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Need-finding and Ideating John C. Tang September 4, 2007 Turn in your Idea Lists! Sit at tables in groups of SIX (6)

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Presentation on theme: "Need-finding and Ideating John C. Tang September 4, 2007 Turn in your Idea Lists! Sit at tables in groups of SIX (6)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Need-finding and Ideating John C. Tang September 4, 2007 Turn in your Idea Lists! Sit at tables in groups of SIX (6)

2 Today’s newspaper (S.J. Merc)

3 Today Complete intro to contextual inquiry Complete intro to contextual inquiry Other methods Other methods –Task analysis –Ethnography Design Design –Ideating –Sketching –Brainstorming

4 Intro Christine Robson

5 Last time: Doing a Contextual Inquiry Direct Observation + Interviewing Direct Observation + Interviewing In natural context of activity In natural context of activity Intentionally pick participants, location, time Intentionally pick participants, location, time Follow where the participant leads (partner) Follow where the participant leads (partner) Learn user’s vocabulary Learn user’s vocabulary Gather artifacts, recordings Gather artifacts, recordings

6 Outcome of CI Experiencing it is perhaps the most important! Experiencing it is perhaps the most important! What are we going to do with all this data? What are we going to do with all this data? –Analyze –Reporting Goal: Gain understanding of user

7 Understanding of user What resources are used to accomplish task? What resources are used to accomplish task? What hindrances encountered in accomplishing task? What hindrances encountered in accomplishing task? Analyze data to get better description and understanding of resources and hindrances

8 Resources used Tools, devices Tools, devices –Cell phone, computer, shovel Information Information –Web page, phone directory Other people Other people –Expert, peer, grad student

9 Hindrances encountered Not having the right tool Not having the right tool –Workarounds Unable to access resources needed Unable to access resources needed –Can’t find information –People unavailable Unaware of important information Unaware of important information –Confusion

10 Analyzing data is collaborative Researchers involved in CI Researchers involved in CI Designers Designers Project leads Project leads Software developers Software developers Users Users Multiple perspectives elicit details

11 Analysis session Each researcher presents each CI case Each researcher presents each CI case –Resources used to accomplish activity –Hindrances encountered –Things that surprised you –Things that seem unusual, interesting Other participants ask questions, share similar or contrasting examples from their data Other participants ask questions, share similar or contrasting examples from their data

12 Analysis session (2) After all cases are presented, team looks for patterns across cases Commonly used resources Commonly used resources Commonly encountered hindrances Commonly encountered hindrances Common themes, patterns, sequences Common themes, patterns, sequences Try out possible design ideas Try out possible design ideas –What if…?

13 Report Descriptive understanding of activity Descriptive understanding of activity –Common resources used –Common hindrances encountered –Common patterns –Illustrated with stories, pictures, clips Design implications / insights Design implications / insights

14 Revisiting Jim and dating Resources Resources –Great looks –Witty stories –Good listening skills Hindrances Hindrances –Facial bruise from ultimate frisbee –Matching story with prospect’s interests –Noisy environment

15 Contextual Inquiry in CS160 Asking for a Contextual Inquiry of group project (future assignment) Asking for a Contextual Inquiry of group project (future assignment) Each group member should do at least one contextual inquiry Each group member should do at least one contextual inquiry Analysis done by whole group Analysis done by whole group Report Report

16 Task analysis Goals Goals –A state of the system that the user wishes to achieve Tasks Tasks –The activities required, used, or believed to be necessary to achieve a goal Actions Actions –Simple tasks that involves no problem solving or control structure

17 Task analysis example GOALS TASKS ACTIONS Communicate with family Write Open Compose window Type text Ask for $$ Add to Type text Add personality Add emphasis Starting the school year Hi Mom and Dad, The school year has gotten off to a fast start. I’m in a great Human-Computer Interface class! Oh, by the way, please send more money for books. Gotta go!

18 Task analysis example GOALS TASKS ACTIONS Communicate with family Write Open Compose window Type text Ask for $$ Add to Type text Add personality Add emphasis Format text Starting the school year Hi Mom and Dad, The school year has gotten off to a fast start. I’m in a great Human-Computer Interface class! Oh, by the way, please send more money for books. Gotta go! luv u bunches, student Hi Mom and Dad, The school year has gotten off to a fast start. I’m in a great Human-Computer Interface class! Oh, by the way, please send more money for books. Gotta go!

19 Task analysis example GOALS TASKS ACTIONS Communicate with family Write Open Compose window Type text Ask for $$ Add to Type text Add personality Add emphasis Format text Starting the school year Hi Mom and Dad, The school year has gotten off to a fast start. I’m in a great Human-Computer Interface class! Oh, by the way, please send more money for books. Gotta go! luv u bunches, student Use standard actions Elicit breadth of tasks and goals Identify bundles

20 Ethnography noun -- The branch of anthropology that deals with the scientific description of specific human cultures. Typically applied to study of foreign cultures Typically applied to study of foreign cultures

21 It’s a jungle out there Ethnography in the workplace Lucy Suchman, Human-Machine Reconfigurations: Plans and Situated Actions

22 Ethnography Natural settings Natural settings –a commitment to studying activities in the “natural” setting in which they occur Descriptive Descriptive –an interest in developing detailed descriptions of the lived experience Members’ point of view Members’ point of view –understanding the participant’s activity from the participant’s point of view Focuses on what people actually do Focuses on what people actually do –understanding the relationship between activities and environment

23 Ethnographic HCI studies Long-term, direct observation Long-term, direct observation Rich, detailed, qualitative description Rich, detailed, qualitative description Analysis takes at least 2X duration of data recorded Analysis takes at least 2X duration of data recorded To learn, apprentice with a mentor To learn, apprentice with a mentor

24 Other terms you’ll hear Participatory Design (PD) Participatory Design (PD) –Besides partnering in the observation process, users can also actively participate in the design process –Primarily reacting to prototype designs User-Centered Design (UCD) User-Centered Design (UCD) –Focused on the user, not the technology (we’ve been presuming this)

25 Design Ideating – expressing ideas Ideating – expressing ideas Representing Representing –Sketching –Enacting Brainstorming Brainstorming –More ideas  more creative  better –Group vs. individual creativity NEEDS DESIGN IMPLEMENTEVALUATE

26 Design “ideology” Sketching – “Visual Thinking” Sketching – “Visual Thinking” Number of ideas, alternatives Number of ideas, alternatives

27 Sketching in design Allows quick iteration through many ideas (fast and cheap) Allows quick iteration through many ideas (fast and cheap) Suggests and explores rather than confirm Suggests and explores rather than confirm Stimulates left-brain / right-brain interaction Stimulates left-brain / right-brain interaction Invites sharing ideas Invites sharing ideas Product design roots Product design roots

28 Sketching & Cartooning

29 Design sketch

30 Screen sketch

31 Screen sketch

32 Sketching exercise Buying / Pumping gas in 6-8 frames Buying / Pumping gas in 6-8 frames From memory of using these devices From memory of using these devices Draw actions  focus on goals and tasks Draw actions  focus on goals and tasks Individually create series of sketches Individually create series of sketches –Quality of drawings, details not important –Must convey the interface and the interactions Learning by doing! Learning by doing!10-minutes

33 Approach pump Approach pump Open gas lid Open gas lid Payment mode Payment mode Type in zip code Type in zip code Select grade of fuel (optional services) Select grade of fuel (optional services) Pumping gas (auto-on feature) Pumping gas (auto-on feature) Do you want a receipt? Do you want a receipt?

34 Reflecting on sketching Hard? Easy? Hard? Easy? Did exercise suggest any ways of improving the taskflow to better match users’ goals? Did exercise suggest any ways of improving the taskflow to better match users’ goals? Collect: Please make sure your name is on it Collect: Please make sure your name is on it Discussion section: Perspective drawing Discussion section: Perspective drawing

35 Computational sketching Many software tools for “sketching” Many software tools for “sketching” Freeware gimp – GNU Image Manipulation Program Freeware gimp – GNU Image Manipulation Program

36 Screenshots (Windows) Windows “Print Screen” key Windows “Print Screen” key Typically found in upper right corner Typically found in upper right corner Puts screenshot into paste buffer Puts screenshot into paste buffer –Currently active window only

37 Screenshot (Macintosh) Copy entire screen Copy entire screen – Copy region of screen Copy region of screen – Copy active item on screen Copy active item on screen – –

38 Brainstorming Technique for facilitating group creativity Technique for facilitating group creativity Popularized by Alex Osborn, 1930s, Applied Imagination Popularized by Alex Osborn, 1930s, Applied Imagination –Defer judgement –Wildest possible ideas –Go for quantity –Build on others’ ideas

39 1. Be visual 2. Defer judgment 3. Encourage wild ideas 4. Build on the ideas of others 5. Go for quantity 6. One conversation at a time 7. Stay focused on the topic Rules for brainstorming

40 Brainstorming exercise Create ideas that would help you communicate with your family, from your 90 yr. old grandfather, to your 10 yr. old younger sister Create ideas that would help you communicate with your family, from your 90 yr. old grandfather, to your 10 yr. old younger sister What are their user characteristics? What are their user characteristics? What kinds of info would you like to communicate with them? What kinds of info would you like to communicate with them? Work in groups Work in groups 15 minutes

41 Brainstorming + Alternatives Alternatives Magnify Magnify Minimize Minimize Reverse Reverse Leverage Leverage Distort Distort Integrate Integrate 1. Be visual 2. Defer judgment 3. Encourage wild ideas 4. Build on the ideas of others 5. Go for quantity 6. One conversation at a time 7. Stay focused on the topic

42 Reflecting on brainstorming Explore new ideas? Explore new ideas? Surprised at number of ideas? Surprised at number of ideas? How much longer would you go? How much longer would you go?

43 “Manipulative” verbs Adapt Adapt Modify Modify Magnify Magnify Minify Minify Substitute Substitute Rearrange Rearrange Reverse Reverse Combine Combine Multiply Multiply Divide Divide Eliminate Eliminate Subdue Subdue Invert Invert Separate Separate Transpose Transpose Unify Unify Distort Distort Rotate Rotate Flatten Flatten Squeeze Squeeze Complement Complement Submerge Submerge Freeze Freeze Soften Soften Fluff-up Fluff-up By-pass By-pass Add Add Subtract Subtract Lighten Lighten Repeat Repeat Thicken Thicken Stretch Extrude Stretch Extrude Repel Repel Protect Protect Segregate Segregate Integrate Integrate Symbolize Symbolize Abstract Abstract Dissect Dissect

44 Processing a brainstorm Take a short break Take a short break Poll on interesting ideas (~10%) Poll on interesting ideas (~10%) Group ideas together Group ideas together Identify and apply criteria Identify and apply criteria Prioritize Prioritize Identify follow-up tasks Identify follow-up tasks

45 Assignment: Map of Berkeley (Due Sept. 11) Draw conceptual map of Berkeley that conveys your experience of the area Draw conceptual map of Berkeley that conveys your experience of the area –Introduce me to Berkeley! –Express visually, not with words (like Pictionary) –Create feature list Show map to one other person not in CS160 Show map to one other person not in CS160 –“Here’s a map of Berkeley I drew—tell me what you learn from it” –Record number of features they recognize Hand in 2 copies (black & white copy OK) Hand in 2 copies (black & white copy OK)

46 Example Feature list BART station BART station Soda Hall Soda Hall Hill between BART and Soda Hill between BART and Soda “The Play”, Cal vs. Stanford, 1982 “The Play”, Cal vs. Stanford, 1982

47 Next time Return to Soda 405 Return to Soda 405 Readings: Readings: –Millen, Feinberg, & Kerr, "Dogear: Social Bookmarking in the Enterprise" –Kathy J. Lee "What Goes Around Comes Around: An analysis of del.icio.us as social space“ Guest speaker from facebook: Guest speaker from facebook: –Dave Fetterman, Senior Engineer, founder of Facebook Platform –Ami Vora, Facebook Developer Community My office hours TODAY 2:00-3:00 6 th floor alcove


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