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1 The Body’s Defenses Chapter 18 Section 2. 2 Key Concepts How does the body’s first line of defense guard against pathogens? How does the body’s first.

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Presentation on theme: "1 The Body’s Defenses Chapter 18 Section 2. 2 Key Concepts How does the body’s first line of defense guard against pathogens? How does the body’s first."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 The Body’s Defenses Chapter 18 Section 2

2 2 Key Concepts How does the body’s first line of defense guard against pathogens? How does the body’s first line of defense guard against pathogens? What happens during the inflammatory response? What happens during the inflammatory response? How does the immune system respond to pathogens? How does the immune system respond to pathogens? How does HIV affect the immune system and how does it spread? How does HIV affect the immune system and how does it spread?

3 3 Key Terms Inflammatory response Phagocyte Immune response Lymphocyte T-cellAntigen B cell Antibody AIDS HIV HIV

4 4 Preview You eyes are glued to the video screen. Enemy troops have gotten through an opening in the wall. Your soldiers have held back most of the invaders. However, some enemy soldiers are breaking through the defense lines. You need your backup defenders. They can zap invaders with their more powerful weapons. If you soldiers can fight off the enemy until the backup team arrives you can save your fortress. By eliminating pathogens that can harm you cells, your body maintains homeostasis. You eyes are glued to the video screen. Enemy troops have gotten through an opening in the wall. Your soldiers have held back most of the invaders. However, some enemy soldiers are breaking through the defense lines. You need your backup defenders. They can zap invaders with their more powerful weapons. If you soldiers can fight off the enemy until the backup team arrives you can save your fortress. By eliminating pathogens that can harm you cells, your body maintains homeostasis.

5 5 Barriers that keep Pathogens out Three lines of defense Three lines of defense Skin-pathogens may fall off with dead skin cells. If they stay on the skin they must get through the tightly packed dead cells that form a barrier on top of living skin cells Skin-pathogens may fall off with dead skin cells. If they stay on the skin they must get through the tightly packed dead cells that form a barrier on top of living skin cells Most pathogens get through the skin only when it is cut Most pathogens get through the skin only when it is cut

6 6 (2) Breathing passages Breathing passages Pathogens can enter the body when you inhale Pathogens can enter the body when you inhale The mucus and cilia trap and remove most of the pathogens that enter the respiratory system The mucus and cilia trap and remove most of the pathogens that enter the respiratory system You may also sneeze or cough forcing pathogens out of your body You may also sneeze or cough forcing pathogens out of your body

7 7 (3) Mouth and Stomach Mouth and Stomach Some pathogens are found in foods Some pathogens are found in foods Saliva in your mouth contains chemicals and your stomach produces acid Saliva in your mouth contains chemicals and your stomach produces acid Most pathogens that you swallow are destroyed by saliva or stomach acid Most pathogens that you swallow are destroyed by saliva or stomach acid

8 8 The Inflammatory response Second line of defense Second line of defense Fluid and white blood cells leak from blood vessels into nearby tissues Fluid and white blood cells leak from blood vessels into nearby tissues White blood cells then fight the pathogens White blood cells then fight the pathogens General response-its response is the same regardless of the pathogen General response-its response is the same regardless of the pathogen

9 9 White blood cells Disease fighters Disease fighters Phagocyte-involved in the inflammatory response, engulfs pathogens and destroys them by breaking them down Phagocyte-involved in the inflammatory response, engulfs pathogens and destroys them by breaking them down

10 10 Inflammation Blood vessels widen increasing the flow of blood to the area Blood vessels widen increasing the flow of blood to the area More disease fighting white blood cells are delivered to the area More disease fighting white blood cells are delivered to the area Enlarged blood vessels and the fluid leak out of them and make the affected area red and swollen Enlarged blood vessels and the fluid leak out of them and make the affected area red and swollen It will also feel slightly warmer than normal It will also feel slightly warmer than normal

11 11 Fever Chemicals produced during the inflammatory response cause a fever it helps your body fight the infection Chemicals produced during the inflammatory response cause a fever it helps your body fight the infection Some pathogens do not grow and reproduce well at higher temperatures Some pathogens do not grow and reproduce well at higher temperatures

12 12 The immune system Third line of defense Third line of defense Immune response and it is controlled by the immune system Immune response and it is controlled by the immune system Cells of the immune system can distinguish between different kinds of pathogens. Immune system cells react to each kind of pathogen with a defense targeted specifically at that pathogen Cells of the immune system can distinguish between different kinds of pathogens. Immune system cells react to each kind of pathogen with a defense targeted specifically at that pathogen

13 13 (2) White blood cells that distinguish between different kinds of pathogens are called: lymphocytes White blood cells that distinguish between different kinds of pathogens are called: lymphocytes There are two major lymphocytes T cells and B cells There are two major lymphocytes T cells and B cells

14 14 T Cells Identify pathogens and distinguish one kind of pathogen from another Identify pathogens and distinguish one kind of pathogen from another Each kind of T cell recognizes a different kind of pathogen Each kind of T cell recognizes a different kind of pathogen T cells recognize marker molecules called antigens and they are found on each pathogen T cells recognize marker molecules called antigens and they are found on each pathogen Antigens are molecules that the immune system recognizes either as part of your body or as coming from outside your body Antigens are molecules that the immune system recognizes either as part of your body or as coming from outside your body

15 15 B Cells B cells produce proteins that help destroy pathogens these proteins are called antibodies B cells produce proteins that help destroy pathogens these proteins are called antibodies Each kind of B cell produces one kind of antibody and each kind of antibody has a different structure Each kind of B cell produces one kind of antibody and each kind of antibody has a different structure Antigen and antibody molecules fit together like pieces of a puzzle Antigen and antibody molecules fit together like pieces of a puzzle When antibodies bind to the antigens on a pathogen they mark the pathogen for destruction When antibodies bind to the antigens on a pathogen they mark the pathogen for destruction Others keep pathogens from attaching to the body cells that they might damage Others keep pathogens from attaching to the body cells that they might damage Others make it easier for phagocytes to destroy the pathogens Others make it easier for phagocytes to destroy the pathogens

16 16 AIDS Caused by a virus that attacks the immune system Caused by a virus that attacks the immune system HIV is the only kind of virus known to attack the human immune system directly and destroy T Cells HIV is the only kind of virus known to attack the human immune system directly and destroy T Cells


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