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A History of World Societies Ninth Edition

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1 A History of World Societies Ninth Edition
John P. McKay ● Bennett D. Hill ● John Buckler Patricia Buckley Ebrey ● Roger B. Beck Clare Haru Crowston ● Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks A History of World Societies Ninth Edition CHAPTER 12 Cultural Exchange in Central and Southern Asia, to 1400 Copyright © 2011 by Bedford/St. Martin’s 1

2 I. Central Asian Nomads Nomadic Society 1. Conflicts
2. Political confederations The Turks 1. Western Turks 2. Eastern Turks 3. Mongolian Turks 4. Central Asian Turks I. Central Asian Nomads A. Nomadic Society 1. Nomadic tribes were in constant conflict with each other as they searched for water and pastures for their flocks and herds. Weaker Turkish groups faced extermination or slavery if defeated by the other groups. 2. Political alliances were established; large confederations of Turkish clans posed a greater threat to various cities or enemies. The three most successful confederations were the Xiongnu, the Turks, and the Mongols. B. The Turks 1. The Turks rebelled against the Rouruan and overran the eastern section of the Silk Road. The Turkish empire was later divided into two halves. The Western Turks captured the Byzantine city of Bosporus. 2. The Eastern Turks, known for fighting among themselves, raided China. 3. Uighur Turks were based in Mongolia. They maintained ties with China, where some fled when the Uighurs were overthrown by the Kyrgyz Turks. 4. Central Asian Turks began converting to Islam and extended power over Syria, Palestine, and Asia Minor. The Seljuk Turks defeated the Byzantine forces in Anatolia.

3 I. Central Asian Nomads The Mongols 1. Eastern nomadic groups
Mongol Daily Life 1. Accommodations 2. Diet 3. Gender roles 4. Mongol youth I. Central Asian Nomads C. The Mongols 1. While other Turks moved west, the Mongols remained in the east and continued a nomadic lifestyle. They continued to extract resources from the Chinese. D. Mongol Daily Life 1. The steppe plains were isolated and did not have cities or villages. The people moved with their herds; therefore, their homes had to be mobile. Round tents, called yurts, served as homes for the nomadic people. 2. The Mongol diet was mostly animal products. Grains and vegetables were added to the diet through trade. 3. Women were responsible for setting up and taking down the yurts and cared for the animals when the men were hunting and fishing. Men made the wagons, carts, and tent frames. Blacksmiths made stirrups, knives, and other tools. 4. Children learned to ride at a young age. Boys were trained how to use the compound bow as a weapon.

4 II. Chinggis Khan and the Mongol Empire
The Chinggis Khan 1. Temujin 2. Great Ruler 3. Conquest Chinggis’s Successors 1. Ögödei 2. Khubilai Khan II. Chinggis Khan and the Mongol Empire A. The Chinggis Khan 1. Military courage led Temujin to victories against the Tartars, Kereyids, and other Mongol and Turkish tribes. The warriors of some defeated groups would be annihilated, while warriors of other groups would be incorporated into Temujin’s forces. 2. In 1206 a gathering of tribal leaders proclaimed Temujin as the Great Ruler, giving him the title of Chinggis Khan. As the Great Ruler, he demanded that the Mongols use the Uighur Turks’ script to record Mongol laws and customs. 3. Chinggis Khan continued to build a Mongolian empire. After numerous cities were conquered and destroyed, other cities and small states quickly submitted and surrendered. Heading east, Chinggis Khan pressed into Persia. B. Chinggis’s Successors 1. Ögödei, Chinggis’s third son, invaded eastern Europe and conquered Russia before moving on to Poland and Hungary. 2. Khubilai Khan, grandson of Chinggis, gained power after the death of Ögödei. Under his rule, the Mongolian troops invaded China and Southeast Asia but were stopped by the Japanese.


6 The 1258 Fall of Baghdad (p. 343) 1. Can you find any differences between the attire and equipment of the Mongol warriors and those of the defenders of Baghdad? (Answer: The defenders appear to be wearing armor, while the Mongols are not. This could be because armor encumbered the rapid movements that the Mongols depended on for military success. It also could be that the Arabs around Baghdad, an area long “civilized,” had access to more iron than the nomadic Mongols. ) 2. What difficulties would have confronted Mongols using their traditional military tactics to attack a walled city? (Answer: Mongol tactics developed on the steppe involved using their horses’ superior maneuverability, their long range bows, and terror to confuse and overwhelm the enemy. However, these tactics would not work at all against a solidly walled city. ) 3. What evidence can you find in this illustration of Mongol adaptation to the problems of siege warfare? (Answer: Not only are the Mongols using a catapult to pound the city with heavy projectiles, but their warriors are on foot, not horseback, as they assail the walls. )

7 II. Chinggis Khan and the Mongol Empire
The Mongols as Rulers 1. Spoils of war 2. Tax-farming 3. Resistance 4. Tamerlane II. Chinggis Khan and the Mongol Empire C. The Mongols as Rulers 1. For Mongols, the ultimate goal of war was to gain riches from the defeated. Mongolian soldiers would take whatever they pleased from conquered populations. 2. At first Mongols considered turning northern China into a huge pasture. However, they became convinced that it would be better to tax the Chinese farmers. Mongols allowed Central Asian Muslims to bid for licenses giving them authority to collect taxes from the farmers. 3. The Mongols resisted assimilation with the conquered populations. Mongols were discouraged from marrying Chinese women, and Mongol princes continued to live in yurts rather than move into Chinese palaces. 4. As Mongol control declined, Tamerlane, a Turkish noble, attacked Mongols in Persia, northern India, and other territories. He copied the military techniques used by the Mongols.

8 III. East-West Communication During the Mongol Era
The Movement of Peoples 1. Rashid al-Din 2. Religious influences 3. William of Rubruck 4. Marco Polo The Spread of Disease, Goods, and Ideas 1. Bubonic plague 2. Trade growth 3. Intellectual thought III. East-West Communication During the Mongol Era A. The Movement of Peoples 1. Mongols transported skilled people away from the lands they conquered. In Persia, Rashid al-Din helped arrange the translation of Chinese works on medicine, agronomy, and statecraft. 2. Popes and kings requested the Mongols’ help as they tried to resist the spread of Islam. Nestorian Christians had been isolated from the West by the growing Muslim population. 3. William of Rubruck tried to convert the Mongols to the Christian faith. 4. Marco Polo documented his journey through the region and was impressed by the Chinese cities. B. The Spread of Disease, Goods, and Ideas 1. The plague known as the Black Death spread across Central Asia. Mongols were infected by the disease during their assault on Kaffa, a city in the Crimea. The Mongols retaliated by catapulting the bodies of plague victims into the city to spread the disease. 2. Certain individuals, such as those involved in long-distance trade, prospered under Mongol rule. Others, such as those who were enslaved and transported thousands of miles from home, did not benefit at all under Mongol control. 3. Persia and China were economically and culturally stagnant under Mongol rule. Europe, which had lagged behind the more technologically advanced East, benefited the most from the improved communications of the Mongol era.

9 IV. India, Islam, and the Development of Regional Cultures, 300–1400
The Gupta Empire, ca. 320–480 1. Establishment 2. Administrative system 3. Gupta culture 4. Huns IV. India, Islam, and the Development of Regional Cultures, 300–1400 A. The Gupta Empire, ca. 320–480 1. The Gupta Empire was founded by Chandragupta, who brought a period of peace and political unity to large parts of India. 2. The Guptas’ administrative systems were not as centralized as others. Distant lands were encouraged to become vassal states so they too could engage in trade. 3. The Gupta kings were patrons of the arts. Poetry included romance and popular tales, while religious tolerance was enjoyed throughout the empire. 4. Huns from the Central Plains brought on the collapse of the Gupta Empire.


11 IV. India, Islam, and the Development of Regional Cultures, 300–1400
India’s Medieval Age and the First Encounter with Islam 1. Political division 2. Turk conquerors 3. Caste system conflicts IV. India, Islam, and the Development of Regional Cultures, 300–1400 B. India’s Medieval Age and the First Encounter with Islam 1. Political divisions helped establish regional cultures, making India rather vulnerable to invasions. 2. Arab forces conquered the Sind area in western India, only to be conquered three centuries later by the Turks. The Turks eventually controlled the Indus Valley, the Punjab, and the rest of northwest India. 3. The conversion of Indians to Islam was encouraged by the Turkish rulers. The caste system in India made it difficult for the Muslims to convert higher-caste Indians. Those who would not convert had to pay a special tax to the Islamic rulers. 11


13 IV. India, Islam, and the Development of Regional Cultures, 300–1400
The Delhi Sultanate 1. Origination 2. Timur Life in Medieval India 1. Agriculture 2. Crafts and trades 3. Kamasutra 4. Gender issues 5. Sati IV. India, Islam, and the Development of Regional Cultures, 300–1400 C. The Delhi Sultanate 1. Turkish rulers from Afghanistan extended control over north India and established the sultanate of Delhi. 2. After numerous efforts to avoid Mongol control, the sultanate was conquered by Timur. D. Life in Medieval India 1. Agricultural production included rice and other cereal crops. Farmers raised livestock, but cattle were raised only for plowing and milk and not for meat. Hindus were forbidden to eat beef. 2. Specialized trades were organized into guilds. Silk had entered from China and was produced along with linen, wool, and cotton fabrics. 3. The writings in the Kamasutra described the life of the well-to-do and explained how to practice the art of love and keep one’s wives happy. 4. Poor children went to work as soon as they were able, while wealthier children were educated. More attention was paid to the male child than to the female. Daughters were married during childhood, with consummation postponed until puberty. 5. Widows were kept apart from society and were expected to lead ascetic lives. Some widows practiced sati, the act of throwing themselves on their husband’s funeral pyre.

14 Men at Work (p. 354) 1. What are some of the activities depicted on the frieze? (Answer: One man seems to be carrying a load, with two baskets or containers balanced across his shoulders on a single pole. One man pours water or perhaps grain into a container held by a second. There is a man raising an axe, perhaps to chop wood. Finally, yet another man, on the bottom left, appears to be hoeing. These are all daily village activities. ) 2. Compare this scene to the court scene on page 349. (Answer: These two images depict the lives of two widely disparate groups of Indian society, commoners and nobility. While the commoners engage in necessary daily activities, the courtiers are conversing in a luxurious environment. At least one seems to be playing a musical instrument. )

15 V. Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the Growth of Maritime Trade
State Formation and Indian Influences 1. Funan 2. Thai tribes 3. Khmer Empire V. Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the Growth of Maritime Trade A. State Formation and Indian Influences 1. Funan was the first state to appear in written records. Its capital was in southern Vietnam. Funan controlled much of Indochina and the Malay Peninsula before its decline. 2. Thai tribes united in a confederacy and expanded northward into Chinese territory held by the Tang Dynasty. The confederacy fell to the Mongol invasions. 3. The Khmer established an empire in the state of Cambodia. Under Indian influence, the Khmer built a large Hindu temple at Angkor Wat.


17 Bayan Relief, Angkor (p. 358)
1. Can you suggest anything about similarities and differences in daily peasant life between the Khmer, the area of the Sanchi temple in India, and the Aztecs by looking at this relief and the images on p. 354 and p. 317? (Answer: Bodies of fresh water (the alligator in the Bayan Relief suggests fresh water and we know from the text that Tenochtitlan was situated on a lake) were important sources of food and facilitated transport for both the Khmer and the Aztecs. The Bayan Relief and the Aztec manuscript both show men poling boats. The Khmer image includes many fish, suggesting that these were an important food for these people, and the Aztec illustration shows a boy fishing with a net. Bodies of fresh water and associated activities do not appear in the image at Sanchi. Men transport goods on their shoulders and one man is hoeing. ) 2. What does the Bayan Relief suggest about hierarchy in Khmer society? (Answer: The relief implies that commoners owed their rulers elaborate rituals of obeisance, and hence that this society was highly hierarchical. There are several scenes of people engaged in ritual submission to an authority figure (see for example the man on his knees kissing the hand of a seated figure on the bottom left center of the relief). It is possible that these scenes of submission reflect the fact that a high proportion of the population under Khmer rule were slaves. ) 3. Why might a Khmer ruler have commissioned friezes depicting such ritual obeisance for a giant temple complex? (Answer: Such a frieze could have perpetuated and legitimated the social hierarchy by showing “proper” practices acknowledging the ruling group’s superiority. )

18 V. Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the Growth of Maritime Trade
The Srivijaya Maritime Trade Empire 1. Origination 2. Chola invasion 3. Buddhism V. Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the Growth of Maritime Trade B. The Srivijaya Maritime Trade Empire 1. Based on the island of Sumatra, the Srivijaya Empire was held together by alliances binding its vassals and allies through the promise of riches through trade. 2. Launching a large naval raid, the Chola state in south India captured the Srivijayan king. Although the Cholas could not capitalize on their victory, their invasion initiated the decline of the Srivijaya kingdom. 3. Buddhism was the most important religion in Southeast Asia, with Theravada Buddhism its most dominant form. 18

19 V. Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the Growth of Maritime Trade
The Spread of Indian Culture in Comparative Perspective 1. Lacking bureaucratic outreach 2. Trade networks The Settlement of the Pacific Islands 1. Polynesians 2. Remote island cultures 3. Deforestation V. Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands and the Growth of Maritime Trade C. The Spread of Indian Culture in Comparative Perspective 1. India’s states were not as successful in drawing outside states into their empires. The Romans and the Chinese were able to incorporate outlying regions under their rule, whereas India remained politically divided. 2. Expansion of Indian culture into Southeast Asia did not take place through conquest but through trade networks that extended Indian influence to other peoples. D. The Settlement of the Pacific Islands 1. Descendants of the ancient Austronesians, the Polynesians learned to sail on the open sea using currents, stars, and paths of birds as navigational guides. 2. The ability to sail distances allowed the settlement of isolated islands in the Pacific Ocean. Some island societies survived on a hunter-gatherer system based on fishing. 3. Island environments were often devastated by the entrance of the new population. Deforestation disrupted the ecosystem of Easter Island, causing food supplies to shrink.


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