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Taxonomy and Classification. Taxonomy – What is it? Branch of biology dealing with the identification, naming and classification of organismsBranch of.

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Presentation on theme: "Taxonomy and Classification. Taxonomy – What is it? Branch of biology dealing with the identification, naming and classification of organismsBranch of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Taxonomy and Classification

2 Taxonomy – What is it? Branch of biology dealing with the identification, naming and classification of organismsBranch of biology dealing with the identification, naming and classification of organisms

3 Questions 1.What does it mean to classify things? 2.What types of things are classified? 3.Why do scientists classify organisms?

4 Why Use Taxonomy? Categorizes organisms to:Categorizes organisms to:  show ancestor- descendent relationships  show “relatedness” & similarity

5 Cladogram

6 Cladogram – Shows: a.) relatedness of species b.) evolutionary history

7

8 Why scientific names? Q. What is the largest wild feline (cat) in the US? a.Mountain Lion b.Cougar c.Panther d.Puma e.Catamount

9 All of the above Puma concolor

10 Common names vary by regionCommon names vary by region Scientists need to be clear when referring to living thingsScientists need to be clear when referring to living things Why scientific names? (cont)

11 Organization of Living Things Domain Kingdom Kingdom Phylum Phylum Class Class Order Order Family Family Genus Genus Species Species

12 Mnemonic Device “Dear King Philip Crossed Oceans For Good Sushi” Or “Dear King Philip Came Over For Good Spaghetti”

13

14 Classification Kingdom(Animalia) Phylum(Chordata) Class(Mammalia) Order (Primates) Family (Hominidae) Genus (Homo) Species(sapiens)

15 Before: Aristotle: Greek philosopher ( B.C.) classifiedAristotle: Greek philosopher ( B.C.) classified organisms as either plants or plants or animals.

16 Carolus Linnaeus Swedish naturalist ( )Swedish naturalist ( ) Broadened Aristotle’s ClassificationBroadened Aristotle’s Classification System - known as the Binomial Nomenclature & it is still valid today!

17 Naming Organisms Binomial Nomenclature: 2 part naming systemBinomial Nomenclature: 2 part naming system Ex: Homo sapiensEx: Homo sapiens  Scientific name for humans

18 Binomial Nomenclature: First word = Genus name and must be CapitalizedFirst word = Genus name and must be Capitalized Second Word = species name and must be lower-caseSecond Word = species name and must be lower-case Both are underlined or written in italicized.Both are underlined or written in italicized.

19 DICHOTOMOUS KEY Tool used to identify things based on characteristicsTool used to identify things based on characteristics

20 Domain: The broadest category used by most biologists.The broadest category used by most biologists.

21 3 Domains 1.Domain Bacteria-members are prokaryotes whose cell walls contain peptidoglycan.

22 Domain Bacteria Some are:Some are: –Aerobic: need oxygen –Anaerobic: die in presence of oxygen –Autotrophic: produce own food –Heterotrophic: get nutrition from other organisms

23 Shapes: Cocci – circular shapedCocci – circular shaped Bacillus – rod shapedBacillus – rod shaped Spirilla – like a cork screwSpirilla – like a cork screw

24 More bacteria in your body than there are people in the world! AND AND Good bacteria is called normal flora!

25 Domain Archaea: 2.Domain Archaea- prokaryotes but more ancient “extremophiles” can live in extreme conditions.

26 Domain Archaea Found in:Found in: –Boiling hot springs –Salty lakes –Thermal vents –Mud of marches (lack oxygen)

27 Domain Eukarya: 3. Domain Eukarya- members include organisms from Kingdom Protista, Kingdom Fungi, Kingdom Plantae, & Kingdom Animalia.

28 Domain Eukarya: Cells are eukaryotic:Cells are eukaryotic: –Contain a nucleus –Membrane-bound organelles –Can be unicellular or multicellular.

29 Taxonomic Systems Used to be a 5 Kingdom SystemUsed to be a 5 Kingdom System Now there is a 6 Kingdom SystemNow there is a 6 Kingdom System

30 5 Kingdom System: OLD system

31 6 Kingdom System

32 What’s In Each Kingdom? ArchaebacteriaArchaebacteria – Unicellular (one cell) – Prokaryotic (no nucleus) – Live in extreme conditions

33 Archaebacteria Hot spring pool

34 Kingdoms (cont.) EubacteriaEubacteria – Unicellular – Prokaryotic – Common bacteria –Major Decomposers

35 Classified: Eubacteria are classified by:Eubacteria are classified by: –Shape –Need for oxygen –Whether or not they cause disease

36 Eubacteria Life on a kitchen sponge Yersinia pestis (plague)

37 ProtistProtist – Unicellular & multicellular – Eukaryotic ( have a nucleus) –Biological “junk-drawer” Not an animal, plant or fungus (lack 1 or more traits)Not an animal, plant or fungus (lack 1 or more traits) Kingdoms (cont.)

38 Categorized by how they get their food:Categorized by how they get their food: –Heterotrophs –Autotrophs –Detritivores Kingdoms (cont.)

39 Protista Spyrogyra Campanella Volvox Amoeba

40 Protists: Can be microscopic or very large.Can be microscopic or very large. Can reproduce asexually or both sexually and asexually.Can reproduce asexually or both sexually and asexually.

41 FungiFungi – Multicelluar & Eukaryotic – Live in decaying organisms or soil (detritivores) – Absorb nutrients from other organisms – Mushrooms, single-celled Yeast & Molds Kingdoms (cont.)

42 Fungi “Budding” yeast

43 PlantPlant – Multicellular & Eukaryotic – Autotrophic (make own food, photosynthesis) – Aquatic & Terrestrial –Cell wall contains cellulose –Can reproduce sexually or asexually Kingdoms (cont.)

44 Plantae

45 AnimalAnimal – Multicellular & Eukaryotic – Heterotrophic (can’t make own food) – Aquatic & Terrestrial –Most motile at some point in life cycle Kingdoms (cont.)

46 –Cells are supported by collagen –protein unique to animals. –All reproduce sexually. Kingdoms (cont.)

47 Animalia


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