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The Peloponnesian War 431-404 BC Athens versus Sparta for supremacy of Greece!!

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Presentation on theme: "The Peloponnesian War 431-404 BC Athens versus Sparta for supremacy of Greece!!"— Presentation transcript:

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2 The Peloponnesian War BC Athens versus Sparta for supremacy of Greece!!

3 What are some effects of the Persian Wars – 490 to 470s I.A short-lived sense of Greek unity II.City-States become more focused on defense III.Formation of Delian League a)Athens begins to dominate other members of the league b)Athens quickly rises to be the greatest power in Greece IV.Sparta counters with Peloponnesian League I.A short-lived sense of Greek unity II.City-States become more focused on defense III.Formation of Delian League a)Athens begins to dominate other members of the league b)Athens quickly rises to be the greatest power in Greece IV.Sparta counters with Peloponnesian League

4 Causes 460s- 450s BC I.Underlying a)Sparta was worried over Athens growing military and political power. I.Athens had the strongest navy, a large collection of allies and great wealth. b)Athens began to dominate trade risking Sparta’s food supply and angering Spartan allies Megara and Corinth. II.Immediate a)Sparta came to the defense of their key ally Corinth, who while in a war with another city-state were attacked by Athens. b)Athens also made the Megarian Decree, which blocked Megara, a Spartan ally from trading with an Delian League city. I.Underlying a)Sparta was worried over Athens growing military and political power. I.Athens had the strongest navy, a large collection of allies and great wealth. b)Athens began to dominate trade risking Sparta’s food supply and angering Spartan allies Megara and Corinth. II.Immediate a)Sparta came to the defense of their key ally Corinth, who while in a war with another city-state were attacked by Athens. b)Athens also made the Megarian Decree, which blocked Megara, a Spartan ally from trading with an Delian League city.

5 The War Begins 432BC I.Thucydides, an Athenian, wrote down a record of all that happened. II.432 BC, The Peloponnesian League (Sparta & allies) declares war! III.Sparta invades by land and surrounds Athens a)Hope to starve people and force Athenian army to come out and fight. b)Athenians, following Pericles long-wall strategy, get their food from trade and remained fed through the navy. IV.Athens with their strong walls just played defense. a)Spartans went home every 3 weeks to harvest its crops and check on helots, Athens’ navy would go out and attack Spartan Allies. I.Thucydides, an Athenian, wrote down a record of all that happened. II.432 BC, The Peloponnesian League (Sparta & allies) declares war! III.Sparta invades by land and surrounds Athens a)Hope to starve people and force Athenian army to come out and fight. b)Athenians, following Pericles long-wall strategy, get their food from trade and remained fed through the navy. IV.Athens with their strong walls just played defense. a)Spartans went home every 3 weeks to harvest its crops and check on helots, Athens’ navy would go out and attack Spartan Allies.

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7 The PLAGUE a)Finally (330), the plague enters Athens and is spread quickly by fleas, while the citizens of Athens were trapped inside the walls. b)1/3 of the population died including the inspiration leader, Pericles in 429BC. Persia helps out a)Persia helps Sparta build a fleet, hoping to get revenge on Athens and pleased to see the Greeks destroy each other b)The Athenians under demagogue (populist) leaders like Cleon keep voting for destructive inconclusive war - hawks. The PLAGUE a)Finally (330), the plague enters Athens and is spread quickly by fleas, while the citizens of Athens were trapped inside the walls. b)1/3 of the population died including the inspiration leader, Pericles in 429BC. Persia helps out a)Persia helps Sparta build a fleet, hoping to get revenge on Athens and pleased to see the Greeks destroy each other b)The Athenians under demagogue (populist) leaders like Cleon keep voting for destructive inconclusive war - hawks.

8 Peace.. For now… I.Cleon, killed in another in decisive battle in 422. The Athenians under general Nicias arrange a truce 421. Both sides tired of war agree for peace. II.In 415, Greedy Athens, encouraged by glory-seeking nephew of Pericles, Alcibiades, tries to conquer Sparta’s ally, Syracuse on the island of Sicily, as a new source of money and food. III.Alcibiades given command, but after being accused of sacrilege of the herms, was recalled and replaced by Nicias (who was against the attack!) IV.Alcibiades high-tailed to Sparta, and the Athenians suffered their greatest defeat ever. The Athenian fleet is weakened, their advantage over Sparta is gone! V.With no strong leader, the Athenians keep on electing different generals to bring them victory and kicking them out when they lose. I.Cleon, killed in another in decisive battle in 422. The Athenians under general Nicias arrange a truce 421. Both sides tired of war agree for peace. II.In 415, Greedy Athens, encouraged by glory-seeking nephew of Pericles, Alcibiades, tries to conquer Sparta’s ally, Syracuse on the island of Sicily, as a new source of money and food. III.Alcibiades given command, but after being accused of sacrilege of the herms, was recalled and replaced by Nicias (who was against the attack!) IV.Alcibiades high-tailed to Sparta, and the Athenians suffered their greatest defeat ever. The Athenian fleet is weakened, their advantage over Sparta is gone! V.With no strong leader, the Athenians keep on electing different generals to bring them victory and kicking them out when they lose.

9 Athens fights back I.Alcibiades shows Sparta a strategy to occupy Athens access to her silver mines. So she looses essential income and her alternative supply route (to the long walls). II.Athens taxes her Delian Allies even more and rebellion threatens the empire. III.Athens survived due to ineptness of the enemy, and a last resort fleet of 100 it had in reserve. IV.400 oligarchs (wealthy upperclass Athenians) overthrew the democracy in 411, but were overthrown by moderate oligarchs – the 5000 – due to their cruelty.. V.Athenian success against the Spartans with the help of Alcibiades (who had been chased out of Sparta after bedding the queen) meant the democracy was restored by 410. I.Alcibiades shows Sparta a strategy to occupy Athens access to her silver mines. So she looses essential income and her alternative supply route (to the long walls). II.Athens taxes her Delian Allies even more and rebellion threatens the empire. III.Athens survived due to ineptness of the enemy, and a last resort fleet of 100 it had in reserve. IV.400 oligarchs (wealthy upperclass Athenians) overthrew the democracy in 411, but were overthrown by moderate oligarchs – the 5000 – due to their cruelty.. V.Athenian success against the Spartans with the help of Alcibiades (who had been chased out of Sparta after bedding the queen) meant the democracy was restored by 410.

10 -> 404 BC: Spartan victory I.The Athenians continue to win battles till the Sea Battle at Arginusae (406) – Aristophanes refers to this in “Frogs” I.A great Athenian victory BUT many sailors lost II.Generals convicted by the enraged populace for not rescuing the sailors – only voice raised in their defense was Socrates’. III. Slaves who rowed the triremes were made voting free citizens. IV.So, emboldened by success, proposals to seek peace with Sparta was voted out by pro-war faction (extreme democrats). II.404, Spartans under King Lysander, sent their fleet to Ionia and destroyed the Athenian fleet at the battle of Aegospotami (Goat creek). III.With the Athenian fleet destroyed, the Spartans blockaded the Athenian port, starving the people into submission and ended the war later that year. I.The Athenians continue to win battles till the Sea Battle at Arginusae (406) – Aristophanes refers to this in “Frogs” I.A great Athenian victory BUT many sailors lost II.Generals convicted by the enraged populace for not rescuing the sailors – only voice raised in their defense was Socrates’. III. Slaves who rowed the triremes were made voting free citizens. IV.So, emboldened by success, proposals to seek peace with Sparta was voted out by pro-war faction (extreme democrats). II.404, Spartans under King Lysander, sent their fleet to Ionia and destroyed the Athenian fleet at the battle of Aegospotami (Goat creek). III.With the Athenian fleet destroyed, the Spartans blockaded the Athenian port, starving the people into submission and ended the war later that year.

11 Athens Surrenders I.Lysander enforces harsh condition on the defeat of Athens. I.Has to dismantle their military II.Take down some of the long walls III.Ionia given back to Persia IV.Thebes wanted Athens destroyed and its people enslaved, however Sparta said since Athens helped in the Persian War they did not deserve that reward. II.Athens was to be run by a group of collaborators & Spartans. I.The “Thirty Tyrants” / Councel of Governors (Critias, Theramenes). II.Instituted Purges and a time of terror III.Overthrown soon after, in 403 by Thrasybulus. IV.A humbled Athenian democracy continues… though scores continued to be settled I.E.g. Socrates is targeted and killed in 399 I.Lysander enforces harsh condition on the defeat of Athens. I.Has to dismantle their military II.Take down some of the long walls III.Ionia given back to Persia IV.Thebes wanted Athens destroyed and its people enslaved, however Sparta said since Athens helped in the Persian War they did not deserve that reward. II.Athens was to be run by a group of collaborators & Spartans. I.The “Thirty Tyrants” / Councel of Governors (Critias, Theramenes). II.Instituted Purges and a time of terror III.Overthrown soon after, in 403 by Thrasybulus. IV.A humbled Athenian democracy continues… though scores continued to be settled I.E.g. Socrates is targeted and killed in 399

12 Thebes over throws Sparta… I.Using the Theban Phalanx (where the left flank is super strong to force their opponents to collapse on themselves). I.Sacred band of Thebes – 120 pairs unbeaten for 30 yrs II.Epaminodas conquers the Spartans in 371 at the Battle of Leuctra. I.Sparta never rises to its previous strength as ½ its warriors are killed, and the helots freed III.Phillip of Macedonia unites Greece by 350 and his son Alexander III succeeds him in 336 IV.The rest is history…. I.Using the Theban Phalanx (where the left flank is super strong to force their opponents to collapse on themselves). I.Sacred band of Thebes – 120 pairs unbeaten for 30 yrs II.Epaminodas conquers the Spartans in 371 at the Battle of Leuctra. I.Sparta never rises to its previous strength as ½ its warriors are killed, and the helots freed III.Phillip of Macedonia unites Greece by 350 and his son Alexander III succeeds him in 336 IV.The rest is history….


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