Presentation on theme: "J ESUS AND THE J EWISH ROOTS OF THE E UCHARIST April 2012."— Presentation transcript:
J ESUS AND THE J EWISH ROOTS OF THE E UCHARIST April 2012
W HAT WERE THE J EWISH PEOPLE WAITING FOR ? In the first century A.D., the Jewish people were waiting for an earthly, political Messiah to come and set them free from the Roman empire and return the land of Israel to its rightful owners. If we actually pick up and read the ancient Jewish writings ( Old testament, Mishnah, Targums and the Talmud) you will find something quite surprising. You find them waiting for more than just a military messiah. They were waiting for the restoration of Israel in a New Exodus. Brant Pitre p23 This is particularly true, some Jews at the time of Jesus were in fact waiting only for political deliverance. E.g the Zealot in the book of Acts 5:37
N EW E XODUS AND J ESUS T IME During the period when Fadus was proconsul of Judea, a certain imposter named Theudas persuaded the majority of the masses to take up their possessions and to follow him to the Jordan River. He stated that he was a prophet and that at his command the river would be parted and to provide them and easy passage. (Josephus, Antiquities 20:97-98)
At this time there came to Jerusalem a man from Egypt who declared that he was a prophet and advised the masses of the common people to go out with him to the mountain called the Mount of Olives, which lies opposite the city... For he asserted that he wished to demonstrate from there that at his command Jerusalem’s walls would fall down, through which he promised to provide them an entrance to the city. ( Josephus, Antiquities 20: 169-170)
N EW E XODUS 1) The coming of a new Moses 2) The making of a new covenant 3) The building of the new Tabernacle/ Temple 4) The New Passover 5) The journey to the new promised Land
“The LORD your God will raise up for you a Prophet like me from your midst, from your brethren. Him you shall hear, 16 according to all you desired of the LORD your God in Horeb in the day of the assembly, saying, ‘Let me not hear again the voice of the LORD my God, nor let me see this great fire anymore, lest I die.’ 17 “And the LORD said to me: ‘What they have spoken is good. 18 I will raise up for them a Prophet like you from among their brethren, and will put My words in His mouth, and He shall speak to them all that I command Him. Duet. 18:15-18
R ABBI B ERKIAH (E CCLESIASTES R ABBAH 1:28) As the first redeemer (Moses) was, so shall the latter redeemer (the Messiah) be. What is stated of the former ? And Moses took his wife and his sons, and set them upon an ass (Exod. 4:20). Similarly will it be with the latter Redeemer, as it is stated, ‘ Lowly riding upon an ass (Zeck 9:9). As the former redeemer caused manna to descend, as it is stated, ‘Behold, I will cause to rain bread from heaven for you’ (Exod 16:4), so will the latter Redeemer cause manna to descend, as it is stated, ‘ May he be as a rich grainfield in the land’ (Ps 72:16)
J OSH 5:10-13 10 Now the children of Israel camped in Gilgal, and kept the Passover on the fourteenth day of the month at twilight on the plains of Jericho. 11 And they ate of the produce of the land on the day after the Passover, unleavened bread and parched grain, on the very same day. 12 Then the manna ceased on the day after they had eaten the produce of the land ; and the children of Israel no longer had manna, but they ate the food of the land of Canaan that year.
Therefore they said to Him, “ What sign will You perform then, that we may see it and believe You? What work will You do? 31 Our fathers ate the manna in the desert; as it is written, ‘He gave them bread from heaven to eat.’” 32 Then Jesus said to them, “Most assuredly, I say to you, Moses did not give you the bread from heaven, but My Father gives you the true bread from heaven. 33 For the bread of God is He who comes down from heaven and gives life to the world.” Jn 6:32-34
Then he sent young men of the children of Israel, who offered burnt offerings and sacrificed peace offerings of oxen to the LORD. 6 And Moses took half the blood and put it in basins, and half the blood he sprinkled on the altar. 7 Then he took the Book of the Covenant and read in the hearing of the people. And they said, “All that the LORD has said we will do, and be obedient.” 8 And Moses took the blood, sprinkled it on the people, and said, “ This is the blood of the covenant which the LORD has made with you according to all these words. ” Exod 24:5-8
9 Then Moses went up, also Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel, 10 and they saw the God of Israel. And there was under His feet as it were a paved work of sapphire stone, and it was like the very heavens in its clarity. 11 But on the nobles of the children of Israel He did not lay His hand. So they saw God, and they ate and drank. Exod. 24:9-11
T HE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE TWO EXODUS AND THE TWO COVENANTS 31 “Behold, the days are coming, says the LORD, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah— 32 not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, though I was a husband to them, says the LORD. 33 But this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the LORD: I will put My law in their minds, and write it on their hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people. Jer 31:31-33
B ABYLONIAN T ALMUD, B ERAKOTH 17 A In the World to come ( Messianic time) there is no eating or drinking... But the righteous sit with crowns on their heads, feasting on the brightness of the divine presence, as it says ‘ And they beheld God, and did eat and drink. (Exod. 24:11)
3. T HE N EW T ABERNACLE But Christ came as High Priest of the good things to come, with the greater and more perfect tabernacle not made with hands, that is, not of this creation. Heb 9:11 And the Word became flesh and tabernacled among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth. Jn 1:14
3. N EW T ABERNACLE /T EMPLE Now it shall come to pass in the latter days That the mountain of the LORD’s house Shall be established on the top of the mountains, And shall be exalted above the hills; And peoples shall flow to it. 2 Many nations shall come and say, “ Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, To the house of the God of Jacob; He will teach us His ways, And we shall walk in His paths.” For out of Zion the law shall go forth, And the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. Mic 4:1-2
N UMBER R ABBAH 13:2 When the king Messiah who abides in the north will awaken he will come and build the temple, which is situated in the south. This accords with the text, ‘I have roused up one from the north and he is come’ Isa 41:25.
Jesus answered and said to them, “ Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.” 20 Then the Jews said, “It has taken forty-six years to build this temple, and will You raise it up in three days?” 21 But He was speaking of the temple of His body. Jn 2:19-21
17 “ For behold, I create new heavens and a new earth; And the former shall not be remembered or come to mind. 18 But be glad and rejoice forever in what I create; For behold, I create Jerusalem as a rejoicing, And her people a joy
18 “For I know their works and their thoughts. It shall be that I will gather all nations and tongues; and they shall come and see My glory. 20 Then they shall bring all your brethren for an offering to the LORD out of all nations, on horses and in chariots and in litters, on mules and on camels, to My holy mountain Jerusalem,” says the LORD, “as the children of Israel bring an offering in a clean vessel into the house of the LORD. 22 “ For as the new heavens and the new earth Which I will make shall remain before Me,” says the LORD, “ So shall your descendants and your name remain.
M ISHNAH, S ANHEDRIN 10:1 All the Israelites have a share in the world to come, or it is written, ‘Your people also shall all be righteous, they shall inherit the land forever, the branch planting, the work of my hands that I may be glorified (Isa 60:21)
Now the blood shall be a sign for you on the houses where you are. And when I see the blood, I will pass over you; and the plague shall not be on you to destroy you when I strike the land of Egypt. Exd 12:13 For this is My blood of the new covenant, which is shed for many for the remission of sins. Matt 26:28