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English and North American English: Grammatical, orthographical and lexical differences.

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Presentation on theme: "English and North American English: Grammatical, orthographical and lexical differences."— Presentation transcript:

1 English and North American English: Grammatical, orthographical and lexical differences

2 Contents: Grammatical Differences: Verbs Nouns Adjectives & Adverbs Prepositions Spelling Differences: Standard spelling Vocabulary

3 PresentPast & Past Participle (EngEng)Past & Past Participle (Am) BurnBurntBurned LearnLearntLearned SmellSmeltSmelled SpoilSpoiltSpoiled Morphology: Inflectional VERB

4 Present Past & Past Participle (EngEng) Past (Am)Past Participle (Am) DiveDivedDoveDived FitFittedFitFitted SneakSneakedSnuck GetGot Gotten Inflectional VERB -He dove/dived in head first -He snuck/sneaked around the corner

5 Inflectional: GOTTEN VERB We have gotten home late gain We’ve gotten together every June We had already gotten off the train when it was hit They’ve gotten me into trouble again

6 VERB Morphology: Derivational Suffixes + ify Citify, humidify, uglify + ize Burglarize, hospitalize, rubberize Suffixes

7 VERB Derivational NounVerb AuthorTo author HostTo host (he hosted a reunion last week) Sky-rocket To sky-rocket (prices are sky-rocketing this year) PressureTo pressure RoomTo room (I room at that house) Noun  Verb

8 EngEngNAmEng and EnEng I shall tell you laterI will tell you later/I’ll tell you later Shall I drink this now?Should I drink this now? I shan’t be able to comeI won’t be able to come VERB Modal Auxiliaries Shall

9 VERB Modal Auxiliaries Would Expressing a characteristic or habitual activity in USEng: “When I was young, I would go there everyday”

10 In EngEng either the simple past or the verb with the modal used to would probably be used (also possible in USEng): “When I was young, I went there every day” “When I was young, I used to go there every day” VERB Modal Auxiliaries Would

11 The negative of epistemic must is can’t in southern EngEng: He must be in—his TV is on He can’t be in—his car has gone (In the north-west of England, mustn’t is used rather than can’t) VERB Modal Auxiliaries Must

12 In USEng, the most common negative of epistemic must is must not: He must not be in —his car is gone You mustn’t be in when we arrive (not allowed) VERB Modal Auxiliaries Must

13 VERB Use(d) to Modal Auxiliaries “He used to go there” (EngEng) Used he to go there?Auxiliary Did he use to go there?Lexical Verb He used not to go thereAuxiliary He didn’t use to go thereLexical Verb

14 Both are rare in USEng and usually occur in set phrases: Need I say more? Persons under 18 need not apply I dare say… VERB Modal Auxiliaries Need & Dare

15 In USEng, dare and need are treated as lexical verbs in negating and questioning: Do you need to be so rude? You don’t need to be so rude! Do I dare tell the truth? I don’t dare (to) tell the truth VERB Modal Auxiliaries Need & Dare

16 VERB Modal Auxiliaries Have NAmEng AuxiliaryMain Verb I have not seen him Have you seen him? Yes I have I’ve seen him He’s seen him He hasn’t seen him I don’t have a good time there Do you have a good time there? No, I don’t

17 VERB Modal Auxiliaries Have EngEng Have as receive, take, experienceInvolving possession Do you have coffee with breakfast? Yes, I do I don’t have coffee with breakfast Have you (any) coffee in the cupboard? I haven’t (any) coffee in the cupboard I have some coffee in the cupboard I’ve some coffee in the cupboard In all forms of English, stative have can be replaced by have got

18 VERB Verb phrases Like InfinitiveIng- Participle -I like to skate -I like to photograph animals in the wild -I like skating -I like photographing animals in the wild EngEng and USEngUSEng We’d like you to do this nowWe’d like for you to do this now

19 VERB Verb phrases Seem, Act, Look & Sound EngEngUSEng/EngEng It seemed a long timeIt seemed like a long time He seems an intelligent manHe seems to be an intelligent man John acted a real foolJohn acted like a real fool That house looks a nice oneThat house looks like a nice one That sounds a bad ideaThat sounds like a bad idea

20 VERB Verb phrases Come & Go EngEng/AmEngUSEng We’ll come to see you soonWe’ll come see you soon Go and fix it nowGo fix it now Can I come and have a cup of coffee with you? Can I come have a cup of coffee with you? When Come and Go are uninflected (both for tense and person), to and and are often dropped in USEng:

21 VERB Verb phrases Want The verb want can be followed directly by the adverbs in and out in USEng. In EngEng want must be followed first by an infinitive: EngEngUSEng I wanted to come in I wanted to be let in I wanted in The dog wants to go outThe dog wants out

22 VERB Verb phrases EngEngUSEng To battle with/against (the enemy)To battle To check up onTo check out To fill in (a form)To fill out To meet (an official = have a meeting)To meet with To prevent (something becoming…)To prevent from To protest at/against/over (a decision)To protest To stop (someone doing…)To stop from To talk toTo talk with/to To visitTo visit with Verbs + Prepositions:

23 Morphology: Derivational NOUN Noun-endings -cian:Mortician (undertaker), beautician (hairdresser) -eeRetiree, draftee, interviewee -eryEatery, bootery, winery, hatchery -sterteamster, gamester Noun endings

24 Derivational NOUN VerbNoun To cook outA cook-out (an outdoor barbeque) To know howThe know-how To run (someone) aroundThe runaround To try (someone) outA try-out (an audition) Verb  Noun

25 Adjectives ADJECTIVES & ADVERBS Real vs. Really The adjective real is sometimes used as an adverb in informal USEng as in: -A real good meal EngEng and formal USEng can only have the adverbial form really in such instances: -A really good meal

26 Adjectives ADJECTIVES & ADVERBS Different EngEngUSEng This one is different from the last one This one is different than the last one This is different from what I had imaginedThis is different than what I had imagined

27 Adverbs: ADJECTIVES & ADVERBS Still & Yet The adverbs yet and still cannot occur with the simple past tense in EngEng, but they can do so in USEng. EngEng and USEng (present perfect)USEng only (simple past) I haven’t bought one yetI didn’t buy one yet Have you read it already?Did you read it already?

28 Prepositions: PREPOSITIONS EngEng and NAmEngNAmEng (only) I haven’t seen him for weeksI haven’t seen him in weeks I haven’t seen him for agesI haven’t seen him in ages In vs. For

29 Prepositions: PREPOSITIONS At vs. Over EngEngNAmEng At the weekendOver the weekend At Christmas (the season)Over Christmas

30 Prepositions: PREPOSITIONS In vs. On EngEngNAmEng To be in a teamTo be on a team To live in a street To live on a street To be in a saleTo be on sale

31 Standard spellings: EngEng:-ourUSEng:-or ColourColor FavourFavor HonourHonor labourLabor -our vs. -or

32 Standard spellings: EngEng:-reUSEng:-er CentreCenter FibreFiber LitreLiter TheatreTheater -re vs. -er

33 Standard spellings: -ce vs. -se EngEng:-ceUSEng:-se DefenceDefense Licence (n.)License (n. and v.) OffenceOffense Practice (n.)Practise or practice (n.)

34 Standard spellings: -ise vs. ize EngEng:-ceUSEng:-se ApologiseApologize CapitaliseCapitalize DramatiseDramatize NaturaliseNaturalize

35 Standard spellings: -xion vs. ction EngEng:-ceUSEng:-se ConnexionConnection DeflexionDeflection InflexionInflection RetroflexionRetroflection

36 Vocabulary Differences: Same word, different meaning WORDEngEng meaningUSEng meaning Homely Down to earth, “domestic” Ugly (of people) NervyNervous Bold, full of nerve, cheeky PantsUnderpantsTrousers PavementFootpath, sidewalkRoad surface

37 Vocabulary Differences: Additional meaning in USEng WORDMeaning in common Additional meaning in USEng Bathroom Room with bath or shower and sink Room with toilet only DumbMuteStupid RegularConsistent, habitual Average (as in size), normal To shipTo transport by shipTo transport by ship, train, plane or truck

38 Vocabulary Differences: Additional meaning in EngEng WORDMeaning in common Additional meaning in EngEng Leader One who commands, guides, directs An editorial To mindTo heed, obeyTo look after SmartIntelligentWell-groomed surgeryA medical operation or operating room An office of any doctor

39 Vocabulary Differences: Same concept, different word USEng onlyEngEng To call (by telephone)To ring CanTin To check (to make a check mark)To tick CouchSofa Game (sport)Match GasPetrol To make a reservationTo book

40 USEngEngEng DessertPudding JelloJelly Jam Food and cooking USEngEngEng Sweater (pullover)Jumper PurseHandbag DiaperNappy Clothing and accessories

41 USEngEngEng Living roomSitting room YardGarden Garbage canDustbin Household USEngEngEng Trailer/mobile homeCaravan TruckLorry SubwayUnderground railway Transportation

42 The End


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