Salisbury, Manitou and Providence, Chs. 1-2 (25% each) 1. How did Narragansett Sachem Miantonomi describe his people’s situation by 1642 after meeting the English? 2. What was the indigenous way of life in New England by this time? 3. How did men’s lives differ from women’s? 4. How did the Europeans’ arrival change native lives?
The Columbian Exchange in Early Modern P. What Plants and Animals came to Americas? What returned to Europe? What types of sources used to describe the use of maize and potatoes? Contrast Americas and China
Find Someone across the room and trade with them -You may not talk -Improve the value of your item by trading -No backsies Dr. Alfred Crosby
1. National: Council of Indies (1523), Viceroyalties, Audiencias, Visitas 2. Local Governments: Alcaldía Mayor, Corregimiento Cabildo
1. Land and Labor: Encomienda System: grant of indigenous tribute and labor, not land After 16th C, haciendas large landed family farms Forced labor the norm African slaves
North Central Mexico at Zacatecas and Guanajuato and Bolivia at Potosi Mine of Huancavelica in the Peruvian Andes Silver, Gold, Diamonds
Local production developed & flourished in 17th C Wine Mules Textiles Cochineal Henequen Beef jerky and Hides
1. Strict control over female choice and sexuality: purity of blood Why? 2. Outright exploitation of indigenous and African women
Conflict: Extraction of labor and resources involved coercion vs. conversion of indigenous people Lewis Hanke, Spanish Struggle for Justice in the Conquest of America: “No other European people, before or since the conquest of America, plunged into such a struggle for justice as developed among Spaniards shortly after the discovery of America and persisted throughout the sixteenth century.”
1.Antonio de Montesinos -Dominican Friar, Hispaniola, who Sunday before Xmas, 1511 Preached first public protest against ill treatment of Indigenous people by a Spaniard
I have risen here, I who am the voice of Christ in the desert of this island, and therefore no one of you agrees with what I have said; but yet with your heart, you hear it; this voice will be to you the newest, the harshest and the most lasting voice that you have ever heard, more dreadful than you ever thought to hear: all of you are in mortal sin and in sin you live, by the cruelty and tyranny by which you abuse these innocent people. Decide now: By what right and by what justice have you placed these Indians in such a cruel and horrible servitude? By what authority have you waged so hateful a war on these people who were living in their calm and peaceful lands, where you have consumed infinite numbers of them, with death and ruin? Are these not men? They do not have rational souls? Are you not obliged to love them as much as you love your very selves? Do you not understand this? Do you not feel this?... Know for certain that, in the state in which you are now, you cannot be saved any more than the Moors or Turks who lack, and do not want, the faith of Jesus Christ.
1600 a dissatisfied and acculturated Indian from Peru Letter to the Spanish monarchs, 1200 pages in length, etchings depicting abuses of the Spanish Colonial system
Stinging criticism of injustices of her day Intellectual, Writer, Silenced, Convent retreat “Which deserves the sterner blame, though each will be a sinner: She who becomes a whore for pay, or he who pays to win her?”
Dominican, helped in conquest of Cuba, owned slaves Ecclesiastes, Chapter 34 “Those who sacrificeth of a thing wrongfully gotten, their offering is ridiculous, and the gifts of the unjust are not accepted.” Very Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies