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 The connection of William the Conqueror (25 th GGF of A E King Sr) to the King family through Robert the Bruce and Jane Pollock created a tie to the.

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Presentation on theme: " The connection of William the Conqueror (25 th GGF of A E King Sr) to the King family through Robert the Bruce and Jane Pollock created a tie to the."— Presentation transcript:

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2  The connection of William the Conqueror (25 th GGF of A E King Sr) to the King family through Robert the Bruce and Jane Pollock created a tie to the early Dukes of Normandy  Rollo Ragnarsson (35 th GGF of A E King Sr) was a Viking who terrorized France in the early 10 th century, eventually leading the king of France to grant him the duchy of Normandy to end the raiding  Rollo became Duke Rollo, first Duke of Normandy

3  Rollo was succeeded by his son, William Longsword (34 th GGF of A E King Sr), murdered by Arnulf, Count of Flanders

4  William was followed by Richard I of Normandy (33 rd GGF of A E King Sr) known as Richard the Fearless  During his reign Normandy became Christianized

5  Richard II (Richard the Good) (26 th GGF of A E King Sr) known also as Richard the Magnificent, died returning from the Crusades  He was followed by Robert I (26 th GGF of A E King Sr), (pictured), the father of the bastard William the Conqueror, whom he named as heir

6  Because many of the nobility of England and Scotland who were King antecedents married with nobility of Western European countries, many ties were created to those families as well  Those ancestors created ties, in turn, with the nobility of Eastern European and Asian countries

7  The early rulers of present-day France were the Franks, who began consolidating small kingdoms in the 5 th century  Childeric I (48 th GGF of A E King Sr) began the unification by defeating the Visigoths in 463  Childeric’s tomb was discovered by a mason in 1653 in Tournai  Included in the treasures within the tomb were 300 gold bees  Napoleon later adopted Childeric’s bees as the national symbol of France to replace the Bourbon fleur-de-lis  In 1831 the bees were stolen from the Biblioteque Nationale and melted down for the gold

8  Clovis I (47 th GGF of A E King Sr) succeeded his father, Childeric  He unified almost all of Gaul, and established Paris as his capital  His wife, Clotilda (47 th GGF of A E King Sr) converted him, and subsequently the Franks, to Christianity, for which she became St Clotilda  Upon his death, Clovis’ kingdom was divided among his 4 sons, including Theodoric I (43 rd GGF of A E King Sr) and Clotair I (46 th GGF of A E King Sr)  They allied themselves with Theodoric the Great, King of the Ostragoths (48 th GGF of A E King Sr) to continue the consolidation of Gaul

9  Following the death of Clotair, his kingdom was divided among his sons, including Charibert I (45 th GGF of A E King Sr), Sigebert I (46 th GGF of A E King Sr), and Chilperic I (42 nd GGF of A E King Sr)  Chilperic I’s son, Clotair II (41 st GGF of A E King Sr) reconsolidated the kingdom after brutally murdering Brunhilda (46 th GGM of A E King Sr), wife of Sigebert I  Clotair II’s son, Dagobert I (40 th GGF of A E King Sr) maintained the consolidation  Following Dagobert I’s death, Pepin d’Heristal (39 th GGF of A E King Sr), a mayor for the Merovignians, slowly transferred power to his family, ending the rule of the Merovignian Kings in France, and initiating the reign of the Pippinids

10  The illegitimate son of Pepin d’Heristal, Charles Martel (38 th GGF of A E King Sr) completed the transfer of power away from the Merovignians and became the ‘Savior of Europe’  In 732 the Islamic Moors had crossed the Pyrenees and were moving north through Europe, virtually uncontested in their conquests, and it looked as if all of Western Europe would fall to the Muslims  Charles Martel organized an army which met the Muslims in 732 at the Battle of Tours  Using ingenious strategies of battles, especially heavy cavalry, the Moors were crushed, and Christian Europe was saved, and a strong bond between Pippinid France and the Pope was created

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12  Son of Charles Martel, Pepin III (37 th GGF of A E King Sr) further consolidated the relationship with the Pope when he took an army to Italy and defeated the Lombards who were threatening southern Italy and the Pope ( )  Through the Donation of Pepin the papal states were established as independent entities  Pepin III was succeeded, upon his death, by his son Charles (Charlemagne), who finally succeeded in consolidating all of France

13  Charlemagne (36th GGF of A E King Sr) completed the conquest of Italy and was crowned by Pope Leo III as the first ‘Holy Roman Emperor’ in 800  His rule was associated with the Carolingian renaissance of art, religion and culture  Charlemagne extended his land holdings to become the first ruler of Western Europe since the fall of the Roman Empire

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15  Upon the death of Charlemagne his kingdom was divided, with Louis the Pious (36th GGF of A E King Sr) succeeding him as Holy Roman Emperor  Louis’ son, Lothair I (34th GGF of A E King Sr) succeeded him  Another son of Charlemagne, Louis the German (33rd GGF of A E King Sr) received Germany  Charlemagne’s nephew, Bernard (38th GGF of A E King Sr) became King of Italy, only to have Lothair blind him with hot lead  A fourth son, Charles the Bald (35 th GGF of A E King Sr), succeeded his brother Lothair I through the Treaty of Verdun (843) after much family squabbling  After several generations of fighting amongst the descendants of Charlemagne, the door was open for a change in leadership of France, and that change came in the form of Robert the Strong

16  Robert the Strong (36th GGF of A E King Sr) led a revolt against the nepotism of Charles the Bald  Robert was killed in battle against a Viking invasion in 866, but his sons took up the cause to become the Robertian rulers of France  His son, Robert I, Count of Anjou (32nd GGF of A E King Sr) defeated Charles the Simple (31st GGF of A E King Sr) to become King of the Franks  Robert I’s son, Hugh ‘The Great’ Capet’, succeeded him as king, beginning the reign of the Capetians

17  Hugh Capet (28 th GGF of A E King Sr) began the Capetian Dynasty which ruled France from 987 until the death of Louis XIV in 1793  He relied heavily on Duke Richard I of Normandy (32 nd GGF of A E King Sr) to gain and hold the crown  He was succeeded in 996 by his son, Robert II (27 th GGF of A E King Sr)  Although known as Robert the Pious, he divorced his wife to marry his cousin, an act which got him excommunicated by the Pope  Robert’s successor, Hugh Magnus, was not in the King lineage, and the King connection to the Capetian rulers ended with him, only to reconnect later in history  Henry I (26 th GGF of A E King Sr), grandson of Hugh Capet, married Anne of Kiev (26 th GGM of A E King Sr), daughter of Yaraslov the Wise of Kiev (27 th GGF of A E King Sr), creating a tie to Russia

18  Flanders was a northern duchy of France, founded by Baldwin I ‘Iron Arm’ (31st GGF of A E King Sr)  Baldwin I managed to kidnap the daughter of Charles the Bald (35 th GGF of A E King Sr), elope with her, and still maintain a good relationship with Charles  Baldwin II (30th GGF of A E King Sr) succeeded him  Arnulf I (29 th GGF of A E King Sr) succeeded him, and assassinated Duke William Longsword of Normandy (34th GGF of A E King Sr) after luring him to a peace conference  Arnulf was succeeded by Robert I of Flanders (27th GGF of A E King Sr)

19  Aquitaine was a duchy of France, having been an independent kingdom prior to the consolidation of the Franks  William V of Aquitaine (30th GGF of A E King Sr) was one of the most powerful dukes in his time, and in 1024 was offered the crown  His 2 nd great-grandaughter, Eleanor of Aquitaine (26 th GGM of A E King Sr), was married to Louis the Younger of France and, after the annulment of that marriage, to Henry II of England, creating one of many links of English and French ancestors of A E King Sr  William IX (28 th GGF of A E King Sr) entertained Pope Urban at Christmas in During that visit the plans for the First Crusade were hatched  Although he entertained the Pope, he was excommunicated twice – once for imprisoning the Bishop of Poitiers – once for abducting Viscountess Dangereuse (28 th GGF of A E King Sr), wife of Aimery de Rocheffoucauld, his vassal, and marrying her, forcing his present wife, Phillipa, to retire to a monastery

20  Anjou was a duchy of France, initially under the rule of Ingelger I Orlean (31st GGF of A E King Sr)  Fulk I the Red (30th GGF of A E King Sr) expelled the Normans from Anjou  Geoffrey Greymantle (29th GGF of A E King Sr) began the expansion of Anjou into a strong state  Fulk III Nera (31st GGF of A E King Sr) was a master castle builder. He also boiled his wife to death for being unfaithful  Fulk V of Anjou (26 th GGF of A E King Sr) led a Crusade to the Holy Land and became King of Jerusalem  Fulk V’s son, Geoffrey V Plantagenet, married Empress Maud of England (25 th GGM of A E King Sr), and was the patriarch of the Plantagenet rulers of Scotland and England

21  The blossoming of France as a center of culture and learning began under Philip II Augustus (24th GGF of A E King Sr) who was also descended from Charlemagne through his mother  Louis VIII the Lion (23 rd GGF of A E King Sr) married Blanche of Castile (23 rd GGM of A E King Sr), connecting the King line to the nobility of Spain  He was followed by Louis IX (St Louis) (22 nd GGF of A E King Sr)  A devout Christian, Louis IX led two unsuccessful Crusades -- captured on one and dying of dysentery on the second  A devout anti-semite, he expelled most of the Jews from France and burned 12,000 copies of the Talmud  Following his death his descendants ruled France for another 500 years

22  Philip IV the Fair (20 th GGF of A E King Sr) was the grandson of Louis IX  Philip IV was responsible for the destruction of the Knights Templar, and burned several of their leaders at the stake, including Jacques de Molay  Philip’s daughter, Isabella of France (19 th GGF of A E King Sr) married Edward II Plantagenet of England (19 th GGF of A E King Sr), creating another connection of the English and French ancestors of A E King Sr  The King connection to the Capetian rulers of France ended with Philip IV, only to resume a generation later

23  Charles de Valois (20 th GGF of A E King Sr) was never king of France, but was patriarch of the Valois kings. His mother was Isabella of Aragon (21st GGM of A E King Sr)  Isabella was the daughter of James I of Aragon (22nd GGF of A E King Sr) and Yolanda of Hungary (22nd GGM of A E King Sr), creating another connection to the Spanish nobility and a new connection to the nobility of Eastern Europe Yolanda’s father was Andrew II, King of Hungary (23rd GGF of A E King Sr)

24  Philip VI de Valois (20 th GGF of A E King Sr), son of Charles de Valois and grandson of Philip III, became the first Valois King of France in 1328 when Charles II died without an heir  Through many of the marriages listed before, English royalty claimed titles to French duchies through marriage  These claims led to a series of wars between England and France which came to a head during the reign of Philip VI and were known as the Hundred Years Wars  In 1347, during Philip VI’s reign, the Black Death (plague) hit France, killing 40% of the population  John the Good (19 th GGF of A E King Sr) succeeded Philip VI as the 2 nd Valois king

25  Isabella of Angouleme (25 th GGM of A E King Sr), daughter of the Count of Angouleme, married King John I of England (25 th GGF of A E King Sr) creating another connection between the English and French ancestors of the King family  St Arnulf of Metz (40 th GGF of A E King Sr) Bishop of Metz – tormented by the violence around him, he threw his bishop’s ring into the River Moselle. Several years later a fisherman returned the ring, having found it in a fish. Sensing a sign from above, Arnulf retired as bishop and became a hermit. Arnulf was famed for making fires go out, and for turning water into beer  Ansigesel of Metz (39 th GGF of A E King Sr) was the son of St Arnulf, and the father of Pepin d’Heristal, patriarch of the Pippinid rulers

26  St Begga of Landen (40 th GGM of A E King Sr) was the wife of Ansigesel. She became a nun on the death of Ansigesel and founded the convent at Andenne  William I the Liberator (29 th GGF of A E King Sr) was Count of Arles. He defeated the Moors and became Count of Provence

27  Following the fall of the Roman Empire, the Visigoths slowly expanded into Spain (the Iberian Peninsula)  The Visigoths reached their high point in Spain under the rule of Leovigild (48 th GGF of A E King Sr), an Arian Christian  After the 7 th century Spain became a constant battleground between Muslims (Moors) and Christians, and Spain remained divided into several smaller kingdoms, the kingdom of Spain not emerging until the marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile in 1469  The first ruler of Aragon was Ramiro I (30th GGF of A E King Sr) who died in 1063 battling the Muslims at Graus  His son, Sancho V Ramirez (29th GGF of A E King Sr) died in 1094 fighting the Muslims in Huesca  Witnessing the fate of those before him, Ramiro II Sanchez (28 th GGF of A E King Sr) became a monk. His grandson, Alfonso II the Chaste (27 th GGF of A E King Sr), became King of Aragon, later adding Castile to the kingdom

28  Peter II of Aragon (23 rd GGF of A E King Sr) was the first king of Aragon to be crowned by a Pope (Innocent III)  His son, James the Conqueror (James I; 22 nd GGF of A E King Sr) drove the Muslims from Aragon in the 13 th century, founded the Cathedral of Lleida, and was a patron of the University of Montpellier  Fernan Gonzalez (35 th GGF of A E King Sr) was the first King of Castile. He was active in reclaiming land from the Muslims in the Reconquista  Ferdinand I of Castile (31st GGF of A E King Sr) married Sancha of Leon, daughter of Alphonso V, King of Leon (32nd GGF of A E King Sr), then murdered her brother to claim the crown of Leon  Ferdinand III (24 th GGF of A E King Sr) completed the removal of the Muslims from Castile and donated their land for the Cathedral of Burgos, for which he became St Ferdinand. His sword (Lobera) is on display at the Capilla Real

29  Ferdinand III’s daughter, Eleanor of Castile (24 3rd GGM of A E King Sr) married Edward I of England, connecting the Spanish rulers to those of England  Ferdinand III’s grandson, Sancho IV the Brave (21st GGF of A E King Sr) was ruthless, murdering thousands of his own subjects and imprisoning his brother, Don Juan  His son, Fernando IV (20 th GGF of A E King Sr) took Gibralter from the Muslims, who had held it for 500 years  Peter the Cruel (18 th GGF of A E King Sr) gained his moniker by killing his wife, Blanche of Bourbon (18 th GGM of A E King Sr) with a crossbow, and his ruthlessness eventually led to the Castilian Civil War in which he was dethroned  His daughter, Constance of Castile (17 th GGM of A E King Sr) married John of Gaunt, creating another tie with the English Plantagenets

30  Ardabast of the Visigoths (45 th GGF of A E King Sr) was an early ruler of Leon  Bermudo I de Cantabria (41st GGF of A E King Sr) was ruler of Leon when the first Muslim invasions began  His son, Ramiro I of the Asturias (40th GGF of A E King Sr) defeated the Moors at the Battle of Clavijo (844), a battle in which St James the Moor Slayer is said to have appeared in the sky and guided Ramiro  Ordono II Alfonsez (36 th GGF of A E King Sr) was defeated by the Muslims at Valdejunquera. Blaming the Counts of Castile, who had not shown up, he gathered them together and had them all killed. After his reign Leon passed under the leadership of Castile as Castile y Leon, and counts showed up for battles  Inigo Iniguez Arista of Pamplona (43rd GGF of A E King Sr) was the first king of Pamplona, a basque state  His son, Garcia Ineguez of Pamplona (42nd GGF of A E King Sr) defeated the Muslims, slaughtering more than 10,000  Following his victory, Santiago de Compostela, containing the relics of St James, became a favored pilgrimage site for Europeans

31  Garcia Ineguez’s son, Fortun Garcia (38th GGF of A E King Sr) was imprisoned by the Muslims for 20 years in a period of Muslim rule  His son, Garcia I Sanchez (37 th GGF of A E King Sr) conquered the Muslims to regain the Christian throne  During the reign of Garcia I the Codex Vigilanus was completed – one of the most important early medieval Spanish manuscripts. It contained the first Western representation of Arabic numerals  Garcia III Sanchez (31st GGF of A E King Sr) founded the monastery of Santa Maria Real (now the Pamplona Cathedral), then was killed battling his brother  In 1234 Theobald I of Navarre (22nd GGF of A E King Sr) became the first French king of Navarre  His father was Theobald III of Champagne (23rd GGF of A E King Sr)  His mother was Blanche of Navarre (23rd GGM of A E King Sr)

32  Catalonia and Barcelona emerged from Visigothic, then Muslim, rule in the 9 th century under Sunifred I, Count of Urgell and Barcelona (32nd GGF of A E King Sr), grandson of Theodoric IV of the Franks (34 th GGF of A E King Sr)  His son, Wilfred the Hairy (31st GGF of A E King Sr) died fighting the Muslims, and is buried at the Monastery of Ripoli  Berenger Ramon the Crooked Nose (29th GGF of A E King Sr) opted to sign a treaty with the Muslims, but his son, Ramon I Berenguer (28th GGF of A E King Sr) fought them aggressively, while also founding the Cathedral of Barcelona  Ramon III Berenguer the Great (29th GGF of A E King Sr) recovered large holdings from the Muslims, and became a Knight Templar  Ramon IV Berenguer (28th GGF of A E King Sr) played a major role in the Second Crusade as part of the Reconquista. His 3rd great- granddaughter, Eleanor Berenger (24 th GGM of A E King Sr) married Henry III of England (24 th GGF of A E King Sr) creating another link between the Spanish and English nobility

33  Germany did not become Germany until it was consolidated under Kaiser Willhelm just before World War I  Prior to that Germany was a collection of small kingdoms and duchys, falling under the domain of the Holy Roman Empire after the time of Charlemagne  Following the fall of the Roman Empire the Franks ruled Germany and France  Clovis I (47 th GGF of A E King Sr) was an early Frankish king ruling Germany (died 511)  Theodebert I (45th GGF of A E King Sr) did much to bring Germany into the Frankish kingdom by conquering the Thuringians and Allemani  Charlemagne (36th GGF of A E King Sr) completed the consolidation of Germany  Widikund the Great (39th GGF of A E King Sr) was the last of the Saxon Germans to successfully resist the Franks  He was the first Saxon king to convert to Christianity (8 th century)

34  When Charlemagne divided his kingdom among his sons, Germany emerged as a distinct geographical entity, under the rule of Louis the German (Louis II, King of Bavaria) (33rd GGF of A E King Sr)  Because the Carolingian rulers descended from Charlemagne ruled primarily from France, they were unable to adequately protect Germany from incursions from Eastern Europe, and the Germans soon freed themselves from Carolingian rule under the leadership of Henry the Fowler (34th GGF of A E King Sr)  Henry was the grandson of Liudolf the Great (36th GGF of A E King Sr), a Saxon ruler who established the Gandersheim Abbey with relics from former Popes Anastasia and Innocent. He was the patriarch of the Liudolfing rulers of Saxony  Henry was the son of Otto the Illustrious, Duke of Saxony (37th GGF of A E King Sr), patriarch of the Ottonian rulers of Saxony, who headed the army that ended the threat of Hungarian (Magyar) incursion into Germany

35  Henry the Fowler’s wife, Matilda von Ringleheim (34th GGM of A E King Sr) was canonized as St Matilda for her benevolence to the Church  Duke Arnulf the Bad (35 th GGF of A E King Sr) earned his name by confiscating lands from the Church to finance his wars with the Vikings and Normans. He is not a saint  Otto I’s wife, Eadgyth of Wessex (33rd GGM of A E King Sr) was the daughter of King Edward the Elder of Wessex (34 th GGF of A E King Sr) creating one of many ties between the royalty of Germany and England  In 950 the king of Italy died without an heir, and the Pope invited Otto I to become king. Otto thus became the first Holy Roman Emperor  Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor (35th GGF of A E King Sr) married Theophana Sclerina (35 th GGM of A E King Sr), a princess of the Byzantine Empire, connecting the German ancestors to the rulers of Byzantium in Turkey

36  Frederick I Barbarosa, Holy Roman Emperor (25 th GGF of A E King Sr) greatly expanded German rule over Italy, but died on Crusade in 1189  His son, Henry VI von Hohenstaufen (25th GGF of A E King Sr) had a stoke of luck when Richard the Lionheart was delivered to him as a prisoner while returning from Crusade. He gained a ransom of 150,000 silver marks from the English  Henry VI expanded his holdings into Sicily, where he blinded and castrated all of the Sicilian nobility  His son, Frederick II Hohenstaufen (24th GGF of A E King Sr) was constantly in conflict with the Pope over the powers of each  Frederick II’s son, Conrad IV (26 th GGF of A E King Sr) saw the end of Hohenstaufen rule over Germany as his wars in Italy and Sicily allowed the nobility of Germany to wrest power from him

37  With the help of the Pope, long at odds with the Hohenstaufen rulers, Rudolf von Hapsburg (22nd GGF of A E King Sr) emerged as the ruler of Germany, beginning the Hapsburg Dynasty of Germany and Austria  Henry VII of Luxembourg (21 st GGF of A E King Sr) succeeded Rudolf as Holy Roman Emperor  Theodoric the Great of the Ostragoths (48 th GGF of A E King Sr) was an early Ostragothic king of Swabia (Allemania)  Garibald I of Bavaria (45th GGF of A E King Sr) was the first Duke of Bavaria during the Carolingian Dynasty  Luitpold of Bavaria (36th GGF of A E King Sr) initiated the Luitpolding Dynasty of Bavaria  Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor (31 st GGF of A E King Sr) was canonized as a saint in 1147

38  Albert the Bear (25 th GGF of A E King Sr) was the first Margrave of Brandenburg and was a prominent figure in the Wendish Crusade of 1147  His son, Otto I von Brandenburg (24 th GGF of A E King Sr) founded the Lehnin Abbey in Zauche in 1180  Herman Billung, Duke of Saxony (31st GGF of A E King Sr) was the first of the Billung Dynasty that ruled Saxony for five generations  He founded the Monastery of St Michael in Luneburg  Otto I the Child (20th GGF of A E King Sr) was the first Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg

39  Alaric I of the Visigoths (53rd GGF of A King Sr) sacked Rome in 410  Ricimer I of the Suevi (49th GGF of A E King Sr) ruled Rome as a German (barbarian) soldier  Theodoric I of the Ostragoths (48th GGF of A E King Sr) sacked Rome in 488 and declared himself King of Italy  Pepin III the Short (37 th GGF of A E King Sr) defeated the Lombards to secure Italy for the Church and create the papal states  Bernard of Italy (38th GGF of A E King Sr), grandson of Charlemagne, served briefly as King of Italy until Louis the Pious (36th GGF of A E King Sr) blinded him with molten lead in his eyes  Berengar I (31st GGF of A E King Sr) was a native Italian elected to be King of Italy in 888  He was a member of the powerful Fruili nobility, son of Eberhard of Fruili (32nd GGF of A E King Sr)

40  Otto I the Great of Germany (33rd GGF of A E King Sr) was crowned King of Rome by the Pope, becoming the first Holy Roman Emperor  Roger I de Hauteville of Normandy (27 th GGF of A E King Sr) became King of Sicily while leading a crusade there  His descendants ruled Sicily for several generations

41  Like Spain, Portugal was a contested land between the invading Muslims and native Celts following the fall of the Roman Empire  Until the 11 th century, most of Portugal was ruled by the Kings of Castile and Leon in Spain  Alfonso VI Jimeno (30th GGF of A E King Sr) married his illegitimate daughter, Teresa Alfonso of Castile (29 th GGM of A E King Sr) to Henry de Burgandy (29 th GGF of A E King Sr) and made Henry Count of Portugal  Upon the death of Alfonso, his daughter, Uracca Alfonsez (29th GGM of A E King Sr), became Queen of Portugal  Uracca was overthrown by Teresa’s son, Alfonso I Henriquez (27 th GGF of A E King Sr), the first to use the title King of Portugal  With the help of European crusaders, including the Templars, Alfonso I began the process of retaking land from the Muslims of Portugal

42  Under Sancho I Alfonsez (24th GGF of A E King Sr) Christian cities began to emerge in eastern and central Portugal  Sancho’s daughter, Berengaria (28th GGM of A E King Sr) married Vlademar II of Denmark (28th GGF of A E King Sr) creating a Portugal-Denmark link that later linked with Scottish ancestors  Alfonso IV the Brave (20 th GGF of A E King Sr) scored a major victory over the Muslims in 1340  Dionisio (Denis) Alfonsez (21 st GGF of A E King Sr) offered sanctuary for the Knights Templar during their persecution in France  Following the Reconquista of the Muslims, Denis brought political infrastructure, education, and the arts to Portugal  A troubadour, 137 of his songs have been preserved in 16 th century manuscripts

43  Like most of Western Europe, Belgium and The Netherlands flourished under Roman rule  In the 7 th century, under Carolingian rule from France, the areas became Christianized  In the 12 th century the land was greatly expanded by reclaiming coastal areas with large dyke systems  In the 12 th century Flanders (encompassing parts of France, Belgium and the Netherlands) developed as the world’s major textile area, importing wool and exporting finished cloth  Childeric I (48 th GGF of A E King Sr), the first Merovingian King of France, ruled from Tournai, Belgium  Baldwin I ‘Iron Arm’ (31st GGF of A E King Sr) was the first recorded Count of Flanders  Like Scotland, Flanders was frequently a deciding independent factor in the wars between England and France

44  Baldwin I abducted the willing daughter of Charles the Bald of France, Princess Judith of France (28 th GGM of A E King Sr) and married her, but managed to maintain a good relationship with Charles  Baldwin’s grandson, Arnulf I of Flanders (Arnulf the Great; 29 th GGF of A E King Sr) summoned Duke William Longsword of Normandy (34th GGF of A E King Sr) to a peace conference, then murdered him  Arnulf I was the son of Aelfrith, daughter of Alfred the Great (35 th GGF of A E King Sr) creating one of many ties between the nobility of The Netherlands/Belgium and the nobility of England/Scotland  Reginar I Longneck (35 th GGF of A E King Sr) secured the area of Hainault from Duke Rollo of Normandy (35th GGF of A E King Sr)  Baldwin II of Hainault (28 th GGF of A E King Sr) was the first Count of Hainault, only to be killed by Seljuk Turks while on the First Crusade

45  Baldwin IV of Hainault (26 th GGF of A E King Sr) also went on Crusade, and became King of Constantinople


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