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 France  Spain  Germany  Italy  Portugal  Netherlands/Belgium.

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Presentation on theme: " France  Spain  Germany  Italy  Portugal  Netherlands/Belgium."— Presentation transcript:

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2  France  Spain  Germany  Italy  Portugal  Netherlands/Belgium

3  Because many of the nobility of England and Scotland who were Lowry antecedents married with nobility of western European countries, many ties were created to those families as well  Those ancestors created ties, in turn, with the nobility of eastern European and Asian countries  Those ancestors from Normandy have been detailed under England and Scotland

4  The early rulers of present-day France were the Franks, who began consolidating small kingdoms in the 5 th century  Childeric I (45 th GGF of Tom Lowry) began the unification by defeating the Visigoths in 463  Childeric’s tomb was discovered by a mason in 1653 in Tournai  Included in the treasures within the tomb were 300 gold bees  Napoleon later adopted Childeric’s bees as the national symbol of France to replace the Bourbon fleur-de-lis  In 1831 the bees were stolen from the Biblioteque Nationale and melted down for the gold

5  Clovis I (44 th GGF of Tom Lowry) succeeded his father, Childeric  He unified almost all of Gaul, and established Paris as his capital  His wife, Clotilda (44 th GGM of Tom Lowry) converted him, and subsequently the Franks, to Christianity, for which she became St Clotilda  Upon his death, Clovis’ kingdom was divided among his 4 sons, including Theodoric I (43 rd GGF of Tom Lowry) and Clotair I (43 rd GGF of Tom Lowry)  They allied themselves with Theodoric the Great, King of the Ostragoths (45 th GGF of Tom Lowry) to continue the consolidation of Gaul

6  Following the death of Clotair, his kingdom was divided among his sons, including Charibert I (42 nd GGF of Tom Lowry), Sigebert I (43 rd GGF of Tom Lowry), and Chilperic I (42 nd GGF of Tom Lowry)  Chilperic I’s son, Clotair II (41 st GGF of Tom Lowry) reconsolidated the kingdom after brutally murdering Brunhilda (43 rd GGM of Tom Lowry), wife of Sigebert I  Clotair II’s son, Dagobert I (40 th GGF of Tom Lowry) maintained the consolidation  Following his death Pepin d’Heristal (36 th GGF of Tom Lowry), a mayor for the Merovignians, slowly transferred power to his family, ending the rule of the Merovignian Kings in France, and initiating the reign of the Pippinids

7  The illegitimate son of Pepin d’Heristal, Charles Martel (35 th GGF of Tom Lowry) completed the transfer of power away from the Merovignians and became the ‘Savior of Europe’)  In 732 the Islamic Moors had crossed the Pyrenees and were moving north through Europe, virtually uncontested in their conquests, and it looked as if all of Western Europe would fall to the Muslims  Charles Martel organized an army which met the Muslims in 732 at the Battle of Tours  Using ingenious strategies of battles, especially heavy cavalry, the Moors were crushed, Christian Europe was saved, and a strong bond between Pippinid France and the Pope was created

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9  Son of Charles Martel, Pepin III (34 th GGF of Tom Lowry) further consolidated the relationship with the Pope when he took an army to Italy and defeated the Lombards who were threatening southern Italy and the Pope ( )  Through the Donation of Pepin the papal states were established as independent entities  Pepin III was succeeded, upon his death, by his son Charles (Charlemagne), who finally succeeded in consolidating all of France

10  Charlemagne (33 rd GGF of Tom Lowry) completed the conquest of Italy and was crowned by Pope Leo III as the first ‘Holy Roman Emperor’ in 800  His rule was associated with the Carolingian renaissance of art, religion and culture  Charlemagne extended his land holdings to become the first ruler of Western Europe since the fall of the Roman Empire

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12  Upon the death of Charlemagne, his kingdom was divided, with Louis the Pious (33 rd GGF of Tom Lowry) succeeding him as Holy Roman Emperor  Louis’ son, Lothair I (33 rd GGF of Tom Lowry) succeeded him  Another son, Louis the German (37 th GGF of Tom Lowry) received Germany  His nephew, Bernard (31 st GGF of Tom Lowry) became King of Italy, only to have Lothair blind him with hot lead  A fourth son, Charles the Bald (35 th GGF of Tom Lowry), succeeded his brother Lothair I through the Treaty of Verdun (843) after much family squabbling  After several generations of fighting amongst the descendants of Charlemagne, the door was open for a change in leadership if France, and that change came in the form of Robert the Strong

13  Robert the Strong (32 nd GGF of Tom Lowry) led a revolt against the nepotism of Charles the Bald (35 th GGF of Tom Lowry)  Robert was killed in battle against a Viking invasion in 866, but his sons took up the cause to become the Robertian rulers of France  His son, Robert I, Count of Anjou (30 th GGF of Tom Lowry) defeated Charles the Simple (32 nd GGF of Tom Lowry) to become King of the Franks  Robert I’s son, Hugh ‘The Great’ Capet’, succeeded him as king, beginning the reign of the Capetians

14  Hugh Capet (30 th GGF of Tom Lowry) began the Capetian Dynasty which ruled France from 987 until the death of Louis XIV in 1793  He relied heavily on Duke Richard I of Normandy (32 nd GGF of Tom Lowry) to gain and hold the crown  He was succeeded in 996 by his son, Robert II (29 th GGF of Tom Lowry)  Although known as Robert the Pious, he divorced his wife to marry his cousin, an act which got him excommunicated by the Pope  Robert’s successor, Hugh Magnus, was not in the Lowry lineage, and the Lowry connection to the Capetian rulers ended with him, only to reconnect later in history  Henry I (29 th GGF of Tom Lowry), grandson of Hugh Capet, married Anne of Kiev (29 th GGM of Tom Lowry), daughter of Yaraslov the Wise of Kiev (30 th GGF of Tom Lowry), creating a tie to Russia

15  Flanders was a northern duchy of France, founded by Baldwin I ‘Iron Arm’ (36 th GGF of Tom Lowry  Baldwin I managed to kidnap the daughter of Charles the Bald, elope with her, and still maintain a good relationship with Charles  Baldwin II (35 th GGF of Tom Lowry) succeeded him  Arnulf I (34 th GGF of Tom Lowry) succeeded him, and assassinated Duke William Longsword of Normandy (33 rd GGF of Tom Lowry)  Arnulf was succeeded by Robert I of Flanders (33 rd GGF of Tom Lowry

16  Aquitaine was a duchy of France, having been an independent kingdom prior to the consolidation of the Franks  William V of Aquitaine (31 st GGF of Tom Lowry) was one of the most powerful dukes in his time, and in 1024 was offered the crown  His 2 nd great-grandaughter, Eleanor of Aquitaine 27 th GGM of Tom Lowry), was married to Louis the Younger of France and, after the annulment of that marriage, to Henry II of England, creating one of many links of English and French ancestors of Tom Lowry  William IX (29 th GGF of Tom Lowry) entertained Pope Urban at Christmas in During that visit the plans for the First Crusade were hatched  Although he entertained the Pope, he was excommunicated twice – once for imprisoning the Bishop of Poitiers – once for abducting Viscountess Dangereuse (29 th GGF of Tom Lowry), wife of Aimery de Rocheffoucauld, his vassal, and marrying her, forcing his present wife, Phillipa, to retire to a monastery

17  Anjou was a duchy of France, initially under the rule of Ingelger I Orlean (34 th GGF of Tom Lowry)  Fulk I the Red (33 rd GGF of Tom Lowry) expelled the Normans from Anjou  Geoffrey Greymantle (32 nd GGF of Tom Lowry) began the expansion of Anjou into a strong state  Fulk III Nera (32nd GGF of Tom Lowry) was a master castle builder. He also boiled his wife to death for being unfaithful  Fulk V of Anjou (29 th GGF of Tom Lowry) led a Crusade to the Holy Land and became King of Jerusalem  Fulk V’s son, Geoffrey V Plantagenet, married Empress Maud of England (27 th GGM of Tom Lowry), and was the patriarch of the Plantagenet rulers of Scotland and England

18  The blossoming of France as a center of culture and learning began under Philip II Augustus (23 rd GGF of Tom Lowry) who was also descended from Charlemagne through his mother  Louis VIII the Lion (23 rd GGF of Tom Lowry) married Blanche of Castile (23 rd GGM of Tom Lowry), connecting the Lowry line to the nobility of Spain  Louis IX (St Louis) (22 nd GGF of Tom Lowry)  A devout Christian, Louis IX led two unsuccessful Crusades -- captured on one and dying of dysentery on the second  A devout anti-semite, he expelled most of the Jews from France and burned 12,000 copies of the Talmud  Following his death his descendants ruled France for another 500 years

19  Philip IV the Fair (19 th GGF of Tom Lowry) was the grandson of Louis IX  Philip IV was responsible for the destruction of the Knights Templar, and burned several of their leaders at the stake, including Jacques de Molay  Philip’s daughter, Isabella of France (18 th GGF of Tom Lowry) married Edward II Plantagenet of England (18 th GGF of Tom Lowry), creating another connection of the English and French ancestors of Tom Lowry  The Lowry connection to the Capetian rulers of France ended with Philip IV, only to resume a generation later

20  Charles de Valois (19 th GGF of Ethel Maud Smith) was never king of France, but was patriarch of the Valois kings. His mother was Isabella of Aragon (19 th GGM of Tom Lowry)  Isabella was the daughter of James I of Aragon (20 th GGF of Tom Lowry) and Yolanda of Hungary (20 th GGM of Tom Lowry), creating another connection to the Spanish nobility and a new connection to the nobility of Eastern Europe. Yolanda’s father was Andrew II, King of Hungary (21 st GGF of Tom Lowry)

21  Philip VI de Valois (20 th GGF of Ethel Maud Smith), son of Charles de Valois and grandson of Philip III, became the first Valois King of France in 1328 when Charles II died without an heir  Through many of the marriages listed before, English royalty claimed titles to French duchies through marriage  These claims led to a series of wars between England and France which came to a head during the reign of Philip VI and were known as the Hundred Years Wars  In 1347, during Philip VI’s reign, the Black Death (plague) hit France, killing 40% of the population

22  John the Good (19 th GGF of Ethel Maud Smith) succeeded Philip VI as the 2 nd Valois king  John’s descendants were not linked to the Lowry family, but his son, King Charles V (18 th GGF of Ethel Maud Smith) married Joan of Bourbon (18 th GGM of Ethel Maud Smith) relinking the lineage  Charles V was succeeded by Charles VI the Beloved (17 th GGF of Ethel Maud Smith)  Charles the Beloved quickly became Charles the Mad as his schizophrenia kicked into high gear  It was during his reign that Joan of Arc turned the tide of the Hundred Years War in favor of the French  His reign marked the last tie of the Lowrys to the royalty of France  His great-granddaughter married Henry VII of York, connecting to the Cross/Smith/Lowry line

23  Isabella of Angouleme (26 th GGM of Tom Lowry), daughter of the Count of Angouleme, married King John I of England (26 th GGF of Tom Lowry) creating another connection between the English and French ancestors of the Lowry family  St Arnulf of Metz (38 th GGF of Tom Lowry) Bishop of Metz – tormented by the violence around him, he threw his bishop’s ring into the River Moselle. Several years later a fisherman returned the ring, having found it in a fish. Sensing a sign from above, Arnulf retired as bishop and became a hermit. Arnulf was famed for making fires go out, and for turning water into beer  Ansigesel of Metz (39 th GGF of Tom Lowry) was the son of St Arnulf, and the father of Pepin d’Heristal, patriarch of the Pippinid rulers

24  St Begga of Landen (37 th GGM of Tom Lowry) was the wife of Ansigesel. She became a nun on the death of Ansigesel and founded the convent at Andenne  William I the Liberator (30 th GGF of Tom Lowry) was Count of Arles. He defeated the Moors and became Count of Provence

25  Following the fall of the Roman Empire, the Visigoths slowly expanded into Spain (the Iberian Peninsula)  The Visigoths reached their high point in Spain under the rule of Leovigild (49 th GGF of Tom Lowry), an Arian Christian  After the 7 th century Spain became a constant battleground between Muslims (Moors) and Christians, and Spain remained divided into several smaller kingdoms, the kingdom of Spain not emerging until the marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile in 1469  The first ruler of Aragon was Ramiro I (32 nd GGF of Tom Lowry) who died in 1063 battling the Muslims at Graus  His son, Sancho V Ramirez (31 st GGF of Tom Lowry) died in 1094 fighting the Muslims in Huesca  Witnessing the fate of those before him, Ramiro II Sanchez (30 th GGF of Tom Lowry) became a monk. His grandson, Alfonso II the Chaste, became King of Aragon, later adding Castile to the kingdom

26  Peter II of Aragon (23 rd GGF of Tom Lowry) was the first king of Aragon to be crowned by a Pope (Innocent III)  His son, James the Conqueror (James I; 22 nd GGF of Tom Lowry) drove the Muslims from Aragon in the 13 th century, founded the Cathedral of Lleida and was a patron of the University of Montpellier  Fernan Gonzalez (30 th GGF of Tom Lowry) was the first King of Castile. He was active in reclaiming land from the Muslims in the Reconquista  Ferdinand I of Castile (32 nd GGF of Tom Lowry) married Sancha of Leon, daughter of Alphonso V, King of Leon (33 rd GGF of Tom Lowry), then murdered her brother to claim the crown of Leon  Ferdinand III (25 th GGF of Tom Lowry) completed the removal of the Muslims from Castile and donated their land for the Cathedral of Burgos, for which he became St Ferdinand. His sword (Lobera) is on display at the Capilla Real

27  Ferdinand III’s daughter, Eleanor of Castile (24 th GGM of Tom Lowry) married Edward I of England, connecting the Spanish rulers to those of England  Ferdinand III’s grandson, Sancho IV the Brave (20 th GGF of Tom Lowry) was ruthless, murdering thousands of his own subjects and imprisoning his brother, Don Juan  His son, Fernando IV (19 th GGF of Tom Lowry) took Gibralter from the Muslims, who had held it for 500 years  Peter the Cruel (17 th GGF of Tom Lowry) gained his moniker by killing his wife, Blanche of Bourbon (17 th GGM of Tom Lowry) with a crossbow, and his ruthlessness eventually led to the Castilian Civil War in which he was dethroned  His daughter, Constance of Castile (16 th GGM of Tom Lowry) married John of Gaunt, creating another tie with the English Plantagenets

28  Ardabast of the Visigoths (46 th GGF of Tom Lowry) was an early ruler of Leon  Bermudo I de Cantabria (42 nd GGF of Tom Lowry) was ruler of Leon when the first Muslim invasions began  His son, Ramiro I of the Asturias (41 st GGF of Tom Lowry) defeated the Moors at the Battle of Clavijo (844), a battle in which St James the Moor Slayer is said to have appeared in the sky and guided Ramiro  Ordono II Alfonsez (37 th GGF of Tom Lowry) was defeated by the Muslims at Valdejunquera. Blaming the Counts of Castile, who had not shown up, he gathered them together and had them all killed. After his reign Leon passed under the leadership of Castile as Castile y Leon, and counts showed up for battles  Inigo Iniguez Arista of Pamplona (44 th GGF of Tom Lowry) was the first king of Pamplona, a basque state  His son, Garcia Ineguez of Pamplona (43 rd GGF) defeated the Muslims, slaughtering more than 10,000  Following his victory, Santiago de Compostela, containing the relics of St James, became a favored pilgrimage site for Europeans

29  Garcia Ineguez’s son, Fortun Garcia (39th GGF of Tom Lowry) was imprisoned by the Muslims for 20 years in a period of Muslim rule  His son, Garcia I Sanchez (36 th GGF of Tom Lowry) conquered the Muslims to regain the Christian throne  During the reign of Garcia I the Codex Vigilanus was completed – one of the most important early medieval Spanish manuscripts. It contained the first western representation of Arabic numerals  Garcia III Sanchez (32 nd GGF of Tom Lowry) founded the monastery of Santa Maria Real (now the Pamplona Cathedral), then was killed battling his brother  In 1234 Theobald I of Navarre (21 st GGF of Tom Lowry) became the first French king of Navarre  His father was Theobald III of Champagne (22 nd GGF of Tom Lowry)  His mother was Blanche of Navarre (22 nd GGM of Tom Lowry)

30  Catalonia and Barcelona emerged from Visigothic, then Muslim, rule in the 9 th century under Sunifred I, Count of Urgell and Barcelona (33 rd GGF of Tom Lowry), grandson of Theodoric IV of the Franks (34 th GGF of Tom Lowry)  His son, Wilifred the Hairy (32 nd GGF of Tom Lowry) died fighting the Muslims, and is buried at the Monastery of Ripoli  Berenger Ramon the Crooked Nose (34 th GGF of Tom Lowry) opted to sign a treaty with the Muslims, but his son, Ramon I Berenguer (33 rd GGF of Tom Lowry) fought them aggressively, while also founding the Cathedral of Barcelona  Ramon III Berenguer the Great (33 rd GGF of Tom Lowry) recovered large holdings from the Muslims, and became a Knight Templar  Ramon IV Berenguer (32 nd GGF of Tom Lowry) played a major role in the Second Crusade as part of the Reconquista. His 3rd great- granddaughter, Eleanor Berenger (25 th GGM of Tom Lowry) married Henry III of England (25 th GGF of Tom Lowry) creating another link between the Spanish and English nobility

31  Although Ethel Maud Smith was of German descent (Schmidt), little is known about her family in Germany, except that Martinis Schmidt, her 5 th GGF, was born in 1660 in Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany and immigrated to Pennsylvania sometime before 1750  Most likely Schmidt was a farmer, moving to America as part of the mass emigration from the Rheinland following its destruction during the Thirty Years War and the religious persecution of protestants (the Schmidts were Reformed Lutherans)  Early on the Schmidts married with other German and Swiss families in America  Yohann (Yost) Schmidt (2 nd GGF of Ethel Maud Smith) married Mary Magdeline Mohney (Manne)  Her father, Johann Adam Mohney II (3 rd GGF of Ethel Maud Smith) was a Revolutionary War Veteran (Documented in National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution, Part II, page 1888)

32  Hans Jacob Manne (5 th GGF of Ethel Maud Smith) and his father Jacob Manne (6 th GGF of Ethel Maud Smith) arrived in Philadelphia in 1741 aboard ‘Lydia’, traveling from their home in Switzerland  Adam Smith (great-grandfather of Ethel Maude Smith) married Mary Ann Schumaker  The Scumakers were descended from Johanne Schumaker, born 1520 in Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany (10 th GGF of Ethel Maud Smith)  Adam was the father of Henry L Smith

33  Germany did not become Germany until it was consolidated under Kaiser Willhelm just before World War I  Prior to that Germany was a collection of small kingdoms and duchys, falling under the domain of the Holy Roman Empire after the time of Charlemagne  Following the fall of the Roman Empire the Franks ruled Germany and France  Clovis I (44 th GGF of Tom Lowry) was an early Frankish king ruling Germany (died 511)  Theodebert I (42 nd GGF of Tom Lowry) did much to bring Germany into the Frankish kingdom by conquering the Thuringians and Allemani  Charlemagne (33 rd GGF of Tom Lowry) completed the consolidation of Germany.  Widikund the Great (32 nd GGF of Tom Lowry) was the last of the Saxon Germans to successfully resist the Franks  He was the first Saxon king to convert to Christianity (8 th century)

34  When Charlemagne divided his kingdom among his sons, Germany emerged as a distinct geographical entity, under the rule of Louis the German (Louis II, King of Bavaria) (32 nd GGF of Tom Lowry)  Because the Carolingian rulers descended from Charlemagne ruled primarily from France, they were unable to adequately protect Germany from incursions from Eastern Europe, and the Germans soon freed themselves from Carolingian rule under the leadership of Henry the Fowler (31 st GGF of Tom Lowry)  Henry was the grandson of Liudolf the Great (33 rd GGF of Tom Lowry), a Saxon ruler who established the Gandersheim Abbey with relics from former Popes Anastasia and Innocent. He was the patriarch of the Liudolfing rulers of Saxony  Henry was the son of Otto the Illustrious, Duke of Saxony (32nd GGF of Tom Lowry), patriarch of the Ottonian rulers of Saxony, who headed the army that ended the threat of Hungarian (Magyar) incursion into Germany

35  Henry the Fowler’s wife, Matilda von Ringleheim (31 st GGM of Tom Lowry) was canonized as St Matilda for her benevolence to the Church  Duke Arnulf the Bad (36 th GGF of Tom Lowry) earned his name by confiscating lands from the Church to finance his wars with the Vikings and Normans  Otto I’s wife, Eadgyth of Wessex (34 th GGM of Tom Lowry) was the daughter of King Edward the Elder of Wessex (35 th GGF of Tom Lowry) creating one of many ties between the royalty of Germany and England  In 950 the king of Italy died without an heir, and the Pope invited Otto I to become king. Otto thus became the first Holy Roman Emperor  Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor (36 rd GGF of Tom Lowry) married Theophana Sclerina (36 th GGM of Tom Lowry), a princess of the Byzantine Empire, connecting the German ancestors to the rulers of Byzantium in Turkey

36  Frederick I Barbarosa, Holy Roman Emperor (24 th GGF of Tom Lowry) greatly expanded German rule over Italy, but died on Crusade in 1189  His son, Henry VI von Hohenstaufen (24th GGF of Tom Lowry) had a stoke of luck when Richard the Lionheart was delivered to him as a prisoner while returning from Crusade. He gained a ransom of 150,000 silver marks from the English  Henry VI expanded his holdings into Sicily, where he blinded and castrated all of the Sicilian nobility  His son, Frederick II Hohenstaufen (23 rd GGF of Tom Lowry) was constantly in conflict with the Pope over the powers of each  Frederick II’s son, Conrad IV (25 th GGF of Ethel Maud Smith) saw the end of Hohenstaufen rule over Germany as his wars in Italy and Sicily allowed the nobility of Germany to wrest power from him

37  With the help of the Pope, long at odds with the Hohenstaufen rulers, Rudolf von Hapsburg (24 th GGF of Tom Lowry) emerged as the ruler of Germany, beginning the Hapsburg Dynasty of Germany and Austria  Henry VII of Luxembourg (21 st GGF of Ethel Maud Smith) succeeded Rudolf as Holy Roman Emperor  Theodoric the Great of the Ostragoths (45 th GGF of Tom Lowry) was an early Ostragothic king of Swabia (Allemania)  Garibald I of Bavaria (42 nd GGF of Tom Lowry) was the first Duke of Bavaria during the Carolingian Dynasty  Luitpold of Bavaria (32 nd GGF of Tom Lowry) initiated the Luitpolding Dynasty of Bavaria  Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor (32 nd GGF of Tom Lowry) was canonized as a saint in 1147

38  Albert the Bear (25 th GGF of Tom Lowry) was the first Margrave of Brandenburg and was a prominent figure in the Wendish Crusade of 1147  His son, Otto I von Brandenburg (24 th GGF of Tom Lowry) founded the Lehnin Abbey in Zauche in 1180  Herman Billung, Duke of Saxony (32 nd GGF of Tom Lowry) was the first of the Billung Dynasty that ruled Saxony for five generations  He founded the Monastery of St Michael in Luneburg  Otto I the Child (23 rd GGF of Ethel Maud Smith) was the first Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg

39  Alaric I of the Visigoths (50 th GGF of Tom Lowry) sacked Rome in 410  Ricimer I of the Suevi (46 th GGF of Tom Lowry) ruled Rome as a German (barbarian) soldier  Theodoric I of the Ostragoths (45th GGF of Tom Lowry) sacked Rome in 488 and declared himself King of Italy  Pepin III the Short (34 th GGF of Tom Lowry) defeated the Lombards to secure Italy for the Church  Bernard of Italy (31 st GGF of Tom Lowry), grandson of Charlemagne, served briefly as King of Italy until Louis the Pious (33 rd GGF of Tom Lowry) blinded him with molten lead in his eyes  Berengar I (35 th GGF of Tom Lowry) was a native Italian elected to be King of Italy in 888  He was a member of the powerful Fruili nobility, son of Eberhard of Fruili (36 th GGF of Tom Lowry)

40  Otto I the Great of Germany (34 th GGF of Tom Lowry) was crowned King of Rome by the Pope, becoming the first Holy Roman Emperor  Roger I de Hauteville, a Norman, (26 th GGF of Tom Lowry) became King of Sicily while leading a crusade there  His descendants ruled Sicily for several generations

41  Like Spain, Portugal was a contested land between the invading Muslims and native Celts following the fall of the Roman Empire  Until the 11 th century, most of Portugal was ruled by the Kings of Castile and Leon in Spain  Alfonso VI Jimeno (31 st GGF of Tom Lowry) married his illegitimate daughter, Teresa Alfonso of Castile (29 th GGM of Tom Lowry) to Henry de Burgandy (29 th GGF of Tom Lowry) and made Henry Count of Portugal  Upon the death of Alfonso, his daughter, Uracca Alfonsez (31 st GGM of Tom Lowry, became Queen of Portugal  Uracca was overthrown by Teresa’s son, Alfonso I Henriquez (28 th GGF of Tom Lowry), the first to use the title King of Portugal  With the help of European crusaders, including the Templars, Alfonso I began the process of retaking land from the Muslims of Portugal

42  Under Sancho I Alfonsez (23 rd GGF of Tom Lowry) Christian cities began to emerge in eastern and central Portugal  Sancho’s daughter, Berengaria (23 rd GGM of Tom Lowry) married Vlademar II of Denmark (23 rd GGF of Tom Lowry) creating a Portugal-Denmark link that later linked with Scottish ancestors  Alfonso IV the Brave (19 th GGF of Tom Lowry) scored a major victory over the Muslims in 1340  Dionisio (Denis) Alfonsez (20 th GGF of Tom Lowry) offered sanctuary for the Knights Templar during their persecution in France  Following the Reconquista of the Muslims, Denis brought political infrastructure, education, and the arts to Portugal  A troubadour, 137 of his songs have been preserved in 16 th century manuscripts

43  Like most of western Europe, Belgium and The Netherlands flourished under Roman rule  In the 7 th century, under Carolingian rule from France, the areas became Christianized  In the 12 th century the land was greatly expanded by reclaiming coastal areas with large dyke systems  In the 12 th century Flanders (encompassing parts of France, Belgium and the Netherlands) developed as the world’s major textile area, importing wool and exporting finished cloth  Childeric I (45 th GGF of Tom Lowry), the first Merovingian King of France, ruled from Tournai, Belgium  Baldwin I ‘Iron Arm’ (36 th GGF of Tom Lowry) was the first recorded Count of Flanders  Like Scotland, Flanders was frequently a deciding independent factor in the wars between England and France

44  Baldwin I abducted the willing daughter of Charles the Bald (35 th GGF of Tom Lowry) of France, Princess Judith of France (36 th GGM of Tom Lowry) and married her, but managed to maintain a good relationship with Charles  Baldwin’s grandson, Arnulf I of Flanders (Arnulf the Great; 28 th GGF of Tom Lowry) summoned Duke William Longsword of Normandy (33 rd GGF of Tom Lowry) to a peace conference, then murdered him  Arnulf I was the son of Aelfrith, daughter of Alfred the Great (35 th GGF of Tom Lowry) creating one of many ties between the nobility of The Netherlands/Belgium and the nobility of England/Scotland  Reginar I Longneck (34 th GGF of Tom Lowry) secured the area of Hainault from Duke Rollo of Normandy (28 th GGF of Tom Lowry)  Baldwin II of Hainault (28 th GGF of Tom Lowry) was the first Count of Hainault, only to be killed by Seljuk Turks while on the First Crusade

45  Baldwin IV of Hainault (25 th GGF of Tom Lowry) also went on Crusade, and became King of Constantinople


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