reportedFill out all forms accurately, completely and legibly
13Mission Pilot Duties & Responsibilities (Continued) Sterile Cockpit Rules: all unnecessary talk is suspended and collision avoidance becomes the priority of each crewmember.Sterile cockpit rules focus each crewmember on the duties at hand, namely concentrating on looking outside the aircraft for obstacles and other aircraft.The rules will always be used during the taxi, takeoff, departure, approach, and landing phases of flight; but the pilot or any crew member may declare these rules in effect whenever they are needed to minimize distractions.
14Mission Pilot Requirements TraineeQualified General Emergency Services (GES)Qualified as Mission ScannerCurrent and qualified CAP pilot IAW CAPR 60-1, with at least 175 hours PIC including 50 hours cross-country.At least 18 years of age (minimum; should be mature)101T-MP familiarization and preparatory trainingNIMS / IS courses.Commanders authorizationFrom 101T-MPClassroom training covering the applicable material outlined below is required prior to the issuance of a 101T for the Observer SpecialtyVisual Search Patterns and ProceduresElectronic Search Patterns and ProceduresChart Reading / CAP Grid SystemSearch CoverageNavigation and Position DeterminationAir Crew CoordinationWeatherHigh Altitude and Terrain ConsiderationsCoordination with Ground TeamsFlight Line OperationsCommunications ProceduresFlight Plans and Mission FormsReimbursement ProceduresState/Local AgreementsSurvival and First Aid ProceduresSafetyTransport Mission ProceduresScanning Techniques and Sighting Characteristics
15Mission Pilot Requirements (Continued) QualificationAll SQTR requirementsComplete Basic Communications User Training Task L-001Completion of CAPF 91 Check RideCurrent and qualified CAP pilot IAW CAPR 60-1, with at least 200 hours PIC including 50 hours cross-country.Exercise participation (two separate missions)Unit certification and recommendationFrom 101T-MPClassroom training covering the applicable material outlined below is required prior to the issuance of a 101T for the Observer SpecialtyVisual Search Patterns and ProceduresElectronic Search Patterns and ProceduresChart Reading / CAP Grid SystemSearch CoverageNavigation and Position DeterminationAir Crew CoordinationWeatherHigh Altitude and Terrain ConsiderationsCoordination with Ground TeamsFlight Line OperationsCommunications ProceduresFlight Plans and Mission FormsReimbursement ProceduresState/Local AgreementsSurvival and First Aid ProceduresSafetyTransport Mission ProceduresScanning Techniques and Sighting Characteristics
16Flying Into & Taxiing on Unfamiliar Airports Small, non-towered, unlighted airportsRunwaysTaxiwaysObstaclesServicesLocal NOTAMS12.2Objective 12.2 – Demonstrate knowledge of safety matters related to CAP activities.
17Flying Into & Taxiing on Unfamiliar Airports (Continued) Larger, busy airportsAirspace and obstaclesTaxiwaysLocal NOTAMSA/FDDownload airport diagramsTaxiing around a large number of aircraft at mission baseTaxi planMarshallersIf it looks too close or dangerous – STOP!12.2Objective 12.2 – Demonstrate knowledge of safety matters related to CAP activities.
19Always Observe Airport Signs! CRM – Observer and Scanner should back up pilot in looking for holding positions and mandatory signs. Brief the taxi plan. Observer backs up the pilot on ATC clearances, or vice-versa if Observer is operating the radio.
20Always Observe Airport Markings! CRM – Observer and Scanner should back up pilot in looking for holding positions and mandatory signs. Brief the taxi plan. Observer backs up the pilot on ATC clearances, or vice-versa if Observer is operating the radio.
21SQUAWKS Use the Discrepancy Log, especially in unfamiliar aircraft Were is it??Electronic??Not Located in the Aircraft ….??Don’t let ‘minor’ squawks linger:Lights and bulbsRadios and navaidsKeep aircraft windscreen and windows clean12.2Objective 12.2 – Demonstrate knowledge of safety matters related to CAP activities.
22Fuel ManagementMaintain a sufficient fuel supply to ensure landing with one hour of fuel remaining (computed at normal POH/AFM cruise fuel consumption).If it becomes evident the aircraft will not have that amount of fuel at its intended destination, the PIC will divert the aircraft to an airport that will ensure this reserve is met.Have a plan, alternates that have fuel available.Accurate Weight & Balance, accurate fuel levels12.2Objective 12.2 – Demonstrate knowledge of safety matters related to CAP activities.
23Fuel Management (Continued) Note your assumptions and brief crew:Power settingWind direction and speedLeg and total flight distanceCompare assumptions against actual conditionsModify plan and refuel, if necessaryCheck fuel status at least hourlyWhen in doubt – land and refuel!12.2Objective 12.2 – Demonstrate knowledge of safety matters related to CAP activities.
24Unfamiliar Aircraft Equipment Audio Panel, FM Radio, DF, GPS – if you don’t know it, don’t fly it!Even simple differences can matter:If you’ve never flown an HSI, now isn’t the time to learn it!Sit in the aircraft and get up to speedGet another pilot to tutor youWhat does the equipment and gear in the baggage compartment weight? W&B.Don’t try to bluff12.2Objective 12.2 – Demonstrate knowledge of safety matters related to CAP activities.
25Unfamiliar Terrain and Weather Plan for terrain and weather:EnrouteArea you’ll be operating inClothing, equipment and survival gear12.2Objective 12.2 – Demonstrate knowledge of safety matters related to CAP activities.
26Trainees & Inexperienced Crew Extra time on briefing, duties & responsibilitiesWhen not to interrupt (sterile cockpit)Inexperienced crew (or not proficient):Extra time on briefingMay have to assume some dutiesCheck 101 cardsFlight line marshallers may be on their first missionBe alert and have your crew stay alert12.2Objective 12.2 – Demonstrate knowledge of safety matters related to CAP activities.
27Low and Slow Often flying at 1000 feet AGL Normally 90 knots May be less than 90 knots (no less than Vx)Include in your proficiency flyingStrictly enforce sterile cockpit rulesMay lose radar and communications coverageClimb to report “ops normal”Maintain situational awareness“If the engine quits now, where do I land”12.2Objective 12.2 – Demonstrate knowledge of safety matters related to CAP activities.
28Low and Slow (Continued) Maintain a minimum of 1000 feet AGL, water, or any obstruction within a 1000' radius during daylight hours, and a minimum of 2000' AGL at night (except for takeoff and landing or under ATC control).Pilots may descend below the designated search altitude to attempt to positively identify the target (but never below 500 AGL); once the target has been identified the pilot will return to 800' AGL or higher.Maintain airspeed above Vx12.2Objective 12.2 – Demonstrate knowledge of safety matters related to CAP activities.
30Transportation Flights Always consult CAPR 60-1, Chapter 2 (Passenger Requirements) when you need to know who is authorized to fly as passengers in CAP aircraft and the conditions under which they are authorized to flyCAPR60-1 Section 2-3 b.All non-CAP members other than Military/Federal employees must execute a CAPF 9, Release, and leave the form in a secure location on the ground known to the flight release officer (FRO) or mission IC/CMD.12.3.1Objective 12.3 – Identify where to find the rules on transportation flights.
31FAR Exemptions CAPR60-1 Section 2-3 f. CAP has two exemptions granted by the FAA for flying non-CAP passengers.An exemption to 14 CFR allows our pilots to obtain reimbursement as a private pilot and an exemption to 14 CFR provides a tool for CAP to comply with specific FAA requirements regarding transportation flights.The exemptions are located on the NHQ CAP/DOV website and should be consulted prior to flying non-CAP passengers to ensure any special requirements and restrictions are adhered to.Details in CAPR 60-1 Attachment 2
32Remember to Check Credentials of Non-CAP Passengers (Center)
33Night Flight Typically are transport, route searches and ELT searches CAPR 60-1 requires pilots to maintain a minimum of 2000' AGL at night (except for takeoff/landing or when under ATC control).Must be night current and its preferable to have an experienced crew aboardExtra attention to the pre-flight and other preparationsWeather reports and advisoriesDew point spread (fog predictor)Greatest threat is flying into weather you can’t see12.3.2Objective 12.4 – Discuss special precautions for flying CAP missions at night.
34Night Flight (Continued) Before you launch, ask yourself a few questions:Are you really night proficient, or did you last fly 89 nights ago?How long has it been since you’ve done a night cross-country?How long has it been since you’ve done a night ELT search?How long has it been since you’ve done night approaches?
35Night Flight (Continued) When was the last time you practiced a night landing without a landing light?How familiar are you with terrain and obstacles along the route?Did you include all your flashlights in the weight & balance?Include night flying (and DF) in your proficiency regimen!
36Illusions of the NightSome lead to spatial disorientation while others lead to landing errorsIllusions are the most commonEntering a bank too slowly to stimulate the motion-sensing system of the inner ear (“The Leans”)CoriolisGraveyard spin or spiralInversionFalse horizonAuto kinesis
37Illusions of the Night (Continued) Surface conditions and atmospheric conditions can create illusions of incorrect height above and distance away from the runwayPrevent these illusions by pre-planning and by flying a standard approach to all landings:Runway widthRunway and terrain slopesFeatureless terrainAtmosphericGround lighting
38Instrument (IFR) Flight CAP missions are seldom conducted in IMCMost likely is a transport flight (not to minimums)Can do a route search, but ground teams are preferable under these circumstancesCan DF in IMC, but dangerousPer CAPR 60-1, IFR flights will not depart unless weather is at or above the landing minimums at the departure airport.12.3.3Objective 12.5 – Discuss special precautions for flying CAP missions in IMC.
39Instrument (IFR) Flight (Continued) Other requirements and recommendations:PIC has, Instrument Proficiency, signed off on CAPF 91 and validated in eServicesPIC meets FAA instrument proficiency requirementsPIC is proficient in the type of CAP aircraft she’ll be flyingFor any flight other than a simple transport flight, its highly recommended that another instrument-proficient pilot fly in the right seatNever fly a search in IMC alone, Never Fly Any Search Alone!Consider not flying an IMC search if ground teams are available
40Video Imaging An increasing important CAP mission Real-time and near real-time images are invaluable to emergency response personnelPrimarily:Digital still photos (some 35mm)Video (analog and digital) with or without audio commentsSatellite Phone videoVideo Imaging is expected to become a new specialty rating.
41Video Imaging (Continued) Essentials for a successful video imaging sortie:Ensure everyone knows what the target is and what types of images are neededEnsure you know how to find the target, and brief the route and video flight patterns to be usedEnsure frequencies are understood and agreed uponDefine the duties of the crewmembers and how you will transition “mission command”;Note: the photographer will actually be in charge during the shootEnsure video equipment is working and that you have plenty of fresh batteries and film (media)Clean the windows, even if you plan to open them for the shoot12.3.4Objective 12.6 – Discuss the special considerations for video imaging missions, and discuss the typical video imaging flight profile.
43Typical Video Imaging Profile (Continued) 1000’ AGL ½ NMThis profile is for photographing from the right side of the aircraft; if shooting from the left side, reverse the profile.
44ProficiencyCAPR 60-1Self conducted proficiency flight guidelines are available for use by all CAP pilots (and aircrews) to maintain currency and improve pilot confidence. These recommended guidelines are located on the NHQ CAP/DOV website.Practice search patterns with and without GPSPractice at nightIn-flight emergencies and maneuvers will be conducted in daylight VMC …12.3.5Objective 12.7 – Discuss proficiency.Each mission pilot is allowed four hours of B12 each month; use them (especially instead of C1).
45Proficiency (Continued) With the GPS, practice:Maintaining a constant track over groundSelect/display destinationsDetermine heading, time and distance to a waypointSave lat/long coordinates as a User WaypointSave your present position as a waypoint, call it up & renameEnter and use flight plansExercise the nearest airport and VOR featuresPractice navigating with ‘present position’ (lat/long) displayedAdded (recommended) proficiency tasks
46Proficiency (Continued) Pilots, remember to take a crew with you! Good for everyone and it’s more fun!CAPR 60-1 ProfilesPractice search patterns, with and without GPSPractice at nightGet current & proficient at IFR flight12.3.5Objective 12.7 – Discuss proficiency.Each mission pilot is allowed four hours of B12 each month; use them (especially instead of C1).
47Don’t forget to periodically review sections of the FAR and AIM
48Security Concerns And Airspace Restrictions &Objective 12.8 – Discuss security and airspace restrictions.
49Security Concerns and Airspace Restrictions Heightened security concerns and the potential for flight restrictions are now part of our worldCAP’s role in Homeland Defense will require greater attention to aircraft, aircrew and airport security
50Security ConcernsCAP resources should be considered national security assetsSpecial security precautions must be taken to protect aircraft and other resources:hangar the aircraft whenever possible. May place small pieces of clear tape (that will break) on fuel caps, the cowling and/or doors to detect tampering.Pay extra attention during pre-flight inspections and look for signs of fuel contaminationBe as “low-key” as possible; don’t draw unnecessary attention to yourself or discuss CAP business in publicBe aware of your surroundings at all times
51Airspace Restrictions FAA may issue Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs) at any time. May establish an ADIZ (see AIM Section 6).Ask for FDC NOTAMS before each flight; if security is heightened, check them before each leg.Even without heightened security, avoid loitering or circling sensitive areas:Power plants (especially nuclear)Reservoirs and damsGovernment installationsLarge stadiums or gatherings of people, air showsIf you need to circle one of these structures for training, coordinate with the facility and ATC first.Monitor MHz
52In-Flight Interception Know how to respond (AIM 5-6-2)An intercept has three phases:ApproachIdentificationPost-interceptIf intercepted you should immediately:Follow the instructions of the intercepting aircraftNotify ATC, if possibleAttempt to communicate (121.5 MHz)Squawk 7700 unless told otherwise12.4.3Objective 12.9 – Describe the three phases of an aircraft interception, your actions when intercepted, and discuss visual intercepting/intercepted signals. [Table 12-1.]
54Phases Of Flight from a Mission Pilot Perspective Checklist in Operational Mission Flight GuideAlways follow the aircraft checklists; right-seat should read each item and you acknowledgeFirst, an often overlooked asset – the glove box:Small laminated sheets for crew and passenger briefings, crosswind chart, PA card (like CD), FM frequencies and callsigns, ELT deactivation stickers, and GPS cheat sheetSmall cleaning cloth (like for glasses) to clean instrument facesPencil/pen/grease pencilBackup flashlightCheck periodically and purge non-essential stuff12.5Objective – Describe the types of items that should be kept in the aircraft glove box.Habit – it serves a purpose. Always use the checklists.When someone rides with you, have them read the checklist while you confirm and acknowledge.
55Prior to Startup Familiarize yourself with the aircraft paperwork: Engine, prop, airframe, and avionics logbooksCan you tell when the oil change is due? Next 100 hour/Annual? When the 24-month instrument certifications are due?Other checks:Due date on CO monitor and Fire Extinguisher inspectionELT battery due dateLast VOR check (within 30 days of instrument flight)Fill out the flight log; double-check Hobbs & Tach times – and confirm OIL and 100 Times12.5.1Objective – Discuss aircraft paperwork, documents and minimum equipment, W&B fuel assumptions and reserve, loading and pre-start.
56Documents and Minimum Equipment Certificates and documents:Airworthiness and Registration certificatesOperating limitationsPassengers’ credentialsMinimum Operable EquipmentVFR Day, VFR Night, IFRFAR to determine if you can take off with inoperable equipmentOther CAP requirements (CAPR 66-1 & CAPF 71):Review of logbooks, W&B dataRestrictive placardsPulselite, Avionics/Control Lock, Fire extinguisher, CO detector, cargo net, chocks and tie-downs, survival kit12.5.1Objective – Discuss aircraft paperwork, documents and minimum equipment, W&B fuel assumptions and reserve, loading and pre-start. Minimum equipment is listed in the MART,
57Weight & Balance and Loading Use accurate weights of passengers and all equipmentNote all fuel assumptions (fuel burn, winds aloft, etc.)Ensure adequate fuel reserve (one hour at normal cruise)Loading:Ensure equipment, crew weights and supplies correspond to your W&B assumptionsCharts and mapsWindows clean (modify for video imaging mission)Check and test special equipmentParking area clear of obstacles12.5.1Objective – Discuss aircraft paperwork, documents and minimum equipment, W&B fuel assumptions and reserve, loading and pre-start.
58Prior to Startup Pre-start Passenger briefing, emergency egress procedureBrief fuel management and taxi plan/diagramEnter settings into GPSFill out the flight log; double-check Hobbs & Tach timesCan you tell when the oil change is due? Next 100 hour/Annual?Other checks:Due date on CO monitorDue date for fire extinguisher inspectionELT battery due dateLast VOR check (within 30 days of instrument flight)12.5.1Objective – Discuss the importance of the aircraft flight log and the discrepancy log. List the entries you should be able to locate in the aircraft logs.
59Startup and Taxi Aircraft checklists: Always use them (habit) and keep them close at handSeat belts, and shoulder harness at or below 1000 AGLStartup:Try to include DF self-test in your scan when applying powerEnsure FM radio properly set up (radio and audio panel)When >3000 MSL, lean the engine after startingSet up GPS; enter first waypoint if applicableTaxi:Collision avoidance!Review crew assignments for taxiSterile cockpit rules are now in effect12.5.2Objective – Discuss startup checks, leaning the engine, and taxi.Always wear your shoulder harness. You must set the example.
60Startup Aircraft checklists: Always use them (habit) and keep them close at handSeat belts, and shoulder harness at or below 1000 AGLStartup:Ensure DF, FM radio & Audio Panel properly set upRotating Beacon ON and signal marshallerLean the engine after starting (> 3000 DA)Set up radio and navigation instruments12.5.2Objective – Discuss startup checks, leaning the engine, and taxi.Always wear your shoulder harness. You must set the example.
61TaxiCollision avoidance! Follow CAPR 60-1 requirements for taxi operations.Read back taxi/hold-short instructions.Review crew assignments for taxi, takeoff, & departureSterile cockpit rules are now in effectRemind crew that most midair collisions occur:Daylight VFRWithin five miles of an airport (especially un-controlled)At or below 3000 AGLSignal marshaller before taxi, test brakesExterior lights on (be considerate at night)12.5.2Objective – Discuss startup checks, leaning the engine, and taxi.Always wear your shoulder harness. You must set the example.
62Taxi Mishaps Becoming a bigger problem each year (#1 trend in CAP) Pilots are:straying from designated taxi routesnot allowing adequate clearance and not considering the tail and wings during turnstaxiing too fast for conditions and taxiing with obscured visibilitydistracted by cockpit dutiesnot using other crewmembers to ensure clearance12.5.2Objective – Discuss startup checks, leaning the engine, and taxi.Always wear your shoulder harness. You must set the example.
63Taxi Mishaps (Continued) Strategies:Thorough planning and preparation eliminates distractionsCrew assignments for taxiIf within ten feet of an obstacle, stop, and then taxi at a pace not to exceed a “slow walk” until clearDo not follow other taxiing aircraft too closely (e.g., 50 feet behind light aircraft; 100 feet behind small multi-engine and jet aircraft; 500 feet behind helicopters and heavies)Use proper tailwind/headwind/crosswind control inputsTreat taxiing with the seriousness it deservesUse exterior lights (be considerate of others)Sterile cockpit rules12.5.2Objective – Discuss startup checks, leaning the engine, and taxi.Always wear your shoulder harness. You must set the example.
64Takeoff and Climb Takeoff: Collision avoidance! Check for landing traffic; turn on landing light when you begin rollingCross-wind limits (POH or 15 knots, whichever is less)High density altitude – lean for full power before takeoffClimb:Collision avoidance!Lean (burn gas; not valves)Use shallow S-turns and lift wing before turns to check traffic12.5.3Objective – State crosswind limitations and discuss takeoff, climb and departure.
65… and Departure Departure: Collision avoidance! Keep crew apprised of conflicts.Sterile cockpit rules can be relaxed when clearOrganize the cockpit, review assignments, set up for next taskCheck fuel status and altimeter setting hourly12.5.3Objective – State crosswind limitations and discuss takeoff, climb and departure.
66The Search Area Transit: In none assigned, use odd altitudes during transit to minimize chance for midair collisionCross military training routes perpendicular. If you see one fighter, look for the wingmanDouble-check settings and review methods to reduce crew fatigue or high altitude effectsUpdate weather, file PIREP, review proceduresApproaching the search area:Review assignmentsCheck navigational instruments against each otherStabilize aircraft at least two miles outExterior lights on12.5.4Objective – Discuss transit to the search area, in the search area, and departing the search area.Minimize time spent below 800 AGL; never below 500 AGL or speed less than Vx
67The Search Area (Continued) In the search area:Log and report “In the Search Area”Log deviations from assigned search parametersAltitude 1000’ AGL, Airspeed > VxMonitor yourself and crew for fatigue and high altitude effectsDeparting the search area:Log and report “Leaving the Search Area;” reorganize cockpitDouble-check heading and altitude assigned to transit to next search area or return to baseReorganize the cockpit12.5.4Objective – Discuss transit to the search area, in the search area, and departing the search area.Minimize time spent below 800 AGL; never below 500 AGL or speed less than Vx
68Approach, Descent and … Approach: Get ATIS/AWOS, review airport/airspace diagram, taxi planSterile cockpit rules are now in effectCollision avoidance! Lights on within 10 miles of airport.Decent:Collision avoidance! Shallow S-turns and lift wings before turnsRichen mixture as you reduce power12.5.5Objective – Discuss approach, descent and landing.
69… LandingLanding:Read back all clearances and hold-short instructionsDefer after-landing check until off the activeRemember to “fly the plane ‘till you shut off the engine”Taxi back per taxi plan, watch for MarshallersAt engine shutdown, show Marshaller the keys, install chocks12.5.5Objective – Discuss approach, descent and landing.
70Shutdown and Post-Flight Fill out logsReport any discrepancies (be specific and complete)Secure aircraftPost-flight - If this was the last flight of the day:Install chocks, tie-downs, avionics/control lock, Pitot cover and engine plugsCheck Master Switch and Parking Brake OFFRemove trash, personal and special equipmentLock windows, doors and baggage compartmentInspect aircraft; check oil and refuelClean the aircraftSign off any SQTR tasks that were accomplishedObjective – Discuss after-landing, shutdown and post-flight.
72Flying the Mission Mechanics of planning and executing search patterns Number of scanners:Most planning (and tables) assume there are at least two scanners on board, one looking out each side of the aircraft (MO should be scanning in grid!)Remember – you (the pilot) are not a scanner!If there is only one scanner:Will only be scanning out one side, usually the rightYou must plan and fly so as to keep the right side of the aircraft facing the search area at all times, on each legIncreases the time needed to search a given areaReduces search effectiveness (less double coverage)Parallel track or creeping line patterns not recommended12.7 &Objective – State the normal, assumed number of aircrew needed for a mission.Objective – Discuss how you must alter normal search patterns if you only have one scanner onboard.Draw and discuss flying at least two legs of a grid search with only one scanner aboard.
73Flying a Search Pattern Your primary contribution to the success of the mission is to fly assigned search patterns completely and preciselyThis must be done while fulfilling the duties of a PIC; primarily “see and avoid” obstacles and other aircraftMust consider the possibility of engine trouble or failure at low altitudes; always have an ‘out’Low and slow and the engine quits. Where do you land?12.7.2Objective – Discuss special considerations while flying CAP searches.
74Flying a Search Pattern (Continued) Always be honest and forthright with yourself and crew:Not at the right airspeed or altitude when you enter the pattern? Exit and re-enter when you’re set up.Made the last turn a tad wide? Redo the leg, if necessary.Scanner complaining that he can’t see anything? Slow to something less than 120 knots.
75Go or Not Go? That is the Question! Let’s see…..Mission Pilot has a weather brief, gotten releases, preflight is done and …Mission Observer has planned the sortie and the entire crew is briefed…A mission pilot may accomplish all of this and still not be safe to fly the missionHow can this be?12.7.3Objective – Discuss “go/no go” decision making.
76Go Or Not Go? That is the Question! (Continued) It all comes down to the individual and the circumstances:How long has it been since you’ve taken off with a 14 knot cross-wind?Have you ever taken off and landed on an icy runway?When did you last fly cross-country at night?When was the last time you flew in actual IMC?Two primary stupid (mission) pilot traits:Overconfidence (Who? Me?? No!!!)The need to accomplish the mission no matter what
77Go Or Not Go? That is the Question! (Continued) The most effective way to prevent you from becoming the weak link in an accident chain:Be brutally honest about your abilities, given the present (or predicted) circumstancesA mission pilot must have the courage and integrity to decline a mission you don’t feel comfortable doingAlways remember that others are putting their lives in your hands!Elicit other situations from the students.
78How Can I Improve POD?Pay attention and ask questions during briefingsPlan thoroughly so you can concentrate on the mission at handHit your numbers! Altitude, airspeed, positionUse the GPS – very accurate, especially with no landmarksBe mindful of your crew – no unnecessary steep turns;look for less turbulence or cooler air if possible; ensure sufficient breaks;ensure sufficient fluid consumption;watch for the crewmember who’s obviously not feeling well but doesn’t want to complain.Give a thorough debriefing and be totally honestStay proficient!12.6Objective – Discuss those items you can control to improve POD.
80IntroductionThe purpose of this section is to review the CAPF 91 (CAP Mission Pilot Checkout)First, a look at what records should be in your Pilot File
81Pilot Records CAPR60-1 section 3-8. Pilot Records. a. All pilot data must be entered into the CAP OPS Quals system by the member or authorized unit Stan/Eval and validated by the unit commander or designee.Data entered shall include all relevant FAA pilot qualifications,CAPFs 5, aircraft questionnaire(s),commander written designations,and other items needed to establish CAP aircraft operating privileges under this regulation.b. All CAP pilots must sign a one time copy of the CAP Statement of Understanding, which will be maintained on file with the authorized unit Stan/Eval. The latest copy of this document is located on the NHQ CAP/DOV website.Ensure you have a checklist containing this and the next slide’s records, completed and on top of the referenced records
82CAPF 91 Mission Pilot Checkout This section reviews the CAP Mission Pilot CheckoutCAPR 60-1, describes what to expect before, during and after your CAPF 91 checkoutRemember, to use the proficiency guideline for the CAPF 91 check ride that is available on the NHQ CAP/DOV website.
83Oral DiscussionEnsure current CAPF 116 Exam Passed (CAPT 116 Parts 1 & 2)Mission Base ProceduresAir-to-ground signalsMission safety procedures (as required)CAP Radio Procedures (as required)Individual & Crew Equipment/ClothingSearch ProceduresMap and Chart Reading
84Oral Discussion (Continued) Mission flight planning, including CAPF 104Search patterns and proceduresObserver/Scanner briefing and utilizationUse of the standardized chart grid systemDebriefing proceduresProcedures for completing and submitting CAPF 108
86Visual Search Patterns and Procedures Locate Grid or Area (without electronic aids)Establish Search Altitude and SpeedParallel Search ProceduresCreeping Line Search ProceduresExpanding Square Search ProceduresGround Team Coordination
93Questions? ALWAYS THINK SAFETY! From 101T-MS Classroom training covering the applicable material outlined below is required prior to the issuance of a 101T for the Observer SpecialtyVisual Search Patterns and ProceduresElectronic Search Patterns and ProceduresChart Reading / CAP Grid SystemSearch CoverageNavigation and Position DeterminationAir Crew CoordinationWeatherHigh Altitude and Terrain ConsiderationsCoordination with Ground TeamsFlightline OperationsCommunications ProceduresFlight Plans and Mission FormsReimbursement ProceduresState/Local AgreementsSurvival and First Aid ProceduresSafetyTransport Mission ProceduresScanning Techniques and Sighting Characteristics