Presentation on theme: "The Interwar Period. B-D-A Small Group Activity “Seat at the Table” Working cooperatively, students will construct their own peace treaty and path for."— Presentation transcript:
The Interwar Period
B-D-A Small Group Activity “Seat at the Table” Working cooperatively, students will construct their own peace treaty and path for reconciliation throughout Europe Using poster board, each group will present their ideas to the class
The Impact of War Affected Europe and parts of the Middle East, Africa and Asia Left the civilization of Europe devastated Homes, factories, schools, railways, farms were destroyed Catastrophic loss of life Empires Collapsed German Austrian Russian Ottoman
The Impact of War World War I: European Turning Point Swept away many of the royal families and gave birth to both democratic and undemocratic governments TTYN: Can we consider the collapse of empires a turning point? TTYN: Talk to your neighbor
The effects of war on Germany A war on two fronts or what the Schlieffen Plan was designed to avoid. TTYN: How effective was the Schlieffen Plan? What they got – four years of war on two fronts. Germany: Before there was war Industrial Revolution…throughout Europe Profound divisions in German society were on the rise Workers were voting for socialist parties
Germany: During the war Mutual antipathy between the working classes, middle classes, and aristocratic establishment What Changed: Nationalism – German people rally together to focus on the enemies at Germany’s borders Burgfrieden – ‘Peace within the fortress’ TTYN: Explain what ‘Peace within the fortress’ means
“I know no parties, I know only Germans!” “As a sign that you are determined, without party difference without difference of root, without religious difference be sustained with me through thick and thin, through misery and death to go, I call on the Executive Boards of the parties to step up and pledge that to me in the hand.” 1914, Kaiser Wilhelm II TTYN: Describe the relationship of the above quote and ‘Peace within the fortress’
Why attitudes changed in Germany 1915 – Social truce loses momentum War drags on Resources diverted for war effort Belief that the war was a power grab by the Kaiser and to restore power for the upper class
Why attitudes changed in Germany 1918 – Mutiny by German sailors: refused one last attack, a suicidal attack on the Royal Navy 1918 – Wilson’s 14 Points Kaiser must be out for Germany to be in at the Peace Summit Ordinary Germans in-favor of this condition Kaiser Abdicates
Wilson’s Fourteen Points January 8, 1918, speech on War Aims and Peace Terms given to Congress President Wilson set down 14 points as a blueprint for world peace that was to be used for peace negotiations after World War I. 14 Points based on economic, social, and political analysis -- on a regional and global level To better understand the cause of the war and to prevent future entanglements Program for the Peace of the World
Wilson’s Fourteen Points Essential Question to consider when reviewing Wilson’s 14 Points – Imagine you are the leader(s) of France and G.B., what will be your reaction to Wilson’s recommendations?
Wilson’s Fourteen Points 1. No more secret agreements ("Open covenants openly arrived at"). 2. Free navigation of all seas. 3. An end to all economic barriers between countries. 4. Countries to reduce weapon numbers. 5. All decisions regarding the colonies should be impartial 6. The German Army is to be removed from Russia. Russia should be left to develop her own political set-up. 7. Belgium should be independent like before the war.
Wilson’s Fourteen Points 8. France should be fully liberated and allowed to recover Alsace- Lorraine 9. All Italians are to be allowed to live in Italy. Italy's borders are to "along clearly recognizable lines of nationality." 10. Self-determination should be allowed for all those living in Austria- Hungary. 11. Self-determination and guarantees of independence should be allowed for the Balkan states.
Wilson’s Fourteen Points 12. The Turkish people should be governed by the Turkish government. Non-Turks in the old Turkish Empire should govern themselves. 13. An independent Poland should be created which should have access to the sea. 14. A League of Nations should be set up to guarantee the political and territorial independence of all states. ***Not listed, but equally important – the abdication of the Kaiser TTYN: Prediction – How will France and G.B. respond to Wilson’s 14 Points? Was it a path for future peace? Defend your position.
14 Points Hits a Roadblock Point II - Britain, led by Lloyd George, opposed a ban on a policy of blockades France was intent on imposing massive reparations upon the 'beaten' foe Imperial Competition Harsh punishment against Germany
End of War Armistice Day – November 11, 1918 Agreement between Germany and the Allies to end the war Germans wanted peace based on Wilson’s Fourteen Points TTYN: What holiday do we celebrate on Nov. 11
WWI Common Core – “Document of the Day’ Adolf Hitler Hitler was in hospital recovering from a chlorine gas attack when he heard that the German government had surrendered. Everything went black before my eyes; I tottered and groped my way back to the ward, threw myself on my bunk, and dug my burning head into my blanket and pillow. So it had all been in vain. In vain all the sacrifices and privations; in vain the hours in which, with mortal fear clutching at our hearts, we nevertheless did our duty; in vain the death of two million who died. Had they died for this? Did all this happen only so that a gang of wretched criminals could lay hands on the Fatherland. I knew that all was lost. Only fools, liars and criminals could hope for mercy from the enemy. In these nights hatred grew in me, hatred for those responsible for this deed. Miserable and degenerate criminals! The more I tried to achieve clarity on the monstrous events in this hour, the more the shame of indignation and disgrace burned my brow.
WWI Common Core – “Document of the Day’ Adolf Hitler Who are the ‘‘criminals” that Hitler is referring to? ___________________________________________________________________ What has caused Hitler to feel so ashamed? __________________________________________________________________
The Treaty of Versailles TTYN: What is the purpose of a treaty Early 1919, The peacemakers assembled in Paris to accomplish the following: To treat the root causes of the conflict Find solutions to problems either created or exacerbated by the War itself The ‘Players’ – The Big Three Woodrow Wilson – U.S. David Lloyd George – G.B. Georges Clemenceau -France
Timeline Armistice Day Nov. 11, 1918 Treaty Negotiations Commence Early 1919
Georges Clemenceau Prime Minister and a politician TTYN: Describe some of roles and constituents that a politician must play and appease What Clemenceau and France were after… Revenge – Germany must pay for the war People of France in total alignment with Clemenceau Never give Germany another chance to start another war No need for politics…easy sell
David Lloyd George Prime Minister and Politician Couldn’t be seen as going soft on Germany Citizens of G.B. wanted revenge for the war George was worried about the growth of communism Believed communism posed a greater threat than a re-built Germany Privately, George wanted Germany to re-build in a fair and dignified manner with no hope of being swayed by communism
Woodrow Wilson U.S. President and a politician From isolation, to war, and back to isolation Wanted Europe to work out their difference in a civil and equitable manner; not revenge Prevent another war
What the Big Three Agreed to: Territorial ~ Military ~ Financial ~ General Territorial The following land was taken away from Germany : Alsace-Lorraine (given to France) Eupen and Malmedy (given to Belgium) Northern Schleswig (given to Denmark) Hultschin (given to Czechoslovakia) West Prussia, Posen and Upper Silesia (given to Poland)
What the Big Three Agreed to: Territorial ~ Military ~ Financial ~ General Territorial The Saar, Danzig and Memel were put under the control of the League of Nations and the people of these regions would be allowed to vote to stay in Germany or not in a future referendum. The League of Nations also took control of Germany's overseas colonies. Germany had to return to Russia land taken in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Some of this land was made into new states : Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia. An enlarged Poland also received some of this land.
Military Germany’s army was reduced to 100,000 men; the army was not allowed tanks Not allowed an Air force Allowed only 6 naval ships and no submarines The west of the Rhineland and 50 miles east of the River Rhine was made into a demilitarized zone (DMZ). No German soldier or weapon was allowed into DMZ. The Allies were to keep an army of occupation on the west bank of the Rhine for 15 years.
Financial The loss of vital industrial territory would be a severe blow to any attempts by Germany to rebuild her economy. Coal from the Saar and Upper Silesia in particular was a vital economic loss. Combined with the financial penalties linked to reparations, it seemed clear to Germany that the Allies wanted nothing else but to bankrupt her. Germany was also forbidden to re-unite with Austria to form one superstate or empire, in an attempt to keep her economic potential to a minimum.
General There are three vital clauses here: 1. Germany had to admit full responsibility for starting the war. "War Guilt Clause" 2. Germany, as she was responsible for starting the was responsible for all the war damages. Had to pay reparations Bulk of which would go to France and Belgium to pay for the damage done to the infrastructure of both countries by the war. 3. A League of Nations was set up to keep world peace.
The Treaty of Versailles Territorial ~ Military ~ Financial ~ General TTYN: Germany was the only country that had to sign the War Guilt Clause. Was it fair? Support your answer.
Germany’s Reaction Germany was not consulted regarding the arrangements and particulars of the treaty The first time that the German representatives saw the terms of the Treaty was just weeks before they were due to sign it in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles on June 28th German public goes mad Left with no choice but to sign it??? TTYN: If they didn’t sign, what was the likely outcome? Were there other options available? Support your answer The Treaty of Versailles
The Hall of Mirrors – Signing of the Treaty of Versailles June 28, 1919
This cartoon appeared in the German satirical magazine Simplissimus, June 3, 1919
Don’t forget it! We will never stop until we win back what we deserve. From Deutsche Zeitung, a German newspaper, 28 June Those who sign this treaty, will sign the death sentence of many millions of German men, women and children. Count Brockdorff-Rantzau, leader of the German delegation to Versailles (15 May 1919)
'Lost but not forgotten land'. The poem under the map reads: You must carve in your heart These words, as in stone - What we have lost Will be regained!
Treaty of Versailles Common Core – ‘Document of the Day’ Edward M. House – Advisor to Woodrow Wilson June 29, 1919: I am leaving Paris, after eight fateful months, with conflicting emotions. Looking at the conference in retrospect there is much to approve and much to regret. It is easy to say what should have been done, but more difficult to have found a way for doing it. The bitterness engendered by the war, the hopes raised high in many quarters because of victory, the character of the men having the dominant voices in the making of the Treaty, all had their influence for good or for evil, and were to be reckoned with. How splendid it would have been had we blazed a new and better trail! However, it is to be doubted whether this could have been done, even if those in authority had so decreed, for the peoples back of them had to be reckoned with. It may be that Wilson might have had the power and influence if he had remained in Washington and kept clear of the Conference. When he stepped from his lofty pedestal and wrangled with representatives of other states upon equal terms, he became as common clay.
To those who are saying that the Treaty is bad and should never have been made and that it will involve Europe in infinite difficulties in its enforcement, I feel like admitting it. But I would also say in reply that empires cannot be shattered and new states raised upon their ruins without disturbance. To create new boundaries is always to create new troubles. The one follows the other. While I should have preferred a different peace, I doubt whether it could have been made, for the ingredients for such a peace as I would have had were lacking at Paris The same forces that have been at work in the making of this peace would be at work to hinder the enforcement of a different kind of peace, and no one can say with certitude that anything better than has been done could be done at this time. We have had to deal with a situation pregnant with difficulties and one which could be met only by an unselfish and idealistic spirit, which was almost wholly absent and which was too much to expect of men come together at such a time and for such a purpose. And yet I wish we had taken the other road, even if it were less smooth, both now and afterward, than the one we took. We would at least have gone in the right direction and if those who follow us had made it impossible to go the full length of the journey planned, the responsibility would have rested with them and not with us. Treaty of Versailles Common Core – ‘Document of the Day’ Edward M. House – Advisor to Woodrow Wilson
Treaty of Versailles Common Core – ‘Document of the Day’ Edward M. House – Advisor to Woodrow Wilson The core ingredients of the treaty largely ignored Wilson’s Fourteen Points. According to the opinion offered by Edward House, why did the authors the treaty choose another path? What was the ultimate goal of Great Britain and France during the treaty process. Support each response with evidence from the article and what has been learned during this unit ___________________________________________________________________________
The Treaty includes no provision for the economic rehabilitation of Europe - nothing to make the defeated Central Powers into good neighbours, nothing to stabilise the new States of Europe, nothing to reclaim Russia; nor does it promote in any way a compact of economic solidarity amongst the Allies themselves; no arrangement was reached at Paris for restoring the disordered finances of France and Italy, or to adjust the systems of the Old World and the New. It is an extraordinary fact that the fundamental economic problem of a Europe starving and disintegrating before their eyes, was the one question in which it was impossible to arouse the interest of the Four. Reparation was their main excursion into the economic field, and they settled it from every point of view except that of the economic future of the States whose destiny they were handling. Treaty of Versailles Common Core – ‘Document of the Day’ John Maynard Keynes, The Economic Consequences of Peace (1920)
Treaty of Versailles Common Core – ‘Document of the Day’ John Maynard Keynes, The Economic Consequences of Peace (1920) According to Keynes, the future economic stability of Europe is a major problem that was not addressed with the authorization of the treaty. Why does he suggest this and what may be the future implications of this oversight. Support with evidence. ___________________________________________________________________________
Treaty of Versailles
Small Group Activity In The News Working cooperatively, each group will construct two newspaper headlines with corresponding articles reacting to the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. One article must be from the viewpoint of Germany One article must be from the viewpoint of either France or Great Britain. Resource available Notes Graphic Organizer Text Outside resources must provide bibliography
Timeline Armistice Day Nov. 11, 1918 Treaty Negotiations Commence Early 1919 Treaty Versailles Signing June 29, 1919
Weimar Republic 1919, the Kaiser abdicates Parliamentary republic established Named after Weimar, the city where the constitutional assembly took place. Its official name was Deutsches Reich; however, it was gnerally known as Germany. 1919, a national assembly convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for the German Reich was written, then adopted on 11 August of that same year. Social Democratic leadership Goal of the Weimar: to construct the perfect democracy
Weimar Republic Strive for Perfection Included: A Bill of Rights guaranteed every German citizen freedom of speech and religion, and equality under the law. All men and women over the age of 20 were given the vote. There was an elected president and an elected Reichstag (parliament). The Reichstag made the laws and appointed the government, which had to do what the Reichstag wanted.
Weimar Republic Not so perfect after all Two Major Flaws: Proportional representation - Led to 28 parties Made it virtually impossible to establish a majority in the Reichstag, and led to frequent changes in the government Dozens of tiny parties, with no party strong enough to get a majority No government to get its laws passed in the Reichstag.
Weimar Republic Not so perfect after all Two Major Flaws: Article 48 In an emergency, the president did not need the agreement of the Reichstag, but could issue decrees and take sole power. TTYN: Does Article 48 sound very democratic? The problem with this was that it did not say what an emergency was, and in the end
The “Stab-in-the-back legend” The “November Criminals”
Weimar Republic Not so perfect after all A backdoor left open for Hitler Article 48 Article 48 and the downfall of the Weimar to be continued….
As if the war wasn’t bad enough… The Spanish Flu The influenza pandemic killed more people than the Great War Approx. 50M people perished The most devastating epidemic in recorded world history More people died of influenza in a single year than in four-years of the Black Death Bubonic Plague from 1347 to A global disaster 1/5 of world’s population infected "La Grippe"
As if the war wasn’t bad enough… The Spanish Flu It infected 28% of all Americans. An estimated 675,000 Americans died of influenza during the pandemic, ten times as many as in the world war. Of the U.S. soldiers who died in Europe, half of them fell to the influenza virus and not to the enemy – 43K 1918 would go down as unforgettable year of suffering and death and yet of peace. "La Grippe"
As if the war wasn’t bad enough… The Spanish Flu It spread following the path of its human carriers, along trade routes and shipping lines. Outbreaks swept through North America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Brazil and the South Pacific The Great War, with its mass movements of men in armies and aboard ships, probably aided in its rapid diffusion and attack. President Woodrow Wilson suffered from the flu in early 1919 while negotiating the crucial treaty of Versailles to end the World War "La Grippe"
Timeline Armistice Day Nov. 11, 1918 Treaty Negotiations Commence Early 1919 Treaty Versailles Signing June 29, 1919 Spanish Flu
And the hits just keep on coming… The Great Depression The Great Depression in Europe Turning Point The half-way point between two catastrophic wars that would decimate Europe (twice) 1929 Stock Market Crash leads directly to the Great Depression in Europe Essential Question & TTYN: Why did the stock market crash that occurred in the United States have ripple effects throughout Europe and the world?
And the hits just keep on coming… The Great Depression The Great Depression in Europe Essential Question & TTYN: Why did the stock market crash that occurred in the United States have ripple effects throughout Europe and the world? The interconnectedness of world economies The Result The total disruption to the global system of financing, trade, and production and the subsequent meltdown of the American economy would soon be felt throughout Europe and the world
The Great Depression in Europe European Conditions at the time of the financial crisis Weakened economies as a result of: Wartime destruction Postwar Reparations Dawes Plan Collapses
The Great Depression in Europe Dawes Plan American banks loaned money to the German government The Weimar Government used the loans to pay reparations to the French and British governments France and G.B.used the money to pay war debts to American banks.
The Great Depression in Europe Essential Question: What was the obvious problem or structure with the Dawes Plan? Everything depended on the continuous flow of American capital. The German government's debt to the victorious powers shifted towards American bankers, who, under the auspices of the Dawes plan, assumed the debt along with the dangers of default. 1928, American banks had ceased to make loans under the Dawes plan. Germany still had to service its American loans in addition to making reparations payments.
The Great Depression in Europe Banks collapsed Mass unemployment Business Failures Germany defaults on reparations G.B. and France default on their war debts Political conflicts on the rise
Berlin, Germany Outside unemployment office Source: H. Tiltman, Slump! A Study of Stricken Europe Today (1932: Jarrolds Publisher London Limited).
What I Know About Adolf Hitler What I Learned About Adolf Hitler What I Want to Learn About Adolf Hitler K-W-L The Rise of Hitler - TTYN
TTYN: What does this piece of propaganda suggest? Work and Bread
Political Parties in the Reichstag June 1920 May 1924 Dec May 1928 Sep July 1932 Nov Mar Communist Party (KPD) Social Democratic Party (SDP) Catholic Centre Party (BVP) Nationalist Party (DNVP) Nazi Party (NSDAP) Other Parties
"Our Last Hope — Hitler" Source: Mjölnir, "Unsere letzte Hoffnung-Hitler" (München: Heinz Franke, 1932).
The Rise of Hitler Common Core – ‘Document of the Day’ Propaganda Leaflet National Socialist German Workers Party (1920) There is a secret world conspiracy, which while speaking much about humanity and tolerance, in reality wants only to harness the people to a new yoke. A number of workers' leaders belong to this group. The leaders are big capitalists. 300 big bankers, financiers and press barons, who are interconnected across the world, are the real dictators. They belong almost exclusively to the "chosen people". They are all members of the same conspiracy. The Jewish big capitalist always plays our friend and dogooder; but he only does it to make us into his slaves. The trusting worker is going to help him set up the world dictatorship of Jewry. Because that is their goal, as it states in the Bible. "All the peoples will serve you, all the wealth of the world will belong to you". Shake off your Jewish leaders, and those in the pay of Judas! And one final point. Don't expect anything from Bolshevism. It doesn't bring the worker freedom. In Russia the eight-hour day has been abolished. There are no more workers' councils. All cower under the dictatorship of a hundred government commissars, who are nine-tenths Jewish.
The Rise of Hitler Common Core – ‘Document of the Day’ Propaganda Leaflet National Socialist German Workers Party (1920) Who is Nazi Party speaking to? ____________________________________________________________________ What group is in the Nazi Party’s crosshairs and why? Support with evidence. ____________________________________________________________________
The Rise of Hitler Common Core – ‘Document of the Day’ Adolf Hitler, The Road to Resurgence (1927) Germany, England, France and Italy are dependent on exports. Indeed, even America is leaving the purely domestic economic circuit and is emerging as an industrial competitor on a worldwide scale, helped, to be sure, by sources of raw materials that are just as cheap as they are inexhaustible. Especially in the sphere of the motorization of the world. America appears to be cornering the whole world market. In addition, the outside world has succeeded in breaking down a number of German monopolies on the world market thanks to the coercive restraints of wartime and the result of peace treaties. Finally, however, the economies of the world's great industrial states are backed up by their political power. And the decisive factor in economic conflict in the world was never yet rested in the skill and know-how of the various competitors, but rather in the might of the sword they could wield to tip the scales for their businesses and hence their lives.
The Rise of Hitler Common Core – ‘Document of the Day’ Adolf Hitler, The Road to Resurgence (1927) What is Hitler promoting for Germany in order to be considered a serious economic force? Please explain ________________________________________________________
Small Group Activity Inside Hitler’s Head
Resources located at end of unit
The Rise of Hitler and the Nazi Party Adolf Hitler ( )
The Rise of Hitler Patriotic and Nationalistic Inspired to enlist at the start of WWI 1920, created the “Brown Shirt’s” Extremely active in Munich 1923, The Munich Putsch or the “Beer Hall Putsch” Failed attempt by Nazi Party to take over Weimar Republic Arrested and tried for treason Spent 9 months in jail Wrote Mein Kampf while in prison The Rise of Hitler and the Nazi Party
The Rise of Hitler Mein Kampf Targets of the book Democrats Communists Internationalists (foreigners) Jews The Rise of Hitler and the Nazi Party
"[The Jews'] ultimate goal is the denaturalization, the promiscuous bastardization of other peoples, the lowering of the racial level of the highest peoples as well as the domination of his racial mishmash through the extirpation of the volkish intelligentsia and its replacement by the members of his own people," On the contrary, the German people were of the highest racial purity and those destined to be the master race according to Hitler. To maintain that purity, it was necessary to avoid intermarriage with subhuman races such as Jews and Slavs.... Germany could stop the Jews from conquering the world only by eliminating them. By doing so, Germany could also find Lebensraum, living space, without which the superior German culture would decay. This living space, Hitler continued, would come from conquering Russia (which was under the control of Jewish Marxists, he believed) and the Slavic countries. This empire would be launched after democracy was eliminated and a "Führer" called upon to rebuild the German Reich." The Rise of Hitler and the Nazi Party
Back to the Weimar Republic The Fall of the Weimar Republic Article 48 and the backdoor left open for Hitler TTYN: Identify and describe the two major flaws of the Weimar Government
Brains over brawn Decided to seize power constitutionally rather than through force Great orator Railed against Jews, Communists, and Foreigners Asked the German people to “resist the yoke of Jews and Communists and create a new empire that would stand for a thousand years” The Rise of Hitler and the Nazi Party
: The electoral process 1924, reestablished the NSDAP The Fuhrer Principal – country would be led by one person or the Fuhrer 1933, entered the coalition government as Chancellor 1934, Von Hindenburg (president) dies 1934, Hitler assumes the presidency Consolidates governmental powers 1937, declares his intent for a war of aggression in Europe The Rise of Hitler and the Nazi Party
Nazi Ideology: Basic Components Antisemitism, nationalism, militarism, and anti-communism. Jews were racially alien to Europe and were supposed to be the source of all European troubles, especially Communis. Germany should become the strongest country in Europe because Germans were racially superior to other Europeans and should lead everyone else, even against their will. Use of force (military) Russian bolshevism threatened European civilization and should be destroyed The Rise of Hitler and the Nazi Party
What I Know About Adolf Hitler What I Learned About Adolf Hitler What I Want to Learn About Adolf Hitler K-W-L The Rise of Hitler - TTYN
Timeline Armistice Day Nov. 11, 1918 Treaty Negotiations Commence Early 1919 Treaty Versailles Signing June 29, 1919 Spanish Flu Great Depression 1929 What’s Next? The Rise of Hitler and the Nazi Party, 1924
To the teacher: At the start of the next unit (WWII), I start the unit with a B-D-A Activity “Tweeting Europe Into War”
Inside Hitler’s Head Learning Activity Resources
Unit Assessment Short-answer ID’s Treaty of VersaillesThe Great DepressionStab-in-the-back Legend ReparationsThe Nazi PartyWilson’s 14 Points War Guilt ClauseSpanish FluWeimar Republic Dawes PlanArticle 48Adolf Hitler Hall of MirrorsMein KampfWoodrow Wilson The Beer Hall PutschGeorges ClemenceauKristallnacht