Presentation on theme: "Addictions: objectives Define addiction Distinguish between addictions and habits Identify signs of addiction Be able to describe the addictive process."— Presentation transcript:
Addictions: objectives Define addiction Distinguish between addictions and habits Identify signs of addiction Be able to describe the addictive process and biopsychosocial model of addiction. Describe some types of addictions. Describe treatment options for addictions.
Addiction is defined as: Continued involvement with a substance or activity despite ongoing negative consequences(not getting work done, ….) Initially this addictive behavior provides some pleasure or stability that is beyond the addict’s power to achieve in other ways. Eventually the addicted person needs to be involved in the behavior to feel “normal”.
Addiction can be: Physiological-actual chemical need and when the substance is removed the person suffers withdrawal symptoms: headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pains, fatigue, etc. Psychological (e.g. gambling) Both are interrelated because everything you feel is tied to a chemical state.
The addictive process: Are not well understood, but, probably reflect some dysfunction of certain biochemical systems in the brain. There is some research that points to the link of genes inherited from our parents (who may be addicts) to predispose a person to addictions.
There are many factors that influence addictive behavior: Unresolved issues from childhood. Family dysfunction Conflict and stress In adolescence or young adults that are shy may wish to be less inhibited and start experimenting with alcohol. Peer pressure or social “norms”.
Tolerance: Is defined as needing more and more of the addictive substance to feel the “high” or particular level of relaxation. It doesn’t matter if the substance is alcohol, cannabis or tobacco.
Habit vs. addiction: Addiction involves an element of habit- a repeated behavior in which the repetition may be unconscious.. A habit can be broken without too much discomfort. In addiction, the habit is a compulsion that has gotten out-of-control. Habits are more in the realm of choice and do not cause a lot of negative consequences: missed work, school, failed test, fights, ill health affects.
Signs of Addiciton: We all engage in potentially addictive behaviors that cause pleasure such as; eating, drinking alcohol, sex, internet surfing, etc. At some point individuals utilize these activities as a prolonged escape, or “medication” for some ill feelings (conscious or unconscious).
Four common symptoms: Compulsion which is characterized by obsession or excessive preoccupation and overwhelming need. Loss of control Negative consequences: missed class, work. Chronic tardiness, damage to property, legal and/or financial problems Denial or inability to perceive the behavior as self-destructive.
The addictive process: Occurs over time, it begins when a person repeatedly seeks relief to avoid unpleasant feelings or situations. This pattern is known as “nurturing through avoidance” and is a maladaptive way of taking care of emotional needs. There may be some deterioration of relationships or other problems or they may be very “functional”.
Craving for relief preoccupation Substance use More pain, low-self esteem Negative consequences Depression, guilt shame Short term relief Emotional pain Short term relief
The physiology of addiction: All intellectual, emotional and behavioral functions occur as a result of biochemical interactions between nerve cells.
How many of you have heard about endorphins? Endorphins are chemicals that are similar to morphine and were discovered because there are receptor sites in the brain. There are also receptor sites for marijuana and some of us produce chemicals in our brain that similar to marijuana.
When the drug use stops, those receptor sites are empty… Resulting in uncomfortable feelings until the body creates the substance or ingests the drug. So…people genetically +/or naturally produce less endorphins so they seek out drugs and/or activities that increase endorphins.
So people are wired or it is on their “hard drive” to seek out chemicals or activities. When a person stops the Activity or chemical they feel Depression, anxiety, irritability Frustration and anger as well As the physical symptoms Already mentioned
The biopsychosocial model of addiction: Based upon the biological and disease model as well as the psychological and environmental factors that contribute to addiction. The bio part looks at how the physiology of an addict is different from a non-addict. When all factors are considered the success rate increases.
We talked about neurotransmitters, usually the addict has low: serotonin Norepinephrine Endorphins enkephalin
Environmental influences: Cultural expectations and mores help to determine whether a person engages in specific behaviors.
Medias influence on appearance And the ideal body plays a role in exercise addiction.
Societal glorification of money And material achievement can lead to work addiction.
Major stressful events can trigger addictive behaviors: Marriage Divorce Unemployment Death of a loved one
People who suppress their Emotions and try to “keep the peace” are more prone to addictions. Children whose parents are not available emotionally and/or physically are more prone to suffer addictions in adulthood. Persons with low self-esteem, risk-taking and poor coping skills have a tendency towards addictions.
10 million people in the U.S. Are involved with some type of self-help group so they have identified some type of disorder. Other types of Addictions: Compulsive gambling Spending/borrowing About 80% of college students
Work Addiction: Healthy work helps us to have a sense of identity and can help us to develop our strengths and mastery of problems. Healthy work does not “consume” the worker. Work is an addiction when it is compulsive and used to fill the need for intimacy. Characterized by obsession, perfectionism, fear, low self-esteem.
Work addiction can be a source Of marital or relationship problems Work addicts become emotionally crippled-losing communication And human interaction skills.
Addicts can have extreme Difficulty relaxing and playing. They suffer frequently from chronic fatigue. Exercise Addiction: exercise is a powerful mood enhancer 2 million suffer from anorexia +/or bulemia(Vomiting)
Addiction affects family and friends by: Inducing co-dependency behaviors-people get addicted to “helping the addict”. Co-dependants have a difficult time setting limits.
Treatment and Recovery: Recognize the addiction Many times the addict cannot “see the truth”. Abstinence is refraining from the addictive behavior. Sometimes detoxification may need to occur.
12 step programs: Spiritually based, addicts helping addicts, inexpensive, usually convenient, high success rate. Professional counseling, many times much more mental health based, can be expensive. Relapse occurs if the wound hasn’t sufficiently healed.
Summary: Addiction is continued involvement with a substance or activity that has negative consequences. Habits are repeated behaviors, whereas addiction is a behavior that is compulsive. Addiction is a process, evolving over time, involving nurturing through avoidance. There is a biopsychosocial model of addiction.