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Taxonomy and Classification

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Presentation on theme: "Taxonomy and Classification"— Presentation transcript:

1 Taxonomy and Classification

2 Taxonomy – What is it? Branch of biology dealing with the identification, naming and classification of organisms

3 Questions What does it mean to classify things?
What types of things are classified? Why do scientists classify organisms?

4 Why Use Taxonomy? Categorizes organisms to:
show ancestor-descendent relationships show “relatedness” & similarity

5 Cladogram

6 Cladogram – Shows: a.) relatedness of species b.) evolutionary history


8 Why scientific names? Q. What is the largest wild feline (cat) in the US? Mountain Lion Cougar Panther Puma Catamount

9 All of the above Puma concolor

10 Why scientific names? (cont)
Common names vary by region Scientists need to be clear when referring to living things

11 Organization of Living Things
Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

12 Mnemonic Device “Dear King Philip Crossed Oceans For Good Sushi” Or
“Dear King Philip Came Over For Good Spaghetti”


14 Classification Kingdom (Animalia) Phylum (Chordata) Class (Mammalia)
Order (Primates) Family (Hominidae) Genus (Homo) Species (sapiens)

15 Before: Aristotle: Greek philosopher (394-322 B.C.) classified
organisms as either plants or animals.

16 Carolus Linnaeus Swedish naturalist (1707-1778)
Broadened Aristotle’s Classification System - known as the Binomial Nomenclature & it is still valid today!

17 Naming Organisms Binomial Nomenclature: 2 part naming system
Ex: Homo sapiens Scientific name for humans

18 Binomial Nomenclature:
First word = Genus name and must be Capitalized Second Word = species name and must be lower-case Both are underlined or written in italicized.

19 DICHOTOMOUS KEY Tool used to identify things based on characteristics

20 Domain: The broadest category used by most biologists.

21 3 Domains Domain Bacteria-members are prokaryotes whose cell walls contain peptidoglycan.

22 Domain Bacteria Some are: Aerobic: need oxygen
Anaerobic: die in presence of oxygen Autotrophic: produce own food Heterotrophic: get nutrition from other organisms

23 Shapes: Cocci – circular shaped Bacillus – rod shaped
Spirilla – like a cork screw

24 More bacteria in your body than there are people in the world!
AND Good bacteria is called normal flora!

25 Domain Archaea: Domain Archaea-prokaryotes but more ancient
“extremophiles” can live in extreme conditions.

26 Domain Archaea Found in: Boiling hot springs Salty lakes Thermal vents
Mud of marches (lack oxygen)

27 Domain Eukarya: 3. Domain Eukarya- members include organisms from Kingdom Protista, Kingdom Fungi, Kingdom Plantae, & Kingdom Animalia.

28 Domain Eukarya: Cells are eukaryotic: Contain a nucleus
Membrane-bound organelles Can be unicellular or multicellular.

29 Taxonomic Systems Used to be a 5 Kingdom System
Now there is a 6 Kingdom System

30 5 Kingdom System: OLD system

31 6 Kingdom System

32 What’s In Each Kingdom? Archaebacteria Unicellular (one cell)
Prokaryotic (no nucleus) Live in extreme conditions

33 Archaebacteria Hot spring pool

34 Kingdoms (cont.) Eubacteria Unicellular Prokaryotic Common bacteria
Major Decomposers

35 Classified: Eubacteria are classified by: Shape Need for oxygen
Whether or not they cause disease

36 Eubacteria Yersinia pestis (plague) Life on a kitchen sponge

37 Kingdoms (cont.) Protist Unicellular & multicellular
Eukaryotic (have a nucleus) Biological “junk-drawer” Not an animal, plant or fungus (lack 1 or more traits)

38 Kingdoms (cont.) Categorized by how they get their food: Heterotrophs
Autotrophs Detritivores

39 Protista Volvox Campanella Spyrogyra Amoeba

40 Protists: Can be microscopic or very large.
Can reproduce asexually or both sexually and asexually.

41 Kingdoms (cont.) Fungi Multicelluar & Eukaryotic
Live in decaying organisms or soil (detritivores) Absorb nutrients from other organisms Mushrooms, single-celled Yeast & Molds

42 Fungi “Budding” yeast

43 Kingdoms (cont.) Plant Multicellular & Eukaryotic
Autotrophic (make own food, photosynthesis) Aquatic & Terrestrial Cell wall contains cellulose Can reproduce sexually or asexually

44 Plantae

45 Kingdoms (cont.) Animal Multicellular & Eukaryotic
Heterotrophic (can’t make own food) Aquatic & Terrestrial Most motile at some point in life cycle

46 Kingdoms (cont.) Cells are supported by collagen –protein unique to animals. All reproduce sexually.

47 Animalia

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