Electrum is a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver, with trace amounts of copper and other metals. It has also been produced artificially. 'white gold The ancient Greeks called it 'gold' or 'white gold', as opposed to 'refined gold'. Its color ranges from pale to bright yellow, depending on the proportions of gold and silver. Earliest coinage: Electrum
Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex probably the most famous tragedy ever written. It is known by a variety of titles (the most common being Oedipus Rex), including Oedipus the King and Oedipus Tyrannus. Sophocles first produced the play in Athens around 430 B.C. at the Great Dionysia, a religious and cultural festival held in honor of the god Dionysus, where it won second prize. In the play Oedipus, King of Thebes, upon
Translation (1) Thomas Francklin, 1759 – verse Edward H. Plumptre, 1865 – verse: full text Edward H. Plumptrefull text Richard C. Jebb, 1904 – prose: full text Richard C. Jebbfull text Gilbert Murray, 1911 – verse Gilbert Murray Francis Storr, 1912 – verse: full textfull text William Butler Yeats, 1928 – mixed prose and verse William Butler Yeats David Grene, 1942 (revised ed. 1991) – verse E.F. Watling, 1947 – verse Dudley Fitts and Robert Fitzgerald, 1949 – verseRobert Fitzgerald
Translation (2) Theodore Howard Banks, 1956 – verse Albert Cook, 1957 – verse Bernard Knox, 1959 – prose Bernard Knox H. D. F. Kitto, 1962 – verse H. D. F. Kitto Stephen Berg and Diskin Clay – verse Robert Bagg, 1982 (revised ed. 2004) – verse Robert Fagles, 1984 – verse Robert Fagles Nick Bartel, 1999 – verse: abridged textabridged text Kenneth McLeish, 2001 - Verse George Theodoridis, 2005 – prose: full textfull text Luci Berkowitz and Theodore F. Brunner, 1970 – prose Ian Johnston, 2004 – verse: full textfull text
Ancient Greek Tragedy video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kmSbqfy5Df0&fe ature=related
Ancient Greek Theatre.flv Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vNAM3PzGcow &feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vNAM3PzGcow &feature=related
Three Theban plays: Not a trilogy Oedipus the King Oedipus at Colonus Antigone. Antigone was first performed in 442 BCE. Oedipus the King was first performed c. 429 BCE. Oedipus at Colonus was written shortly before Sophocles' death in 406 BC and produced by his grandson (also called Sophocles) at the Festival of Dionysus in 401 BCE.
People and places to know: Oedipus Jocasta Laius Polybus Merope Sphinx Teiresias (Tiresias ) Apollo Delphi Cithaeron Thebes (the House of Cadamus)
Introduction royal palace of Thebes The setting of the Oedipus the King as in the case of most Greek tragedies, does not require a change of scene. Throughout the play the skene with at least one door represents the facade of the royal palace of Thebes. http://able media.com/ ctcweb/nets hots/oedipu s.htm http://able media.com/ ctcweb/nets hots/oedipu s.htm
PROLOGUE (1-150) - OEDIPUS, PRIEST AND CREON Read (1)
Prologue (Priest, Oedipus, Creon) The priests of Thebes appear before Oedipus as suppliants, entreating him to find some end to the plague. Oedipus has already sent Creon to Delphi, who arrives to report that the killer of Laius must be sought out and banished. Oedipus vows to find the killer and summons the people of the city.
Prologue: Oedipus, Priest and Creon What is the dramatic purpose of the prologue? How does Oedipus characterize himself (8)? What is his attitude toward the suppliants (13-14)?
Pollution/ miasma blood pollution that infects the family, and for a royal family the city itself The Plague of Thebes, oil on canvas, Charles François Jalabeat (French, 1819-1901)
Oedipus "Oidi-pous“ in Greek means "swollen footed” But we can also analyze Oedipus in at least two other ways: oidi- to a Greek sounds like oida, oide = "I know, he knows" (a central theme in the play) -dipous to a Greek means the "two-footed one," with obvious associations to the riddle of the Sphinx (another central theme)
Oedipus Man of action, caring but haughty: 7ff, 71ff etc. Revealer of the truth: 150 Solver of riddles: 443ff (e.g.)
Parodos The Chorus of Theban citizens offer prayers to Zeus, Apollo, Athena for release from the plague.
Parados (151-215) What is the reaction of the Chorus to the advice of Apollo ('the Delian Healer') to Thebes (154-157)? What conditions in Thebes does the Chorus describe)?
Delphi The Pythia was the priestess at the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, located on the slopes of Mount Parnassus.
chorus is an "act-dividing song": – allows for entrances and exits – allows for the scene to change – marks the passage of time directly or indirectly – chorus comments directly or indirectly on what is going on
First Episode Oedipus appeals for information and pronounces his curse on the murderer. Teiresias is summoned: at first he refuses to tell what he knows, but aroused by Oedipus' taunts he declares Oedipus the murderer. Oedipus declares a conspiracy by Creon. Teiresias declares that the murderer is present, and will be found son and husband to his mother.
First Episode (216-462) - Oedipus, Chorus and Teiresias Irony Why does Oedipus summon Teiresias (278-287)? What is Teiresias's reaction to Oedipus's request for help (316-344)?Teiresias
I must know. Know thyself! But knowing is itself problematized in the Oedipus the King: central to the text is not only what is known and by whom, but what it means to "know"-- what is "true" knowing. Insight and blindness
Apollo versus Oedipus: divine versus human knowledge Apollo – sun, day, clear, blazing, burning – fever, blazing, burning: sender of plague and the Healer – intelligence, clear, seeing – brilliance, poetry – truth (knowledge), clear, seeing – divine prophecy, clear, seeing
Prophet/ Tiresias Teiresias, the seer of Oedipus the King: Sophocles’ and Seneca’s versions http://www.leeds.ac.uk/classics/lics/ 2003/200305.pdf http://www.leeds.ac.uk/classics/lics/ 2003/200305.pdf South Italian Red-figure bowl. Detail: Tiresias seated holding sacrificial knife as Odysseus (left) stands by himOdysseus
First Stasimon What is the Chorus’s view of Teiresias's accusations against Oedipus?
Suffering= pathos What has Oedipus done to deserve such awful suffering? Why must he suffer?
Tragedy=an aesthetic question mark The dramatic expression of an enquiry into suffering, an aesthetic question mark performed in enacted pain. While representing an instance of suffering in dramatic form, always asks why it has occurred. Pathology= the study of diseases Etiology= the causes of diseases or a study of causes
hubris "ungodly pride" (hubris) or "tragic flaw" (hamartia)
p. 9 Know thyself, Oedipus. You denounce me, but you do not yet know yourself.
SECOND EPISODE (CREON, OEDIPUS, CHORUS; JOCASTA) Part three
Second Episode, 513-862. (Creon, Oedipus, Chorus; Jocasta) Creon is indignant at Oedipus' accusations. They argue over the charge. Jocasta tries to intervene. Kommos. The Chorus advise restraint and Oedipus lets Creon go, though he declares him an enemy. Oedipus tells Jocasta the source of the dispute. Jocasta tells the story of Laius' death, and Oedipus recognizes many details: but he was a lone killer, whereas a band of killers was reported. Oedipus worries about the oracle; Jocasta denounces its veracity, adducing the prophesy about her son.
Second Stasimon (Chorus) Ode to the sanctity of divine law. The tyrant who ignores justice and reverence for the gods will fall. The oracles must be true.
Third Episode, 911-1085. (Jocasta, Messenger, Chorus; Oedipus) A messenger arrives from Corinth announcing the death of Polybus and Oedipus' ascension. He allays Oedipus' fear of the oracle (that he will marry his mother) by telling him of his true birth. Over Jocasta's objections Oedipus vows to continue his search for the truth. Jocasta runs into the palace.
Third Stasimon, 1086-1109. (Chorus) Ode to Mt. Cithaeron: we will soon know the parentage of Oedipus.
Part Fifth: Fourth Episode (Oedipus, Shepherd, Chorus) The shepherd arrives who exposed the infant of Laius and escaped when Laius was killed. Oedipus' parentage becomes clear. Oedipus rushes into the palace.
Fourth Stasimon (p.27) (Chorus) No man is blest: happiness is but an illusion, for even the great power and blessings of Oedipus have come to a fall. Your example, Oedipus, Your example, your fate, your disaster, Show that none of us mortals Ever knew, ever felt what happiness truly is.
FIFTH EPISODE AND EXODOS The sixth part: p.28-32
Exodos, 1223-1530. (Messenger, Chorus; Oedipus, Creon) announces A messenger announces the suicide of Jocasta and the self-inflicted blinding of Oedipus. Oedipus appears to lament his fate. Creon appears. Oedipus begs him to take care of his children; Antigone and Ismene (mute) arrive to comfort their father. Creon persuades Oedipus to return to the palace, and assumes the kingship.
Chorus p.33 There goes Oedipus— He was the man who was able To answer the riddle proposed by the Sphinx. Mighty Oedipus— He was an object of envy To all for his fortune and fame. There gores Oedipus— Now he is drowning in waves of dread and despair.
conclusion Look at Oedipus— Proof that none of us mortals Can truly be though of as happy Until he is granted deliverance from life, Until he is dead And must suffer no more.
A cave had been Philoctetes’ home since the Greeks abandoned him on Lemnos. Philoctetes sits clutching his magic bow in his left hand. Above right is Odyssues. To the left are Athene and Neoplotemos. 72 Alice Y. Chang Philoctetes is leaving the island of Lemnos
Lemnos or Limnos is an island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea.Aegean Sea It is part of the Greek prefecture of Lesbos and has a considerable area, about 477 km². Lemons
For ancient Greeks, the island was sacred to Hephaestus, god of metallurgy, who— as he tells himself in Iliad I.590ff— fell on Lemnos when his father Zeus hurled him headlong out of Olympus. There, he was cared for by the Sinties, according to Iliad or by Thetis (Apollodorus, Bibliotheke I:3.5), and there with a Thracian nymph Cabiro (a daughter of Proteus) he fathered a tribe called the Cabiroides. Sacred rites dedicated to them were performed in the island. A sacred island
The frequency with which their identity might change is a symptom of its strategic importance to the Hellenic would throughout its history. The island is now administered under the nomos of Lesbos. Lesbos
Lemnos has an area of 476 sq km and, like a number of the Aegean islands, its shape indicates its volcanic origins, two bays to north and south almost dividing the island in two; the smaller, eastern, sector was where the capital of the island in antiquity, Hephaestus, was situated, while on the coast of the western sector, larger and much more mountainous with the highest peak of Mount Skopia reaching 430 m, the medieval and modern capital of Myrina is located. Two sectors
The low-lying and flatter areas of the island are quite fertile, and produce a variety of crops. A tradition, already current in antiquity and still existing in the 20th century, credited Lemnian earth, excavated on one day each year, with the power of healing many kinds of wounds; it was exported all over the Hellenic world. Lemnian earth
figured both in Homeric legend and in Hellenic history In antiquity Lemnos figured both in Homeric legend and in Hellenic history. Herodotus (4.145) related how the Argonauts, who according to legend had arrived on the island and left progeny there, were driven out of Lemnos three generations later by the Pelasgi. figured both in Homeric legend and in Hellenic history
Philoctetes on the island of Lemnos. Marble. Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
Lemnos, they found out that all males had been murdered When the ARGONAUTS, in their way to Colchis, came to Lemnos, they found out that all males had been murdered. For the Lemnian women, having learned that their husbands had taken Thracian wives, resolved to kill all men in Lemnos. ARGONAUTS
http://homepage.mac.com/cparada/GML/Philoctetes. html http://homepage.mac.com/cparada/GML/Philoctetes. html Only Philoctetes excelled me with the bow in the land of the Trojans, when we Achaeans shot." (Odysseus to the Phaeacians. Homer, Odyssey 8.220). "Destruction shall have end when you are dead, the author of our bane." (Philoctetes to Paris. Quintus Smyrnaeus, The Fall of Troy 10.229). Philoctetes and Odysseus