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Title, Keywords and Introduction Dr. Gitanjali Batmanabane MD PhD Professor of Pharmacology JIPMER.

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Presentation on theme: "Title, Keywords and Introduction Dr. Gitanjali Batmanabane MD PhD Professor of Pharmacology JIPMER."— Presentation transcript:

1 Title, Keywords and Introduction Dr. Gitanjali Batmanabane MD PhD Professor of Pharmacology JIPMER

2 At the end of this session, you should be able to Objectives  Frame a suitable title for your research article  Select appropriate keywords for your research paper  Write an effective introduction

3 What is the purpose of a title? Gives the reader a gist of what the paper is about. It is the gateway to a paper.

4 Comment on these titles…. Will the pill make you ill? Keep off grass Old wine in a new bottle On shadows and illusions They are suitable for articles in lay press The topic will be missed if the connotations are not understood Less number of peers may select the article to read Visibility will be less as people search using keywords Catchy titles and phrases which rhyme should be used sparingly, if used at all

5 Comment on these titles…. Plagiarism: The new plague Levosalbutamol in bronchial asthma A novel biomarker in cancer Sero epidemiology of Hepatitis B surface antigenemia among young male adult Nigerians with clinical features of liver disease attending a primary care clinic in a remote and resource constrained setting of Eastern Nigeria Titles should be as descriptive as possible but also short and complete Title could be approximately 15 to 20 words

6 What are the characteristics of a good title Accurate Informative Descriptive Succinct Simple Specific (to study type & numbers, if large)

7 What to avoid in a title Filler words.. “a study of…””evaluation of..” Overselling your paper – “novel” Abbreviations Don’t use a question / full sentence Caste names, puns Spelling mistakes

8 Comment on the following title: Efficacy and safety of nicotine chewing gum in smoking cessation: A double blind randomized controlled clinical trial Always include the type of study in the title Including the study design helps in appropriate indexing and thereby easy identification and retrieval from a database

9 Comment on the following title: Effect of antihistamines on CAD: A double randomized controlled trial CAD – coronary artery disease, contact allergic dermatitis, congenital abduction deformity, coronary artery dissection Avoid using abbreviations as they have different meaning in different fields

10 Tips to remember in a title Spell out symbols rather than using the symbol eg. Beta blocker instead of blocker Write the scientific name in full eg. Escherichia coli instead of E.coli Use generic names instead of brand names

11 Tips to remember … cont.. Do not state the results in the title Reason : At times, assertive titles can mislead the readers E.g. Asthma is negatively associated with growth in height during adolescence. The decrease in height is small but statistically significant and not clinically significant. Hence this title may be misleading.

12 Titles may be tailored to fit the type and scope of the article Title of a thesis / dissertation Haemodynamics of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Hypertensive Patients A paper from this thesis may be titled Determinants of Alveolar Hypoventilation in Obstructive Sleep Apnea during Nocturnal Sleep in Hypertensive Patients A review article could be Haemodynamics of Obstructive Sleep Apnea A book could be Obstructive Sleep Apnea

13 Which of the following is title case? 1.FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR NONCOMPLIANCE IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC DISEASES: A PILOT STUDY 2.Factors responsible for noncompliance in patients with chronic diseases: a pilot study 3.Factors Responsible For Noncompliance In Patients With Chronic Diseases: A Pilot Study 4.Factors Responsible for Noncompliance in Patients with Chronic Diseases: A Pilot Study 5.Factors Responsible for Noncompliance in Patients with Chronic Diseases: a Pilot Study

14 How to write a good title? Write 3 or 4 different titles Show it to peers Select the best one Title is like a signpost that draws people to visit your paper

15 Key words  Short phrases or words that are relevant to the study  They should cover all aspects of the study  3 to 7 words / phrases

16 How to select keywords? Synonyms of important terms can be included eg. Gastroesophageal reflux disease – reflux esophagitis esophagogastroduodenoscopy – endoscopy Related terms can be included eg.Ergotism – St. Anthony’s fire Alternative names can be included eg.Paracetamol – acetaminophen Norepinephrine – adrenaline Common names can be included eg.Ascaris lumbricoids – round worm Older names can be included eg.Mumbai – Bombay

17 Do’s Include the relevant terms given under medial subheading (MeSH) Dont’s Do not include the same terms in title Reason : A search carried out in PubMed will search in title, abstract and keywords So having the same terms in title and keywords will not increase the chance of the article being retrieved by a search.

18 Write four keywords for the following title Salmeterol and Fluticasone Propionate and their association with Survival in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Beta agonists Respiratory disease Lung disease Quality of life

19 Introduction

20 General format Short and arresting Structure should funnel down from a broad perspective to a specific aim Main purpose – Tell the readers why you undertook the study Dissertation/thesis – 2 or 3 pages Research article – 2 or 3 paragraphs

21 Elements of the Introduction Background What do we know? Problem What we do not know Justification Why did we do it?

22 Element 1 - Background √ Give a short summary of the current knowledge of your research area √ Concentrate on the best studies closely resembling yours ×Don’t give an exhaustive account of what was done before ×Avoid textbook knowledge

23 Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood. It is also the most common chronic inflammatory disorder of airways. Asthma is a condition in which the airways narrow in response to commonly occurring environmental stimuli. There are many such stimuli exacerbating the symptoms of asthma, out of which the mould Alternaria is one. Effect of Alternaria sp. on exacerbation of asthma. The mould Alternaria occurs ubiquitously in dry regions and is thought to be important in exacerbating the symptoms of bronchial asthma. Use topic sentences.

24 Element – 2 The researchable problem What limitations have been encountered with the problem under consideration till date? What questions still need to be answered?

25 Element – 3 Justification Justification for the study - it is essential to make it clear how your work adds to what is already known Aims & objectives Hypothesis or research question Introduce the study design you used to test the hypothesis

26 H A & O DES

27 Background Lacunae Justificaton Aims & Objectives

28 Background

29 Lacunae Justification

30 Aims & Objectives

31 To conclude… Title is the key to ensure the visibility of the article Title should be accurate, informative, descriptive, simple, succinct and specific Keywords are phrases or words that are relevant to the study Introduction should be short and arresting The main purpose of introduction is to inform the readers why you undertook the study The three elements of introduction are background (what we knew), researchable problem (what we don’t know) and justification (why we did the study)

32 Thank you

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