The FBI defines terrorism as the unlawful use of force against persons or property to intimidate or course the government, the civilian population, or any other segment, in furtherance of political or social objectives. The FBI has also defined the following three categories of terrorism: ◦ Foreign sponsors of international terrorism ◦ Formalized terrorist groups ◦ Loosely affiliated international radical extremists
Bio terrorism includes such diseases as smallpox, botulism, and the plague just to mention a few. The fortunate thing for us is they are very difficult to make in very large quantities in tricky to transport without causing destruction or degradation of the disease.
Posse comitatus- this act was passed in 1878 and prohibited the use of the military to execute domestic laws. National instant management system- this system provides a consistent nationwide approach for Federal, state, and local governments to work effectively together to prepare for, prevent, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents. U.S. patriot act- this act was enacted after the 911 attacks in 2006, and greatly expanded the Federal government’s ability to investigate Americans without establishing probable cause for intelligence purposes. Military commissions act of 2006- this act to help fight terrorism was enacted in march of 2006
Intelligence lead policing -operates under the assumptions that a relatively small number of people were responsible for a comparatively large percentage of crimes, and that officers will have the best effect on crime by focusing on the most prevalent offenses occurring in their jurisdiction. Predictive Policing Fusions Centers
The effects of the 9/11 attacks on the world trade center forced law enforcement to take another look at the manner in which terrorism and emergency responses should be carried out by both local, state, and Federal authorities.
There have been concerns that says the reorganization of and heightened communications between Federal, state, and local law enforcement organizations has caused the relationship between these groups to become too chummy, blurring the lines in terms of communications between federal and local law enforcement. The federalization of national criminal justice policy is disturbing because it leads to a concentration of power at the national level that is democratically unhealthy and undermines the most basic principles under which the nation was founded.
It seems like we see with regularity law enforcement being shown on TV using excessive force against one or more of our nation’s citizens. This is primarily because the newspapers and other media have the philosophy if it believes it leads, therefore any such acts of force used by law enforcement will be shown on the nightly news are in print form in the newspapers or now online literally over and over again, which gives the perception that this type of activity is occurring with regularity when in actuality it is not.
Officers sometimes inflict verbal and psychological abuse on citizens by berating or belittling them. One of the more common methods used by police officers to verbally abuse is through the use of profanity. Supervisors should discourage its use and review every instance when a police officer uses it with a citizen.
Legal abuse and civil rights violations consist of police actions that violate citizens constitutional or statutory rights. This abuse may involve false arrests, false imprisonment, and harassment. Supervisors and managers play a key role in preventing legal abuse and violations of citizens’ rights.
Use of force continuum see have been evolving for over three decades and if one were to look at them graphically their explanations range from the very simple to the more elaborate. There have been some concerns with such a simplistic viewpoint of how the use of force should progress in a situation. Today many police executives and researchers believe that use of force cannot always be employed in such a sequential, stair step fashion as this continuum implies.
Suicide by cop has been defined as “an act motivated in whole or in part by the offender’s desire to commit suicide that results in a justifiable homicide by a law enforcement officer.” Presently, the extent of suicide by cop remains unknown for two reasons: first, there is a lack of both a clear definition and established reporting procedures; second, suicide attempts are immediately removed from the criminal process and placed within the mental health arena
The problem for the police is that when we go to stop a car for example for speeding, we do not know who is in that vehicle (even if you run a check on them quickly, the car could be freshly stolen). It is the responsibility of command personnel and supervisors to ensure that officers barely understand and comply with police pursuit policies. In addition to the policy issues and supervisory information identified earlier other factors considered by the courts in evaluating pursue liability
Over the past 30 years, the proportion of women police officers has grown steadily. During the 1970s, some formal barriers to hiring women, such as height requirements, were eliminated; in addition, subjective physical agility tests and oral interviews were modified. Some job discrimination suits further expanded women’s opportunities.
Key issues Recruitment Preemployment physical testing Academy training Field training Assignments Promotions Harassment and discrimination Mentoring Career in family
The recruitment of minority officers also remains a difficult task. Probably, the greatest problem is the negative image that police officers have in the minority communities. Unfortunately, police officers have been seen as symbols of oppression and have been charged with using excessive brutality; they are often seen as an army of occupation. Black police officers face problems similar to those of women who attempt to enter and prosper in police work.
Contract policing- Here, smaller communities, either incorporated or unincorporated, can contract their police services with another larger agency. Consolidation- Another means of unifying agencies and possibly achieving cost savings is through consolidation, which is the merging of two or more city and/or county governments into a single policing entity.
Most citizen calls for police service do not involve a crime or a sworn officer to enforce the laws. For that reason, many agencies have increasingly civilianized many functions performed traditionally by sworn personnel. Police unions are becoming increasingly wary of management’s outsourcing traditional police tasks to a civilian body, viewing the latter as potential threats to their livelihood.
News dissemination is a delicate undertaking for the police CEO; news organizations, especially television and the print media, are highly competitive businesses that seek to obtain the most complete news in the shortest amount of time, which often translates into wider viewership and, therefore, greater advertising revenues for them. Unfortunately, many police executives (a good number of whom involuntarily left office) can speak of the results of failing to develop an appropriate relationship with the media.
Today an essential part of every chief’s job is to prepare colleagues in the organization for the next advance in their careers; indeed, today the mark of a good leader is the ability to ensure a ready supply of capable leaders for the future. Chiefs need to take a long view and look at succession planning and leadership development as a continuous process that changes the organizational culture.