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Taxonomy and Classification
Taxonomy – What is it? Branch of biology dealing with the identification, naming and classification of organisms
Questions What does it mean to classify things?What types of things are classified? Why do scientists classify organisms?
Why Use Taxonomy? Categorizes organisms to:show ancestor-descendent relationships show “relatedness” & similarity
Cladogram – Shows: a.) relatedness of species b.) evolutionary history
Why scientific names? Q. What is the largest wild feline (cat) in the US? Mountain Lion Cougar Panther Puma Catamount
All of the above Puma concolor
Why scientific names? (cont)Common names vary by region Scientists need to be clear when referring to living things
Organization of Living ThingsDomain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
Mnemonic Device “Dear King Philip Crossed Oceans For Good Sushi” Or“Dear King Philip Came Over For Good Spaghetti”
Classification Kingdom (Animalia) Phylum (Chordata) Class (Mammalia)Order (Primates) Family (Hominidae) Genus (Homo) Species (sapiens)
Before: Aristotle: Greek philosopher (394-322 B.C.) classifiedorganisms as either plants or animals.
Carolus Linnaeus Swedish naturalist (1707-1778)Broadened Aristotle’s Classification System - known as the Binomial Nomenclature & it is still valid today!
Naming Organisms Binomial Nomenclature: 2 part naming systemEx: Homo sapiens Scientific name for humans
Binomial Nomenclature:First word = Genus name and must be Capitalized Second Word = species name and must be lower-case Both are underlined or written in italicized.
DICHOTOMOUS KEY Tool used to identify things based on characteristics
Domain: The broadest category used by most biologists.
3 Domains Domain Bacteria-members are prokaryotes whose cell walls contain peptidoglycan.
Domain Bacteria Some are: Aerobic: need oxygenAnaerobic: die in presence of oxygen Autotrophic: produce own food Heterotrophic: get nutrition from other organisms
Shapes: Cocci – circular shaped Bacillus – rod shapedSpirilla – like a cork screw
More bacteria in your body than there are people in the world!AND Good bacteria is called normal flora!
Domain Archaea: Domain Archaea-prokaryotes but more ancient“extremophiles” can live in extreme conditions.
Domain Archaea Found in: Boiling hot springs Salty lakes Thermal ventsMud of marches (lack oxygen)
Domain Eukarya: 3. Domain Eukarya- members include organisms from Kingdom Protista, Kingdom Fungi, Kingdom Plantae, & Kingdom Animalia.
Domain Eukarya: Cells are eukaryotic: Contain a nucleusMembrane-bound organelles Can be unicellular or multicellular.
Taxonomic Systems Used to be a 5 Kingdom SystemNow there is a 6 Kingdom System
5 Kingdom System: OLD system
6 Kingdom System
What’s In Each Kingdom? Archaebacteria Unicellular (one cell)Prokaryotic (no nucleus) Live in extreme conditions
Archaebacteria Hot spring pool
Kingdoms (cont.) Eubacteria Unicellular Prokaryotic Common bacteriaMajor Decomposers
Classified: Eubacteria are classified by: Shape Need for oxygenWhether or not they cause disease
Eubacteria Yersinia pestis (plague) Life on a kitchen sponge
Kingdoms (cont.) Protist Unicellular & multicellularEukaryotic (have a nucleus) Biological “junk-drawer” Not an animal, plant or fungus (lack 1 or more traits)
Kingdoms (cont.) Categorized by how they get their food: HeterotrophsAutotrophs Detritivores
Protista Volvox Campanella Spyrogyra Amoeba
Protists: Can be microscopic or very large.Can reproduce asexually or both sexually and asexually.
Kingdoms (cont.) Fungi Multicelluar & EukaryoticLive in decaying organisms or soil (detritivores) Absorb nutrients from other organisms Mushrooms, single-celled Yeast & Molds
Fungi “Budding” yeast
Kingdoms (cont.) Plant Multicellular & EukaryoticAutotrophic (make own food, photosynthesis) Aquatic & Terrestrial Cell wall contains cellulose Can reproduce sexually or asexually
Kingdoms (cont.) Animal Multicellular & EukaryoticHeterotrophic (can’t make own food) Aquatic & Terrestrial Most motile at some point in life cycle
Kingdoms (cont.) Cells are supported by collagen –protein unique to animals. All reproduce sexually.
Classification Organizing Life’s Diversity
A.What is of Taxonomy? The science of naming organisms and classifying them into groups B.Why classify? Provides a universal language so scientists can.
Puma concolor. Chapter 2 Classification 1 Classification means organizing living things into groups based on their similarities. 2 Scientists classify.
Classification and Kingdoms. Phylogeny Is the study of the evolutionary history of a species... how it developed over time.
Classification Notes. Taxonomy Naming and grouping organisms according to their characteristics and evolutionary history.
A.Definition of Taxonomy: The science of naming organisms and classifying them into groups B.The need for classification Provides a universal language.
1 Chapter 18: Classification. 2 18–1 Finding Order in Diversity Life on Earth has been changing for more than 3.5 billion years 1.5 million species.
Chapter 17: Classification
Classification. Classification of Living Organisms Identified by traits Organize life’s diversity – Over 1.7 million species on Earth Taxonomy Naming.
Taxonomy. Taxonomy I. Definition: The study of classification A. Why group things? 1. Easier to find information about an organism 2. Easier to identify.
Aim: How do scientists classify living organisms?.
Classification Chapter 18. Taxonomy The field of biology that deals with classifying organisms. Each level is called a Taxon.
Classification EVOLUTION UNIT. Devil Cat Ghost Cat.
Chapter 7 - Classification Carolus Linnaeus 18 th century Swedish 2 groups – plants and animals he divided the animal group according to similarities.
Essential Questions What is an example of a vestigial organ?
Classification Jeopardy Old School WaysKingdoms &
Chapter 15 Classification History of Taxonomy Taxonomy The branch of biology that names and groups organisms according to their characteristics and.
1) To explain how scientists classify living things 2) To identify the 6 kingdoms of life.
Organizing Life Classification, Taxonomy & Dichotomous Key A brief review…..
CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS. LEARNING GOALS: By the end of class, I will be able to: Explain how organisms are classified Explain traditional and modern.
Chapter 18 Classification The diversity of life. Why is it necessary to classify? 1.5 million species on the planet so all creatures must be organized.
Chapter 18: Classification
1 Chapter 18- Classification. 2 I. Finding order in Diversity A. Why classify? 1. To study the diversity of life, biologists use a classification system.
Chapter 17 BIOLOGY. HOW WOULD YOU CATEGORIZE THESE?
Classification Review. A. How are living things classified? 1.Biologists use Taxonomy- science of classifying and giving a scientific name to organisms.
Classification Finding Order in Diversity Life on Earth Life on Earth Changing for >3.5 billion years 1.5 million species named million species.
Taxonomy Bio 250.
1 Classification Chapter Almost 2 million species of organisms have been described Almost 2 million species of organisms have been described Thousands.
Chapter 18 Classification Finding Order in Diversity What is the name of this animal? Cougar, puma, panther, mountain lion. Is it a good thing.
Chp. 17 Classification. Characteristics of Living Things Living things are organized (possess structures for every function) Living things make more living.
Classification & Intro to Animals JEOPARDY #1 S2C06 Jeopardy Review Image from:
Classification copyright cmassengale1. Species of Organisms There are 13 billion known species of organisms There are 13 billion known species of organisms.
ORGANIZING LIFE’S DIVERSITY Chapter 17 Classification.
Classification of Organisms
Classification of Living Things
Introduction to Taxonomy. Why Classify? To study the diversity of life, biologists use a classification system to name organisms and group them in a logical.
Change and Diversity in Life on Earth Unit Learning Goal #5: Explain how species are classified using the science of taxonomy.
Chapter 18: Classification. 18-1: History of Taxonomy.
1 Classification copyright cmassengale. 2 There are 13 billion known species of organisms There are 13 billion known species of organisms This is only.
Classification. Taxonomy Science of grouping organisms according to their presumed natural relationships Artificial May change with new evidence.
Taxonomy!!. Taxonomy! Branch of biology used to classify organisms according to their characteristic similarities Consider phylogeny (evolutionary.
Unit 11: Classification Ch. 3 Classification Taxonomy = branch of biology that deals w/ naming & classifying organisms.
Classification S7L1a: Students will be able to compare organisms by similar and dissimilar characteristics. S7L1b: Students will be able to classify organisms.
What is the difference between Phylogeny, Cladistics, and Taxonomy?
Learning Target #3 Who is known as the “Father of Taxonomy”?
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