Presentation on theme: "Taxonomy and Classification. Taxonomy – What is it? Branch of biology dealing with the identification, naming and classification of organismsBranch of."— Presentation transcript:
Taxonomy and Classification
Taxonomy – What is it? Branch of biology dealing with the identification, naming and classification of organismsBranch of biology dealing with the identification, naming and classification of organisms
Questions 1.What does it mean to classify things? 2.What types of things are classified? 3.Why do scientists classify organisms?
Why Use Taxonomy? Categorizes organisms to:Categorizes organisms to: show ancestor- descendent relationships show “relatedness” & similarity
Cladogram – Shows: a.) relatedness of species b.) evolutionary history
Why scientific names? Q. What is the largest wild feline (cat) in the US? a.Mountain Lion b.Cougar c.Panther d.Puma e.Catamount
All of the above Puma concolor
Common names vary by regionCommon names vary by region Scientists need to be clear when referring to living thingsScientists need to be clear when referring to living things Why scientific names? (cont)
Organization of Living Things Domain Kingdom Kingdom Phylum Phylum Class Class Order Order Family Family Genus Genus Species Species
Mnemonic Device “Dear King Philip Crossed Oceans For Good Sushi” Or “Dear King Philip Came Over For Good Spaghetti”
Classification Kingdom(Animalia) Phylum(Chordata) Class(Mammalia) Order (Primates) Family (Hominidae) Genus (Homo) Species(sapiens)
Before: Aristotle: Greek philosopher ( B.C.) classifiedAristotle: Greek philosopher ( B.C.) classified organisms as either plants or plants or animals.
Carolus Linnaeus Swedish naturalist ( )Swedish naturalist ( ) Broadened Aristotle’s ClassificationBroadened Aristotle’s Classification System - known as the Binomial Nomenclature & it is still valid today!
Naming Organisms Binomial Nomenclature: 2 part naming systemBinomial Nomenclature: 2 part naming system Ex: Homo sapiensEx: Homo sapiens Scientific name for humans
Binomial Nomenclature: First word = Genus name and must be CapitalizedFirst word = Genus name and must be Capitalized Second Word = species name and must be lower-caseSecond Word = species name and must be lower-case Both are underlined or written in italicized.Both are underlined or written in italicized.
DICHOTOMOUS KEY Tool used to identify things based on characteristicsTool used to identify things based on characteristics
Domain: The broadest category used by most biologists.The broadest category used by most biologists.
Classified: Eubacteria are classified by:Eubacteria are classified by: –Shape –Need for oxygen –Whether or not they cause disease
Eubacteria Life on a kitchen sponge Yersinia pestis (plague)
ProtistProtist – Unicellular & multicellular – Eukaryotic ( have a nucleus) –Biological “junk-drawer” Not an animal, plant or fungus (lack 1 or more traits)Not an animal, plant or fungus (lack 1 or more traits) Kingdoms (cont.)
Categorized by how they get their food:Categorized by how they get their food: –Heterotrophs –Autotrophs –Detritivores Kingdoms (cont.)
Protista Spyrogyra Campanella Volvox Amoeba
Protists: Can be microscopic or very large.Can be microscopic or very large. Can reproduce asexually or both sexually and asexually.Can reproduce asexually or both sexually and asexually.
FungiFungi – Multicelluar & Eukaryotic – Live in decaying organisms or soil (detritivores) – Absorb nutrients from other organisms – Mushrooms, single-celled Yeast & Molds Kingdoms (cont.)