Teaching Contents 22.1 –ed participle as premodifier 22.2 –ed participle as complement 22.3 Dangling participles
22.1 –ed participle as premodifier 1) - ed participle derived from transitive verbs Most of –ed participles, used as premodifrer, are from transitive verbs, and express a passive meaning and a sense of completion. ---All the broken windows have been repaired. As premodifier, some –ed participles cannot be used alone unless they are combined with a negative prefix “un-” or when they are combined with an adverb to form a compound.
---uninvited guests, ---untold sufferings. ---a badly-built house, ---highly-developed industry Sometimes the –ed participle can be used with a noun to form a compound. The noun indicates the agent or the means of the action. Usually there is a dash between the noun and the –ed participle. --man-made satellite ； air-conditioned hotels
2) –ed participle derived from intransitive verbs The use of intransitive –ed participle as premodifier tends to be limited only to a few verbs: retired, escaped, faded, withered, fallen, expired, risen, returned, vanished, grown. These –ed participles have the sense of completion but imply no passive meaning. ---a retired teacher ---a faded flower. A few such –ed participle cannot be used as
premodifiers unless they are combined with an adverb to form a compound. --- a well-behaved boy ---a widely-traveled businessman 22.2 –ed participle as complement -Ed participle that can be used as complement mostly comes from transitive verbs. Adjectival –ed participles can generally function either as complements or as premodifiers, except for some relics of the Old English.
He has gone to a party. Has gone 是现在完成 时。 He was gone. 此处的 Is 是系动词， gone 是形容词， 作表语 / 主补，强调状态。 Be gone 主语是物时， 常常表示 “ 消逝了 ” 、 “ 不见了 ” 、 “ 用完了 ” 。 e.g. Is the butter all gone? 黄油全吃完了吗？ When I came back my car was gone. Her job was gone. Have come/ is come e.g. The summer was come now.
1) Old English –ed participle In Modern English, there are a few relics of Old English –ed participles that survive only as adjectives and which are mostly different in form from their Modern –ed participles. Some of these take one form when used as premodifier and another form when used as complement. e.g. A bounden duty is a duty one is bound to do. A drunken man is one who has got drunk. I’m blest if I know. (I don’t know at all.)
got / gotten a. We have got tickets. 我们有票。 (=We possess tickets.) b. We have gotten tickets. 我们得到了票。 (=We have acquired tickets.) 在美国英语中，并非任何情况下， gotten 与 get 的 过去分词一样。实际上，只有表 become, required ( 得到 ), received ( 收到 ), caused ( 使得 ) 等意义时，才使用 gotten, 而不用 got. e.g. He has gotten sick. 他病了。 We’ve just gotten a raise in salary. 得到加薪。
2) Verbs admitting of –ed participle as object complement Verbs that can take an –ed participle as object complement fall into three groups: A) Verbs of perception and verbs denoting mental state such as see, hear, feel, find, think, etc. --We found her greatly changed. B) Causative verbs such as make, get, have, keep, etc. --He was trying hard to make himself understood. Note: The verb “have” has three different meanings in the construction of “have + object +-ed participle.”
a) Indicates an intentional passive action. The agent of the action is not the subject of the sentence. “Have” here means “to cause” or “to make”. It should be stressed when it is read. --We had the problem solved. b) Indicates an unintentional passive action. Also the agent of the action is not the subject of the sentence. The subject is influenced by the action. The word “have” means “to experience.” It is unstressed when being read. --- She had her arm broken in an accident.
c) Expresses a common meaning: possess. ---Peter has not any money saved for his old age. C) The third group includes verbs denoting hope, expectation, order, such as like, want, wish, order, etc. --He won’t like such questions (to be) discussed at the meeting. The object complement is the passive form of infinitive. Usually “to be” can be omitted.
22.3 Dangling participles 1) “Attachment rule” and “dangling participles” When an –ing or –ed participle construction is used as a relative or adverbial clause, its logical subject is usually identifiable with the subject or other element of the main clause. It is through this relationship that the participle construction is “attached” to the main clause. This is known as the “attachment rule”. ---Entering the room, I found nobody in it. ---Painted white, the house looks better.
Violation of the “attachment rule”, will result in a “dangling participle.” ---Entering the room, nobody was found in it. ---Painted white, we like the house better. 2) Problems about the acceptability of “dangling participles Linguists are divided in opinion about the acceptability of “dangling participles”: Prescriptive grammarians condemn all “dangling” constructions, while descriptive linguists take a more liberal point of view.
“Dangling” constructions should not be regarded as objectionable indiscriminately. These constructions are frequently found in formal scientific writing, in which it is a general practice to avoid using personal subject. In the informal style, so long as they do not cause ambiguity or confusion in meaning, “dangling participles” should also be viewed as normal and acceptable.
Only these “dangling” constructions are objectionable or unacceptable that cause ambiguity or suggest absurd interpretations. From pedagogical point of view, however, beginners in English should not be encouraged to use “dangling” constructions unless in scientific writing.
Dangling Participle 依附规则在下列情况下不适用： 1) 分词或不定式的逻辑主语泛指 “ 人、人们、我们、大家 ” 时。 e.g. When installing a boiler, the floor space which is available is very important. 2) 当分词短语充当评注性状语时，其逻辑主语实际上就是讲 话人自己或作者加读者： I, we, you 。 e.g. Putting it mildly, you have caused us some inconvenience. Judging from what you say, he has done his best. 有些词已经转化为介词或连词时，不能用依附规则： considering, excepting, concerning, regarding, providing 。
e.g. Considering her dislike of Martin, it was surprising that she invited him. To say the least, their techniques are old-fashioned. 3) 隐含的主语是整个主句。 e.g. I’ll help you if necessary. (= … if it is necessary.) The siren sounded, indicating that the air raid was over. (= which indicated that …) 4) 如果隐含的主语是一个不定代词或 it e.g. when dining in the restaurant, a jacket and a tie are required.(= when one dines…) Being Christmas, the government offices were closed. (Since it was Christmas …)