Presentation on theme: "Environmental Science Ecology is the study of the interactions among organisms and their environment. Ecologists are scientists who study these relationships."— Presentation transcript:
Environmental Science Ecology is the study of the interactions among organisms and their environment. Ecologists are scientists who study these relationships. Abiotic factors are the non-living parts of the environment. Examples: water, sunlight, temperature, air, and soil Living or once-living organisms in the environment are called biotic factors.
Levels of Organization The living world is organized in levels. An organism is one individual from a population.
Levels of Organization All of the individuals of one species that live in the same area at the same time make up a population.
Levels of Organization The populations of different species that interact in some way are called a community.
Levels of Organization All of the communities in an area and the abiotic factors they interact with make up an ecosystem.
Levels of Organization A biome is a large region with plants and animals well adapted to the soil and climate of the region.
Levels of Organization The level of biological organization that is made up of all the ecosystems on Earth is the biosphere, which includes the top part of Earth’s crust, all the waters that cover Earth’s surface, the surrounding atmosphere, and all biomes.
Factors that Affect Populations Food – Plants make their own food. Other organisms obtain food by eating plants or other organisms. Only so much food is available in an ecosystem. Water – All living things need water to move materials around in the cells and tissues of their bodies. Light – Plants and other organisms that make their own food need light to carry out photosynthesis. If light is limited, the growth of these organisms will also be limited. Living space – Organisms need enough room to live, obtain resources, and reproduce. The place where an organism lives is called its habitat. A niche is the special role an organism plays within its habitat.
Relationships Between Populations Competition – occurs whenever more than one individual or population tries to make use of the same limited resources. Predation – type of feeding relationship in which one animal captures and eats another animal for food. prey – the animal that is eaten predator – the animal eating the prey Symbiosis – close relationship between two species. mutualism – relationship in which both species benefit. commensalism – one benefits while the other seems unaffected. parasitism – one organism, parasite, feeds on another organism called the host.
Feeding Relationships All organisms need energy to live. 1.Producers– plants, algae, and bacteria that make their own food 2.Consumers – get food by eating other organisms. herbivore – plant eaters carnivore – meat eaters scavenger – eats remains of organisms left behind by other animals ominvore – feed on both producers and consumers 3.Decomposers – feed on the remains or wastes of other organisms, like some bacteria and fungi.
Food Chain Food chain – traces the path of energy as it moves from one organism to the next in an ecosystem. In most ecosystems, energy begins with the SUN. Producer – uses sun’s energy to make food Primary consumer – first to feed Secondary consumer – second to feed Tertiary consumer - third to feed Decomposers - feed on and break down the remains
Food Web Food Web – a system of several overlapping food chains.
Energy and Matter in Ecosystems Energy pyramid – shows the flow of energy. The energy decreases as you go up the pyramid.
Water Cycle Evaporation = liquid to gas Condensation = gas to liquid Precipitation = falls back to Earth Transpiration = evaporation of water from plants
Carbon Dioxide – Oxygen Cycle
Conserving Resources Materials from the environment that are used by people are called natural resources. Natural resources that provide people with energy are called energy resources. Examples: sunlight, wind, moving water, and fuels such as wood, coal, gasoline, and oil. Natural resources that can be used to make different products are called material resources. Examples: plants, animals, minerals, water, rocks, soil (for example- sand is used to make glass) Some natural resources can be used over and over while others can be used only once.
2 Types of Earth’s Natural Resources Energy Resources Material Resources can be Renewable Nonrenewable Renewable Nonrenewable
Renewable Resources are regularly replaced or replenished by nature. Examples: plants, animals, and water Nonrenewable Resources can be used only once, or cannot be replaced by nature as quick as they are used. Examples:oil, coal, natural gas, minerals, and metals All natural resources must be used with care.
Energy Resources Fossil Fuels – oil, coal, and natural gas are considered fossil fuels because their energy comes from the fossil remains of organisms.
Fossil Fuels The fossil fuels are coal, oil and natural gas. They formed millions of years ago from the remains of living things. Coal was formed from plants, and oil and natural gas from sea creatures. When the living things died, they were gradually buried by layers of rock. mistry/chem_react_6.shtml
Petroleum (crude oil) is a liquid fossil fuel. Before being used, petroleum is separated into different substances in a process called refining. Refined petroleum produces fuels such as gasoline and home heating oil.
Natural gas is a fossil fuel that often forms on top of petroleum. It is collected by drilling wells into Earth and letting the gas flow up through pipes into collecting tanks. Most natural gas is used for heating and to generate electricity.
Coal is a solid fossil fuel formed from dead plant material. It is removed from Earth through mining or digging into Earth. Coal is burned to release its energy. It can then be used for making electricity, cooking, or home heating.
Geothermal Energy Heat energy from within Earth is called geothermal energy. 1.A well dug into Earth captures steam. 2.Steam is directed at turbines that drive electric generators. 3.Electricity produced by the generators is sent out along power lines. 4.Vents in power plant release excess steam to the air.
Nuclear Energy Nuclear energy is energy that comes from the nuclei of atoms. One kind of nuclear energy, called fission, results when the nucleus of an atom is split apart.
Renewable Energy Resources Wind energy – moving air contains energy. Wind turbines are used to make electricity. Hydroelectric Energy- moving water has energy. Hydroelectric power plants use turbines and generators to convert energy of moving water into electricity.
Wave and Tidal Energy - movements of ocean water can also be used to make electricity. Biomass – matter formed from plants and animals that contains stored energy. Types of biomass: wood, peat, dung, alcohol, gasohol, methane
Solar Energy Energy from the sun.
Conservation of Energy Conservation is the wise use of natural resources. The first step in conserving resources is to reduce consumption. This means using LESS of a resource. One way to protect limited energy resources is to find alternatives that do the same job. Examples: solar energy, geothermal energy, biomass, wind energy, and energy of moving water.
Conservation of Material Resources Earth’s supply of natural material resources is limited. By reducing, reusing, and recycling natural resources, fewer new resources need to be taken from Earth. Using fewer resources also reduces the amount of waste that ends up in landfills.
Reduce There are several ways to reduce material waste. Try to buy unpackaged goods Reuse paper or plastic bags from the store Look for glass bottles that can be recycled Choose beverages in cans that are recyclable Look for plastic products that can be recycled Repair broken items instead of replacing them Donate items
Reuse Reusing material resources involves recovering items that would have been thrown away and finding another use for them. Containers can be reused Bags can be used more than once Make a compost pile (discarded fruit and vegetables, yard waste, and other plant material) Compost pile
Recycle Many types of wastes are recyclable. Materials you should recycle instead of throwing away: Batteries Tires Used motor oil Glass Paper Aluminum Plastic containers
Wildlife Conservation More than 1 million different species live on Earth. Many other species that once lived on Earth no longer exists = extinction. If an organism’s habitat is destroyed, the organism must find a new habitat to live or else it will die. Habitat loss can be caused by volcanic eruptions, forest fires, and human activity.
Clockwise from top right: 1. River polluted from mining operation; 2. Dams for hydroelectricity are the greatest threat to the Mekong River and its tributaries; 3. Deforestation in Lao PDR is a major cause of habitat loss; 4. A small loris (Nycticebus coucang) falls victim to the thriving illegal wildlife trade; 5. The emission of greenhouse gases is a major contributor to climate change; 6. Sustainable forest management is needed to stop unchecked deforestation in the Greater
Bubonic plague Impact of humans The world’s human population has passed 6 billion and continues to increase. The growth in the human population and the increase in the standard of living are putting strains on the global environment. Here are some of the ways in which this is happening: Non-renewable energy resources, such as coal, oil and natural gas, are being used up rapidly. Raw materials are being used up rapidly. More waste is being produced. More pollution is being caused. Human Population
Solid Waste Landfills – underground burial site for garbage
Incinerator – used to burn garbage (causes air pollution)
Air Pollution Pollution – anything in the environment that is harmful to living things. Air pollution – smoke, ash, dust are forms of air pollution caused by natural events, but most air pollution is caused by human activity.
Greenhouse effect – when greenhouse gases trap heat in the atmosphere. Global warming – increase in the temperatures around the world Greenhouse Effect
Ozone depletion – Thinning of the ozone layer. Ozone layer – layer of gas in the Earth’s atmosphere. It keeps most of the UV radiation from the sun from reaching Earth’s surface. Too much UV radiation can cause sunburn and skin cancer. CFC’s is believed to cause thinning of the ozone layer.
Acid rain – chemicals (from the burning of fossil fuels) that combine with water vapor in the air forms acid rain that returns to Earth.