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Updated 01-APR-2010 Authored by Rich Simerson 01-Mar-2004 Updated 01-APR-2010 Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For.

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Presentation on theme: "Updated 01-APR-2010 Authored by Rich Simerson 01-Mar-2004 Updated 01-APR-2010 Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For."— Presentation transcript:

1 Updated 01-APR-2010 Authored by Rich Simerson 01-Mar-2004 Updated 01-APR-2010 Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For Local Training Rev 5.0 08-Jan-2014

2 2 This Training Slide Show is a project undertaken by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell of the TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron, Fort Worth, TX for local use to assist those CAP Members interested in advancing their skills. The information contained herein is for CAP Member’s personal use and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for any of the CAP National Training Programs. Users should review the presentation’s Revision Number at the end of each file name to ensure that they have the most current publication.

3 3 Objectives State MP duties & responsibilities. State MP duties & responsibilities. Discuss safety matters related to CAP activities. Discuss safety matters related to CAP activities. Identify where to find the rules on transportation flights. Identify where to find the rules on transportation flights. Discuss special precautions needed for flying CAP missions at night. Discuss special precautions needed for flying CAP missions at night. Discuss special precautions needed for flying CAP missions in IMC. Discuss special precautions needed for flying CAP missions in IMC.

4 4 Objectives (Continued) Discuss the special considerations for video imaging missions, and discuss the typical video imaging flight profile. Discuss the special considerations for video imaging missions, and discuss the typical video imaging flight profile. Discuss proficiency. Discuss proficiency. Discuss security and airspace restrictions. Describe the three phases of an aircraft interception, your actions when intercepted, and discuss visual intercepting/intercepted signals. Discuss security and airspace restrictions. Describe the three phases of an aircraft interception, your actions when intercepted, and discuss visual intercepting/intercepted signals. Describe the types of items that should be kept in the aircraft glove box. Describe the types of items that should be kept in the aircraft glove box.

5 5 Objectives (Continued) Discuss aircraft paperwork, documents and minimum equipment, loading, W&B fuel assumptions and reserve, and pre-start. Discuss aircraft paperwork, documents and minimum equipment, loading, W&B fuel assumptions and reserve, and pre-start. Discuss startup checks, leaning the engine, and taxi. Discuss startup checks, leaning the engine, and taxi. State crosswind limitations and discuss takeoff, climb and departure. State crosswind limitations and discuss takeoff, climb and departure. Discuss transit to the search area, in the search area, and departing the search area. Discuss transit to the search area, in the search area, and departing the search area. Discuss approach, descent and landing. Discuss approach, descent and landing.

6 6 Objectives (Continued) State MP duties & responsibilities. State MP duties & responsibilities. Discuss safety matters related to CAP activities. Discuss safety matters related to CAP activities. Concerning transportation flights: Concerning transportation flights: –State where to find out if someone is authorized to fly in CAP aircraft –State the pilot requirements needed to transport the typical non-CAP person in CAP aircraft Discuss special precautions needed for flying CAP missions at night. Discuss special precautions needed for flying CAP missions at night. Discuss special precautions needed for flying CAP missions in IMC. Discuss special precautions needed for flying CAP missions in IMC.

7 7 Objectives (Continued) Discuss the special considerations for video imaging missions, and discuss the typical video imaging flight profile. Discuss the special considerations for video imaging missions, and discuss the typical video imaging flight profile. Discuss proficiency. Discuss proficiency. Discuss security and airspace restrictions. Discuss security and airspace restrictions. Describe the three phases of an aircraft interception, your actions when intercepted, and discuss visual intercepting/intercepted signals. Describe the three phases of an aircraft interception, your actions when intercepted, and discuss visual intercepting/intercepted signals. Describe the types of items that should be kept in the aircraft glove box. Describe the types of items that should be kept in the aircraft glove box.

8 8 Objectives (Continued) Discuss the importance of the Aircraft Flight Log and the Discrepancy Log. List the entries you should be able to locate in the aircraft log. Discuss the importance of the Aircraft Flight Log and the Discrepancy Log. List the entries you should be able to locate in the aircraft log. Discuss startup checks, leaning the engine, and taxi. Discuss startup checks, leaning the engine, and taxi. Discuss climb and departure, state crosswind limitations and describe how to determine crosswind. Discuss climb and departure, state crosswind limitations and describe how to determine crosswind. Discuss approach, descent and landing, and your after-landing actions. Discuss approach, descent and landing, and your after-landing actions.

9 9 Objectives (Continued) Discuss those items you can control to affect POD. Discuss those items you can control to affect POD. State the normal, assumed number of aircrew needed for a mission. State the normal, assumed number of aircrew needed for a mission. Discuss how you must alter normal search patterns if you only have one scanner onboard. Discuss how you must alter normal search patterns if you only have one scanner onboard. Discuss special considerations while flying CAP searches. Discuss special considerations while flying CAP searches. Discuss "go/no go" decision-making. Discuss "go/no go" decision-making.

10 10 Primary Responsibility: Be the Pilot-in-Command. That means fly the aircraft in a safe and proficient manner, following all FAA and CAP rules and regulations. Primary Responsibility: Be the Pilot-in-Command. That means fly the aircraft in a safe and proficient manner, following all FAA and CAP rules and regulations. Remember that you are a pilot, not a scanner. Remember that you are a pilot, not a scanner. In addition to these duties, the pilot is responsible for the non-scanning duties if no qualified observer is on board (navigation, radio communication). In addition to these duties, the pilot is responsible for the non-scanning duties if no qualified observer is on board (navigation, radio communication). Mission Pilot Duties & Responsibilities

11 11 Thoroughly brief the aircrew before flight, including a briefing on their responsibilities during all phases of the upcoming flight Thoroughly brief the aircrew before flight, including a briefing on their responsibilities during all phases of the upcoming flight Responsible for obtaining complete briefings and for planning sorties Responsible for obtaining complete briefings and for planning sorties Obtain a proper flight release Obtain a proper flight release Utilize CRM techniques and procedures Utilize CRM techniques and procedures Mission Pilot Duties & Responsibilities (Continued)

12 12 Fly search patterns as completely and precisely as possible; report any deviations from the prescribed patterns during debriefing Fly search patterns as completely and precisely as possible; report any deviations from the prescribed patterns during debriefing Monitor the observer and scanner; ensure all events, sightings and reports are recorded and reported Monitor the observer and scanner; ensure all events, sightings and reports are recorded and reported Fill out all forms accurately, completely and legibly Fill out all forms accurately, completely and legibly Mission Pilot Duties & Responsibilities (Continued)

13 13 Sterile Cockpit Rules: all unnecessary talk is suspended and collision avoidance becomes the priority of each crewmember. Sterile Cockpit Rules: all unnecessary talk is suspended and collision avoidance becomes the priority of each crewmember. –Sterile cockpit rules focus each crewmember on the duties at hand, namely concentrating on looking outside the aircraft for obstacles and other aircraft. –The rules will always be used during the taxi, takeoff, departure, approach, and landing phases of flight; but the pilot or any crew member may declare these rules in effect whenever they are needed to minimize distractions. Mission Pilot Duties & Responsibilities (Continued)

14 14 Mission Pilot Requirements Trainee Trainee –Qualified General Emergency Services (GES) –Qualified as Mission Scanner –Current and qualified CAP pilot IAW CAPR 60-1, with at least 175 hours PIC including 50 hours cross-country. –At least 18 years of age (minimum; should be mature) –101T-MP familiarization and preparatory training –NIMS / IS courses. –Commanders authorization

15 15 Mission Pilot Requirements (Continued) Qualification Qualification –All SQTR requirements Complete Basic Communications User Training Task L-001 Complete Basic Communications User Training Task L-001 –Completion of CAPF 91 Check Ride –Current and qualified CAP pilot IAW CAPR 60-1, with at least 200 hours PIC including 50 hours cross-country. –Exercise participation (two separate missions) –Unit certification and recommendation

16 16 Flying Into & Taxiing on Unfamiliar Airports Small, non-towered, unlighted airports Small, non-towered, unlighted airports –Runways –Taxiways –Obstacles –Services –Local NOTAMS

17 17 Larger, busy airports Larger, busy airports –Airspace and obstacles –Taxiways –Local NOTAMS A/FD A/FD Download airport diagrams Download airport diagrams Taxiing around a large number of aircraft at mission base Taxiing around a large number of aircraft at mission base –Taxi plan –Marshallers –If it looks too close or dangerous – STOP! Flying Into & Taxiing on Unfamiliar Airports (Continued)

18 18 Airport Runway Safety

19 19 Always Observe Airport Signs!

20 20 Always Observe Airport Markings!

21 21 Use the Discrepancy Log, especially in unfamiliar aircraft Use the Discrepancy Log, especially in unfamiliar aircraft –Were is it?? Electronic?? Electronic?? Not Located in the Aircraft ….?? Not Located in the Aircraft ….?? Don’t let ‘minor’ squawks linger: Don’t let ‘minor’ squawks linger: –Lights and bulbs –Radios and navaids Keep aircraft windscreen and windows clean Keep aircraft windscreen and windows clean SQUAWKS

22 22 Fuel Management Maintain a sufficient fuel supply to ensure landing with one hour of fuel remaining (computed at normal POH/AFM cruise fuel consumption). Maintain a sufficient fuel supply to ensure landing with one hour of fuel remaining (computed at normal POH/AFM cruise fuel consumption). If it becomes evident the aircraft will not have that amount of fuel at its intended destination, the PIC will divert the aircraft to an airport that will ensure this reserve is met. If it becomes evident the aircraft will not have that amount of fuel at its intended destination, the PIC will divert the aircraft to an airport that will ensure this reserve is met. Have a plan, alternates that have fuel available. Have a plan, alternates that have fuel available. Accurate Weight & Balance, accurate fuel levels Accurate Weight & Balance, accurate fuel levels

23 23 Fuel Management (Continued) Note your assumptions and brief crew: Note your assumptions and brief crew: –Power setting –Wind direction and speed –Leg and total flight distance Compare assumptions against actual conditions Compare assumptions against actual conditions Modify plan and refuel, if necessary Modify plan and refuel, if necessary Check fuel status at least hourly Check fuel status at least hourly When in doubt – land and refuel! When in doubt – land and refuel!

24 24 Unfamiliar Aircraft Equipment Audio Panel, FM Radio, DF, GPS – if you don’t know it, don’t fly it! Audio Panel, FM Radio, DF, GPS – if you don’t know it, don’t fly it! Even simple differences can matter: Even simple differences can matter: –If you’ve never flown an HSI, now isn’t the time to learn it! –Sit in the aircraft and get up to speed –Get another pilot to tutor you What does the equipment and gear in the baggage compartment weight? W&B. What does the equipment and gear in the baggage compartment weight? W&B. Don’t try to bluff Don’t try to bluff

25 25 Unfamiliar Terrain and Weather Plan for terrain and weather: Plan for terrain and weather: –Enroute –Area you’ll be operating in Clothing, equipment and survival gear Clothing, equipment and survival gear

26 26 Trainees & Inexperienced Crew Trainees: Trainees: –Extra time on briefing, duties & responsibilities –When not to interrupt (sterile cockpit) Inexperienced crew (or not proficient): Inexperienced crew (or not proficient): –Extra time on briefing –May have to assume some duties –Check 101 cards Flight line marshallers may be on their first mission Flight line marshallers may be on their first mission –Be alert and have your crew stay alert

27 27 Low and Slow Often flying at 1000 feet AGL Often flying at 1000 feet AGL Normally 90 knots Normally 90 knots –May be less than 90 knots (no less than Vx) –Include in your proficiency flying –Strictly enforce sterile cockpit rules May lose radar and communications coverage May lose radar and communications coverage –Climb to report “ops normal” Maintain situational awareness Maintain situational awareness –“If the engine quits now, where do I land”

28 28 Low and Slow (Continued) Maintain a minimum of 1000 feet AGL, water, or any obstruction within a 1000' radius during daylight hours, and a minimum of 2000' AGL at night (except for takeoff and landing or under ATC control). Maintain a minimum of 1000 feet AGL, water, or any obstruction within a 1000' radius during daylight hours, and a minimum of 2000' AGL at night (except for takeoff and landing or under ATC control). Pilots may descend below the designated search altitude to attempt to positively identify the target (but never below 500 AGL); once the target has been identified the pilot will return to 800' AGL or higher. Pilots may descend below the designated search altitude to attempt to positively identify the target (but never below 500 AGL); once the target has been identified the pilot will return to 800' AGL or higher. Maintain airspeed above Vx Maintain airspeed above Vx

29 29 Types of Flights

30 30 Transportation Flights Always consult CAPR 60-1, Chapter 2 (Passenger Requirements) when you need to know who is authorized to fly as passengers in CAP aircraft and the conditions under which they are authorized to fly Always consult CAPR 60-1, Chapter 2 (Passenger Requirements) when you need to know who is authorized to fly as passengers in CAP aircraft and the conditions under which they are authorized to fly CAPR60-1 Section 2-3 b. CAPR60-1 Section 2-3 b. –All non-CAP members other than Military/Federal employees must execute a CAPF 9, Release, and leave the form in a secure location on the ground known to the flight release officer (FRO) or mission IC/CMD.

31 31 FAR Exemptions CAPR60-1 Section 2-3 f. CAPR60-1 Section 2-3 f. –CAP has two exemptions granted by the FAA for flying non-CAP passengers. –An exemption to 14 CFR 61.113 allows our pilots to obtain reimbursement as a private pilot and an exemption to 14 CFR 91.501 provides a tool for CAP to comply with specific FAA requirements regarding transportation flights. –The exemptions are located on the NHQ CAP/DOV website and should be consulted prior to flying non-CAP passengers to ensure any special requirements and restrictions are adhered to.

32 32 Remember to Check Credentials of Non-CAP Passengers (Center)

33 33 Night Flight Typically are transport, route searches and ELT searches Typically are transport, route searches and ELT searches CAPR 60-1 requires pilots to maintain a minimum of 2000' AGL at night (except for takeoff/landing or when under ATC control). CAPR 60-1 requires pilots to maintain a minimum of 2000' AGL at night (except for takeoff/landing or when under ATC control). Must be night current and its preferable to have an experienced crew aboard Must be night current and its preferable to have an experienced crew aboard Extra attention to the pre-flight and other preparations Extra attention to the pre-flight and other preparations –Weather reports and advisories –Dew point spread (fog predictor) Greatest threat is flying into weather you can’t see Greatest threat is flying into weather you can’t see

34 34 Night Flight (Continued) Before you launch, ask yourself a few questions: Before you launch, ask yourself a few questions: –Are you really night proficient, or did you last fly 89 nights ago? –How long has it been since you’ve done a night cross- country? –How long has it been since you’ve done a night ELT search? –How long has it been since you’ve done night approaches?

35 –When was the last time you practiced a night landing without a landing light? –How familiar are you with terrain and obstacles along the route? –Did you include all your flashlights in the weight & balance? Include night flying (and DF) in your proficiency regimen! 35 Night Flight (Continued)

36 36 Illusions of the Night Some lead to spatial disorientation while others lead to landing errors Some lead to spatial disorientation while others lead to landing errors Illusions are the most common Illusions are the most common Entering a bank too slowly to stimulate the motion- sensing system of the inner ear (“The Leans”) Entering a bank too slowly to stimulate the motion- sensing system of the inner ear (“The Leans”) –Coriolis –Graveyard spin or spiral –Inversion –False horizon –Auto kinesis

37 37 Illusions of the Night (Continued) Surface conditions and atmospheric conditions can create illusions of incorrect height above and distance away from the runway Surface conditions and atmospheric conditions can create illusions of incorrect height above and distance away from the runway Prevent these illusions by pre-planning and by flying a standard approach to all landings: Prevent these illusions by pre-planning and by flying a standard approach to all landings: –Runway width –Runway and terrain slopes –Featureless terrain –Atmospheric –Ground lighting

38 38 Instrument (IFR) Flight CAP missions are seldom conducted in IMC CAP missions are seldom conducted in IMC Most likely is a transport flight (not to minimums) Most likely is a transport flight (not to minimums) Can do a route search, but ground teams are preferable under these circumstances Can do a route search, but ground teams are preferable under these circumstances Can DF in IMC, but dangerous Can DF in IMC, but dangerous Per CAPR 60-1, IFR flights will not depart unless weather is at or above the landing minimums at the departure airport. Per CAPR 60-1, IFR flights will not depart unless weather is at or above the landing minimums at the departure airport.

39 39 Instrument (IFR) Flight (Continued) Other requirements and recommendations: Other requirements and recommendations: –PIC has, Instrument Proficiency, signed off on CAPF 91 and validated in eServices –PIC meets FAA instrument proficiency requirements –PIC is proficient in the type of CAP aircraft she’ll be flying –For any flight other than a simple transport flight, its highly recommended that another instrument-proficient pilot fly in the right seat –Never fly a search in IMC alone, Never Fly Any Search Alone! –Consider not flying an IMC search if ground teams are available

40 40 Video Imaging An increasing important CAP mission An increasing important CAP mission Real-time and near real-time images are invaluable to emergency response personnel Real-time and near real-time images are invaluable to emergency response personnel Primarily: Primarily: –Digital still photos (some 35mm) –Video (analog and digital) with or without audio comments –Satellite Phone video

41 41 Video Imaging (Continued) Essentials for a successful video imaging sortie: Essentials for a successful video imaging sortie: –Ensure everyone knows what the target is and what types of images are needed –Ensure you know how to find the target, and brief the route and video flight patterns to be used –Ensure frequencies are understood and agreed upon –Define the duties of the crewmembers and how you will transition “mission command”; Note: the photographer will actually be in charge during the shoot Note: the photographer will actually be in charge during the shoot –Ensure video equipment is working and that you have plenty of fresh batteries and film (media) –Clean the windows, even if you plan to open them for the shoot

42 42 Typical Video Imaging Profile

43 43 1000’ AGL ½ NM Typical Video Imaging Profile (Continued)

44 44 Proficiency CAPR 60-1 CAPR 60-1 –Self conducted proficiency flight guidelines are available for use by all CAP pilots (and aircrews) to maintain currency and improve pilot confidence. These recommended guidelines are located on the NHQ CAP/DOV website. Practice search patterns with and without GPS Practice search patterns with and without GPS Practice at night Practice at night In-flight emergencies and maneuvers will be conducted in daylight VMC … In-flight emergencies and maneuvers will be conducted in daylight VMC …

45 45 Proficiency (Continued) With the GPS, practice: With the GPS, practice: –Maintaining a constant track over ground –Select/display destinations –Determine heading, time and distance to a waypoint –Save lat/long coordinates as a User Waypoint –Save your present position as a waypoint, call it up & rename –Enter and use flight plans –Exercise the nearest airport and VOR features –Practice navigating with ‘present position’ (lat/long) displayed

46 46 Proficiency (Continued) Pilots, remember to take a crew with you! Good for everyone and it’s more fun! Pilots, remember to take a crew with you! Good for everyone and it’s more fun! CAPR 60-1 Profiles CAPR 60-1 Profiles Practice search patterns, with and without GPS Practice search patterns, with and without GPS Practice at night Practice at night Get current & proficient at IFR flight Get current & proficient at IFR flight

47 47

48 48 Security Concerns And Airspace Restrictions

49 49 Security Concerns and Airspace Restrictions Heightened security concerns and the potential for flight restrictions are now part of our world Heightened security concerns and the potential for flight restrictions are now part of our world CAP’s role in Homeland Defense will require greater attention to aircraft, aircrew and airport security CAP’s role in Homeland Defense will require greater attention to aircraft, aircrew and airport security

50 50 Security Concerns CAP resources should be considered national security assets CAP resources should be considered national security assets Special security precautions must be taken to protect aircraft and other resources: Special security precautions must be taken to protect aircraft and other resources: –hangar the aircraft whenever possible. May place small pieces of clear tape (that will break) on fuel caps, the cowling and/or doors to detect tampering. –Pay extra attention during pre-flight inspections and look for signs of fuel contamination –Be as “low-key” as possible; don’t draw unnecessary attention to yourself or discuss CAP business in public –Be aware of your surroundings at all times

51 51 Airspace Restrictions FAA may issue Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs) at any time. May establish an ADIZ (see AIM Section 6). FAA may issue Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs) at any time. May establish an ADIZ (see AIM Section 6). Ask for FDC NOTAMS before each flight; if security is heightened, check them before each leg. Ask for FDC NOTAMS before each flight; if security is heightened, check them before each leg. Even without heightened security, avoid loitering or circling sensitive areas: Even without heightened security, avoid loitering or circling sensitive areas: –Power plants (especially nuclear) –Reservoirs and dams –Government installations –Large stadiums or gatherings of people, air shows If you need to circle one of these structures for training, coordinate with the facility and ATC first. If you need to circle one of these structures for training, coordinate with the facility and ATC first. Monitor 121.5 MHz Monitor 121.5 MHz

52 52 In-Flight Interception Know how to respond (AIM 5-6-2) Know how to respond (AIM 5-6-2) An intercept has three phases: An intercept has three phases: –Approach –Identification –Post-intercept If intercepted you should immediately: If intercepted you should immediately: –Follow the instructions of the intercepting aircraft –Notify ATC, if possible –Attempt to communicate (121.5 MHz) –Squawk 7700 unless told otherwise

53 53 Phases of Flight

54 54 Phases Of Flight from a Mission Pilot Perspective Checklist in Operational Mission Flight Guide Checklist in Operational Mission Flight Guide Always follow the aircraft checklists; right-seat should read each item and you acknowledge Always follow the aircraft checklists; right-seat should read each item and you acknowledge First, an often overlooked asset – the glove box: First, an often overlooked asset – the glove box: –Small laminated sheets for crew and passenger briefings, crosswind chart, PA card (like CD), FM frequencies and callsigns, ELT deactivation stickers, and GPS cheat sheet –Small cleaning cloth (like for glasses) to clean instrument faces –Pencil/pen/grease pencil –Backup flashlight –Check periodically and purge non-essential stuff

55 55 Prior to Startup Familiarize yourself with the aircraft paperwork: Familiarize yourself with the aircraft paperwork: –Engine, prop, airframe, and avionics logbooks –Can you tell when the oil change is due? Next 100 hour/Annual? When the 24-month instrument certifications are due? Other checks: Other checks: –Due date on CO monitor and Fire Extinguisher inspection –ELT battery due date –Last VOR check (within 30 days of instrument flight) Fill out the flight log; double-check Hobbs & Tach times – and confirm OIL and 100 Times Fill out the flight log; double-check Hobbs & Tach times – and confirm OIL and 100 Times

56 56 Documents and Minimum Equipment Certificates and documents: Certificates and documents: –Airworthiness and Registration certificates –Operating limitations –Passengers’ credentials Minimum Operable Equipment Minimum Operable Equipment –VFR Day, VFR Night, IFR –FAR 91.213 to determine if you can take off with inoperable equipment Other CAP requirements (CAPR 66-1 & CAPF 71): Other CAP requirements (CAPR 66-1 & CAPF 71): –Review of logbooks, W&B data –Restrictive placards –Pulselite, Avionics/Control Lock, Fire extinguisher, CO detector, cargo net, chocks and tie-downs, survival kit

57 57 Weight & Balance and Loading Weight & Balance: Weight & Balance: –Use accurate weights of passengers and all equipment –Note all fuel assumptions (fuel burn, winds aloft, etc.) –Ensure adequate fuel reserve (one hour at normal cruise) Loading: Loading: –Ensure equipment, crew weights and supplies correspond to your W&B assumptions –Charts and maps –Windows clean (modify for video imaging mission) –Check and test special equipment –Parking area clear of obstacles

58 58 Prior to Startup Pre-start Pre-start –Passenger briefing, emergency egress procedure –Brief fuel management and taxi plan/diagram –Enter settings into GPS Fill out the flight log; double-check Hobbs & Tach times Fill out the flight log; double-check Hobbs & Tach times –Can you tell when the oil change is due? Next 100 hour/Annual? Other checks: Other checks: –Due date on CO monitor –Due date for fire extinguisher inspection –ELT battery due date –Last VOR check (within 30 days of instrument flight)

59 59 Startup and Taxi Aircraft checklists: Aircraft checklists: –Always use them (habit) and keep them close at hand –Seat belts, and shoulder harness at or below 1000 AGL Startup: Startup: –Try to include DF self-test in your scan when applying power –Ensure FM radio properly set up (radio and audio panel) –When >3000 MSL, lean the engine after starting –Set up GPS; enter first waypoint if applicable Taxi: Taxi: –Collision avoidance! –Review crew assignments for taxi –Sterile cockpit rules are now in effect

60 60 Startup Aircraft checklists: Aircraft checklists: –Always use them (habit) and keep them close at hand –Seat belts, and shoulder harness at or below 1000 AGL Startup: Startup: –Ensure DF, FM radio & Audio Panel properly set up –Rotating Beacon ON and signal marshaller –Lean the engine after starting (> 3000 DA) –Set up radio and navigation instruments

61 61 Taxi Collision avoidance! Follow CAPR 60-1 requirements for taxi operations. Collision avoidance! Follow CAPR 60-1 requirements for taxi operations. Read back taxi/hold-short instructions. Read back taxi/hold-short instructions. Review crew assignments for taxi, takeoff, & departure Review crew assignments for taxi, takeoff, & departure Sterile cockpit rules are now in effect Sterile cockpit rules are now in effect Remind crew that most midair collisions occur: Remind crew that most midair collisions occur: –Daylight VFR –Within five miles of an airport (especially un-controlled) –At or below 3000 AGL Signal marshaller before taxi, test brakes Signal marshaller before taxi, test brakes Exterior lights on (be considerate at night) Exterior lights on (be considerate at night)

62 62 Taxi Mishaps Becoming a bigger problem each year (#1 trend in CAP) Becoming a bigger problem each year (#1 trend in CAP) Pilots are: Pilots are: –straying from designated taxi routes –not allowing adequate clearance and not considering the tail and wings during turns –taxiing too fast for conditions and taxiing with obscured visibility –distracted by cockpit duties –not using other crewmembers to ensure clearance

63 63 Taxi Mishaps (Continued) Strategies: Strategies: –Thorough planning and preparation eliminates distractions –Crew assignments for taxi –If within ten feet of an obstacle, stop, and then taxi at a pace not to exceed a “slow walk” until clear –Do not follow other taxiing aircraft too closely (e.g., 50 feet behind light aircraft; 100 feet behind small multi- engine and jet aircraft; 500 feet behind helicopters and heavies) –Use proper tailwind/headwind/crosswind control inputs –Treat taxiing with the seriousness it deserves –Use exterior lights (be considerate of others) –Sterile cockpit rules

64 64 Takeoff and Climb Takeoff: Takeoff: –Collision avoidance! Check for landing traffic; turn on landing light when you begin rolling –Cross-wind limits (POH or 15 knots, whichever is less) –High density altitude – lean for full power before takeoff Climb: Climb: –Collision avoidance! –Lean (burn gas; not valves) –Use shallow S-turns and lift wing before turns to check traffic

65 65 … and Departure Departure: Departure: –Collision avoidance! Keep crew apprised of conflicts. –Sterile cockpit rules can be relaxed when clear –Organize the cockpit, review assignments, set up for next task –Check fuel status and altimeter setting hourly

66 66 The Search Area Transit: Transit: –In none assigned, use odd altitudes during transit to minimize chance for midair collision –Cross military training routes perpendicular. If you see one fighter, look for the wingman –Double-check settings and review methods to reduce crew fatigue or high altitude effects –Update weather, file PIREP, review procedures Approaching the search area: Approaching the search area: –Review assignments –Check navigational instruments against each other –Stabilize aircraft at least two miles out –Exterior lights on

67 67 The Search Area (Continued) In the search area: In the search area: –Log and report “In the Search Area” –Log deviations from assigned search parameters –Altitude 1000’ AGL, Airspeed > V x –Monitor yourself and crew for fatigue and high altitude effects Departing the search area: Departing the search area: –Log and report “Leaving the Search Area;” reorganize cockpit –Double-check heading and altitude assigned to transit to next search area or return to base –Reorganize the cockpit

68 68 Approach, Descent and … Approach: Approach: –Get ATIS/AWOS, review airport/airspace diagram, taxi plan –Sterile cockpit rules are now in effect –Collision avoidance! Lights on within 10 miles of airport. Decent: Decent: –Collision avoidance! Shallow S-turns and lift wings before turns –Richen mixture as you reduce power

69 69 … Landing Landing: Landing: –Read back all clearances and hold-short instructions –Defer after-landing check until off the active –Remember to “fly the plane ‘till you shut off the engine” –Taxi back per taxi plan, watch for Marshallers –At engine shutdown, show Marshaller the keys, install chocks

70 70 Shutdown and Post-Flight Shutdown: Shutdown: –Fill out logs –Report any discrepancies (be specific and complete) –Secure aircraft Post-flight - If this was the last flight of the day: Post-flight - If this was the last flight of the day: –Install chocks, tie-downs, avionics/control lock, Pitot cover and engine plugs –Check Master Switch and Parking Brake OFF –Remove trash, personal and special equipment –Lock windows, doors and baggage compartment –Inspect aircraft; check oil and refuel –Clean the aircraft Sign off any SQTR tasks that were accomplished Sign off any SQTR tasks that were accomplished

71 71 Flying the Mission

72 72 Flying the Mission Mechanics of planning and executing search patterns Mechanics of planning and executing search patterns Number of scanners: Number of scanners: –Most planning (and tables) assume there are at least two scanners on board, one looking out each side of the aircraft (MO should be scanning in grid!) –Remember – you (the pilot) are not a scanner! If there is only one scanner: If there is only one scanner: –Will only be scanning out one side, usually the right –You must plan and fly so as to keep the right side of the aircraft facing the search area at all times, on each leg –Increases the time needed to search a given area –Reduces search effectiveness (less double coverage) –Parallel track or creeping line patterns not recommended

73 73 Flying a Search Pattern Your primary contribution to the success of the mission is to fly assigned search patterns completely and precisely Your primary contribution to the success of the mission is to fly assigned search patterns completely and precisely This must be done while fulfilling the duties of a PIC; primarily “see and avoid” obstacles and other aircraft This must be done while fulfilling the duties of a PIC; primarily “see and avoid” obstacles and other aircraft Must consider the possibility of engine trouble or failure at low altitudes; always have an ‘out’ Must consider the possibility of engine trouble or failure at low altitudes; always have an ‘out’ –Low and slow and the engine quits. Where do you land?

74 74 Flying a Search Pattern (Continued) Always be honest and forthright with yourself and crew: Always be honest and forthright with yourself and crew: –Not at the right airspeed or altitude when you enter the pattern? Exit and re-enter when you’re set up. –Made the last turn a tad wide? Redo the leg, if necessary. –Scanner complaining that he can’t see anything? Slow to something less than 120 knots.

75 75 Go or Not Go? That is the Question! Let’s see…..Mission Pilot has a weather brief, gotten releases, preflight is done and … Let’s see…..Mission Pilot has a weather brief, gotten releases, preflight is done and … Mission Observer has planned the sortie and the entire crew is briefed… Mission Observer has planned the sortie and the entire crew is briefed… A mission pilot may accomplish all of this and still not be safe to fly the mission A mission pilot may accomplish all of this and still not be safe to fly the mission How can this be? How can this be?

76 76 Go Or Not Go? That is the Question! (Continued) It all comes down to the individual and the circumstances: It all comes down to the individual and the circumstances: –How long has it been since you’ve taken off with a 14 knot cross-wind? –Have you ever taken off and landed on an icy runway? –When did you last fly cross-country at night? –When was the last time you flew in actual IMC? Two primary stupid (mission) pilot traits: Two primary stupid (mission) pilot traits: –Overconfidence (Who? Me?? No!!!) –The need to accomplish the mission no matter what

77 77 Go Or Not Go? That is the Question! (Continued) The most effective way to prevent you from becoming the weak link in an accident chain: The most effective way to prevent you from becoming the weak link in an accident chain: –Be brutally honest about your abilities, given the present (or predicted) circumstances A mission pilot must have the courage and integrity to decline a mission you don’t feel comfortable doing A mission pilot must have the courage and integrity to decline a mission you don’t feel comfortable doing –Always remember that others are putting their lives in your hands!

78 78 How Can I Improve POD? Pay attention and ask questions during briefings Pay attention and ask questions during briefings Plan thoroughly so you can concentrate on the mission at hand Plan thoroughly so you can concentrate on the mission at hand Hit your numbers! Altitude, airspeed, position Hit your numbers! Altitude, airspeed, position Use the GPS – very accurate, especially with no landmarks Use the GPS – very accurate, especially with no landmarks Be mindful of your crew – no unnecessary steep turns; Be mindful of your crew – no unnecessary steep turns; –look for less turbulence or cooler air if possible; ensure sufficient breaks; –ensure sufficient fluid consumption; –watch for the crewmember who’s obviously not feeling well but doesn’t want to complain. Give a thorough debriefing and be totally honest Give a thorough debriefing and be totally honest Stay proficient! Stay proficient!

79 79 Pilot Records and the Form 91 Review

80 80 Introduction The purpose of this section is to review the CAPF 91 (CAP Mission Pilot Checkout) The purpose of this section is to review the CAPF 91 (CAP Mission Pilot Checkout) First, a look at what records should be in your Pilot File First, a look at what records should be in your Pilot File

81 81 Pilot Records CAPR60-1 section 3-8. Pilot Records. CAPR60-1 section 3-8. Pilot Records. –a. All pilot data must be entered into the CAP OPS Quals system by the member or authorized unit Stan/Eval and validated by the unit commander or designee. Data entered shall include all relevant FAA pilot qualifications, Data entered shall include all relevant FAA pilot qualifications, CAPFs 5, aircraft questionnaire(s), CAPFs 5, aircraft questionnaire(s), commander written designations, commander written designations, and other items needed to establish CAP aircraft operating privileges under this regulation. and other items needed to establish CAP aircraft operating privileges under this regulation. –b. All CAP pilots must sign a one time copy of the CAP Statement of Understanding, which will be maintained on file with the authorized unit Stan/Eval. The latest copy of this document is located on the NHQ CAP/DOV website.

82 82 CAPF 91 Mission Pilot Checkout This section reviews the CAP Mission Pilot Checkout This section reviews the CAP Mission Pilot Checkout CAPR 60-1, describes what to expect before, during and after your CAPF 91 checkout CAPR 60-1, describes what to expect before, during and after your CAPF 91 checkout Remember, to use the proficiency guideline for the CAPF 91 check ride that is available on the NHQ CAP/DOV website. Remember, to use the proficiency guideline for the CAPF 91 check ride that is available on the NHQ CAP/DOV website.

83 83 Oral Discussion Ensure current CAPF 116 Exam Passed (CAPT 116 Parts 1 & 2) Ensure current CAPF 116 Exam Passed (CAPT 116 Parts 1 & 2) Mission Base Procedures Mission Base Procedures Air-to-ground signals Air-to-ground signals Mission safety procedures (as required) Mission safety procedures (as required) CAP Radio Procedures (as required) CAP Radio Procedures (as required) Individual & Crew Equipment/Clothing Individual & Crew Equipment/Clothing Search Procedures Search Procedures Map and Chart Reading Map and Chart Reading

84 84 Oral Discussion (Continued) Mission flight planning, including CAPF 104 Mission flight planning, including CAPF 104 Search patterns and procedures Search patterns and procedures Observer/Scanner briefing and utilization Observer/Scanner briefing and utilization Use of the standardized chart grid system Use of the standardized chart grid system Debriefing procedures Debriefing procedures Procedures for completing and submitting CAPF 108 Procedures for completing and submitting CAPF 108

85 85 Pre-Flight Planning Determine Performance Limitations Determine Performance Limitations Obtain Mission Briefing Obtain Mission Briefing Gridded Sectional Gridded Sectional Observer Briefing Observer Briefing Fuel Planning & Reserve Fuel Planning & Reserve Ground Team Coordination Ground Team Coordination

86 86 Visual Search Patterns and Procedures Locate Grid or Area (without electronic aids) Locate Grid or Area (without electronic aids) Establish Search Altitude and Speed Establish Search Altitude and Speed Parallel Search Procedures Parallel Search Procedures Creeping Line Search Procedures Creeping Line Search Procedures Expanding Square Search Procedures Expanding Square Search Procedures Ground Team Coordination Ground Team Coordination

87 87 Electronic Search Patterns & Procedures Locate Starting Point (with & without electronic aids) Locate Starting Point (with & without electronic aids) Establish Appropriate Search Altitude Establish Appropriate Search Altitude VHF-DF Procedures VHF-DF Procedures Wing Null Procedures Wing Null Procedures Aural (build-fade) Procedures Aural (build-fade) Procedures

88 88 Mountainous Terrain Procedures Locate Grid/Area (with & without electronic nav) Locate Grid/Area (with & without electronic nav) Establish Search Altitude Establish Search Altitude Contour Search Procedures Contour Search Procedures Canyon Search Procedures Canyon Search Procedures Ridge Crossing procedures Ridge Crossing procedures Communications Procedures Communications Procedures Wing/Updrafts/Downdrafts Wing/Updrafts/Downdrafts Mountain Wave Effect Mountain Wave Effect

89 89 Emergency Procedures Low Altitude Engine Failure Low Altitude Engine Failure Ditching Ditching Landing on Unprepared Surface Landing on Unprepared Surface Deteriorating Weather Deteriorating Weather

90 90 Mission Flight Maneuvers 720° Steep Turns 720° Steep Turns Turns About a Point Turns About a Point Message Drop Procedure (verbal) Message Drop Procedure (verbal) Airspeed Control Airspeed Control Low Speed Maneuvering Low Speed Maneuvering Low Level Navigation (without electronic navaids) Low Level Navigation (without electronic navaids) Judgment Judgment

91 91 Safety Awareness Clearing Turns and Collision Avoidance Clearing Turns and Collision Avoidance Vigilance Vigilance Cockpit Resource Management Cockpit Resource Management Risk Management Risk Management

92 92 Proficiency CAPR 60-1 gives considerable attention to proficiency: CAPR 60-1 gives considerable attention to proficiency: –Self-Conducted Proficiency Flight Guidelines Mission Flight Profiles (use with B12): Mission Flight Profiles (use with B12): –1: Visual Search –2: Video Imaging –3: Electronic Search –4: Transportation –5: CAPF 91 Practice –6: Mountain Search –7: Proficiency Flight –8: Archer

93 93 Questions? ALWAYS THINK SAFETY!


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