Study drove practices through the 1980’s and 1990’s Focused on deterrence through incarceration or “offender management techniques” “Just desserts” and “crime control” What that looked like in 6WCC….. Many states developed determinate sentencing guidelines during this time
Group of criminologists/researchers continued to study offender change Discovered we can predict risk of future criminal behavior based on factors Discovered “what works” in changing offender behavior Discovered what doesn’t work (stop it!) Discovered some practices INCREASE the risk of criminal behavior – (stop that too!)
EBP PRINCIPLES Assess risk and criminogenic needs Enhance intrinsic motivation Target interventions Skill train with behavioral directed practice Increase positive reinforcement Engage ongoing support in natural communities Measure relevant practices Provide measurement feedback
PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE ARE TWO DIFFERENT THINGS!
PRACTICE Changed WHO we supervise Changed HOW we supervise Change WHAT we supervise Changed HOW LONG we supervise
WHO Target interventions on medium and high risk offenders Assess risk AND criminogenic needs
Worked with Judiciary Eliminated supervision of low level offenses – traffic, shoplifting, bad checks, juvenile curfew and smoking Resource focused – who do you want us to spend our time on? Judge Paul Nelson: “We’ve gotten rid of a lot of supervised matters and the world hasn’t come to and end”.
HOW Target interventions on medium and high risk offenders (supervision continuum) Enhance intrinsic motivation (motivational interviewing, effective alliance)
Supervision Continuum Target supervision resources on medium and high risk offenders Risk assessment tools – Level of Service Inventory Revised (Level of Service/Case Management Inventory), Spousal Assault Risk Assessment, Sex Offender Specific tools Administrative, group supervision, traditional supervision, general enhanced supervision, sex offender enhanced supervision
Low/Medium Low Risk Very limited exposure to system Developed IN CONSULTATION with Judiciary, Prosecution, Executive Board – expectations agreed upon by all Misdemeanor DWI, misdemeanor property No general probation conditions, monitor special conditions only, then discharge Group supervision
Medium High/High Risk Specialized caseload for sex offenders and general enhanced Lower caseload size to allow more face- to-face contact Progressive phases and a focus on criminogenic needs/case planning (versus surveillance)
MOTIVATIONAL INTERVIEWING EFFECTIVE ALLIANCE MI: “A collaborative, person-centered form of guiding to elicit and strengthen motivation to change.” Effective Alliance – the quality of the agent/offender relationship can positively impact the outcome of probation and recidivism. Crucial for agents to be able to cultivate relationships with offenders that maximize the likelihood of success.
WHAT Target interventions on identified criminogenic needs specific to each offender that can be changed Skill train with directed practice – cognitive skills group What has been proven to work rather than what sounds, looks or feels good Focus the purpose of offender contact more on criminogenic needs than reviewing conditions of probation
EXAMPLES Information regarding risk assessment score by domain/criminogenic needs in PSI’s and violation reports, recommendations tied to needs Removed “obey all laws” from general conditions of probation. Judges specify IF and WHAT TYPE of OBAL condition. No standard abstain/random testing condition – based on identified risk per assessment(s)
EXAMPLES CONTINUED Financial matters/monitoring moved to Court Administration 22 week Cognitive Skills Course Agents trained in Cognitive Skills principles Content/quality of contacts is stressed, not just quantity (weekly plans structure 40%-70% of time, agenda setting)
HOW LONG Increase positive reinforcement (carrot works better than the stick)
Worked with Judiciary and Prosecution to develop standards and common expectations Incentive of early discharge for all offense types except sex offenses Reward offenders for compliance by decreasing supervision level (phases on enhanced caseloads; group supervision) Restructure Process – work with offender to address issue rather than violate
CHALLENGES Last two EBP principles: Measurement and Feedback/Modification Quality Assurance and Fidelity Keeping current on new research and EBP Resources