4Slide 1.2A The Black Death What was the Black Death? Deadly plague that spread across Europe fromCaused by a form of bacteriaAppeared in three formsPneumonic-attacked the lungsSepticemic-appeared in blood streamBubonic-caused bubbles on the bodyHow did the Black Death spread throughout Europe?Originated in Mongolia and spread to Black Sea along the Silk RoadBacteria carried by fleas who lived on black ratsItalian merchant ships brought rats to Europe along w/ trade goodsFirst appeared in Sicily and eventually spread
5Slide 1.2A The Black DeathWhy couldn’t people stop the spread of the Black Death?People were ignorant about its cause: they blamed it on God’s angerThey tried ineffective cures such as pomanders, flagellation, and repentence of sinsHow did the Black Death change life in Europe?Killed 1/4 to 1/3 populationForced farmers to diversify their cropsPeasants revolted and demanded more freedomWorking class moved to cities to earn better wagesReduced power of feudal lords
8Slide 1.2B The Hundred Years’ War How did the war begin?French king Charles IV died in 1328 with no male heirTwo men attempted to claim the vacant throneEdward III of England-son-in-law of Charles IVPhilip of Valois-nephew of CharlesEnglish armies attacked France-1337War ended in 1453Who was Joan of Arc and how did she change the course of the war?Young French peasant woman who was inspired by God to save FranceConvinced Charles VII to let her lead an army against the English in 1429Helped push the English armies out of central FranceWas captured, accused of heresy, and burned at the stake in 1431; was sainted in 1922
9Slide 1.2B The Hundred Years’ War How did the nature of warfare change?Longbows eliminated advantages of armorCannons could be used to blast holes in castlesMonarchs used armies recruited from common peopleHow did the war contribute to the end of feudalism in France?People became more patriotic, more devoted to monarch than feudal lordMonarchs built huge armies with the taxes they collected, which reduced the power of nobles.
12Slide 1.2C Trade and Commerce Change Town Life Trade and Commerce: The foundations of town lifeTowns were centers for trade and shippingLuxury goods such as silk, spices, ivory and porcelain could be bought in townsGuilds dominated social and civic life of townsGuilds reflected importance of Christianity in townsA) contributed to building of cathedralsB) adopted patron saints and sponsored parades in their honor
14Slide 1.2C Trade and Commerce Change Town Life Town life during Middle AgesTowns were small because society was based on agriculture and most people lived in countrysideNobles had most of the powerA) lords owned the land where most towns were locatedB) towns needed protection from knights that lords could provideStatus was determined by birthrightTown life during RenaissanceTowns grew because society began to be based on commerce and more people started to live in citiesMiddle class had most powerA) limited the power of feudal lords by forcing them to grant chartersB) gained control of great sums of money by organizing banksStatus determined by wealth and abilitySocietyPowerStatus
16Slide 1.2D The Growth of Italian City-States How did Florence become the most influential city-state?Maintained thriving industry in wool and silk tradePurchased luxury items from the East and sold them for a large profitSold insurance to sea traders to protect their overseas investmentsCreated numerous banks that made loans or exchanged currenciesMedici family promoted trade, banking, the arts, the scholarship, and civic prideWhy were Italian city-states so rich and powerful?Had strong ties with Byzantine and Muslim merchantsEach city-state specialized in one commercial activity:Milan-metal goods and armorFlorence- banking and textilesVenice- Asian goodsEuropean monarchs and nobles sought loans from merchantsWhat was the Renaissance and why did it begin in Italy?Renaissance is a French word meaning “rebirth”; refers to revival in arts and learningPeriod when scholars became interested in ancient Greek and Roman cultureItalian city-states displayed their wealth by giving financial support to artists who created works with classical themes.
18Slide 1.2E The Spirit of the Renaissance Why humanists became interested in ancient culture…Knowledge of ancient Greece and Rome was rediscovered by scholarsThe Crusades made Europeans eager to learn about the world around themScholars thought ancient Greek and Roman writings would help solve problemsA new type of scholar called a humanistHumanists devoted themselves to studying ancient writingsThey tried to learn about many subjects such as Latin, Greek, history and mathematicsPetrarch, a Florentine was the first great humanist
19The spirit of the Renaissance included… A fascination with classical culturesArtists used ancient art as modelsDonatello created statues that copied the Roman ideal of the human bodyBrunelleschi designed buildings after studying ruins in RomeRevolutionary innovations were madeA belief in human potentialBelieved each person could achieve great thingsClaimed that people educated in the classics could create a better worldEmphasized human achievement on earth, rather than the afterlife