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Chapter 7: Commerce and Culture

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1 Chapter 7: Commerce and Culture
3rd wave civilizations UNIT 3

2 Economic Globalization
Why was trade significant Altered consumption Encouraged specialization Diminished economic self-sufficiency Traders became distinct social groups Sometimes a means of social mobility Provided goods for the elite (usually) Sometimes created state creation Other ideas, innovations, diseases, animals and plants were spread

3 Silk Road

4 Exchange across Europe
Silk Roads form one of the world’s extensive and sustained networks of exchange Relay of trade Provided unity and coherence in Eurasian history The Growth of the Silk Road Eurasia divided in “inner” and “outer” zones Outer- relatively warm, well watered (China, India, Middle East, Mediterranean) Inner- harsher, drier climate and pastoral (Eastern Russia and Central Asia) Creation of 2nd wave civilizations/imperial states tried to control pastoral people Trading networks did best when security was provided by states Roman and Chinese anchored commerce 7th and 8th C- Byzantine, Abbasid and Tang dynasty 13th and 14th C Mongols

5 Goods in Transit Many goods, usually by camel
Luxury goods for elite High cost of transport did not allow movement of staples Silk symbolized Eurasian exchange China had the monopoly on silk at first By 6th C- others were producing Silk was used a currency in Central Asia Silk was symbol of status Volume of trade Peasants in the Yangzi River delta of S China produced market goods Silk, paper, porcelain Well placed individuals could make enormous profits

6 Products that contributed to Silk Road Exchange
China: silk bamboo, mirrors, gunpowder, paper, rhubarb, ginger, lacquer ware, chrysanthemums Siberia and Central Asia: furs, amber, livestock, horses, falcons, hides, copper vessels, tents, saddles, slaves India: cotton textiles, herbal medicine, precious stones, spices Middle East: dates, nuts, almonds, dried fruit, dyes, lapis lazuli (ore to make blue dye), swords Mediterranean: gold coins, glassware, glazes, grapevines, jewelry, artworks, perfume, wool and linen textiles, olive oil

7 Culture in Transit Cultural transmission was more important than exchange of goods Buddhism Spread Appealed to merchants Conversion was heavy in oasis cities and was voluntary In China was the religion of foreign merchants and rulers Transformed during its spread

8 Spread of Buddhism Spread of Hinduism (Blue route)

9 What accounted for the spread of Buddhism along the Silk Roads?
Your Turn:

10 Disease in transit Major populations in Afro-Eurasian world developed disease patterns Long distant trade meant exposure to new diseases Early case- Athens Roman and Han empires CE The Black Death Spread because of the Mongols- thanks Mongols  (remember spread 13th and 14th C) Bubonic plague ?/ anthrax? Killed up to ½ of European population in Similar death toll in China and Islamic World European advantage Western hemisphere after 1500s- Columbian Exchange

11 What was the impact of disease along the Silk Roads?
Your turn:

12 Sea Roads- Indian Ocean

13 Indian Ocean Trade- LOOK up the word COMMERCE!
History Mediterranean Sea- from the time of the Phoenicians Venice was center by 1000 CE Controlled trade of imports from Asia Linked Europe to the much greater trade networks of Indian Ocean Indian Ocean network Trade grew from environmental and cultural diversity Transportation was cheaper by sea than land Bulk goods Monsoons Commerce was between towns- not states

14 Lateen Sails: dhow The exact origins of the dhow are lost to history. Most scholars believe that it originated in China from 600 B.C. to 600 A.D. Lateen Sail allowed sailors to sail across the Indian ocean, could sail into wind

15 Weaving the Web of an Indian Ocean World
Indian Ocean trade started in the 1st wave of civilization Indus valley writing may have been stimulated by cuneiform (who had this?) Ancient Egypt/Phoenicians traded down the Red Sea Malay sailors reached Madagascar in BCE Tempo of commerce increased in early centuries with understanding of the monsoon Merchants from Roman empire settled in S. India and E Africa coast Growing trade in E Indian Ocean and S China Sea Center of trade was India Two great encouragers for Indian Ocean trade Economic and political revival of China Rise of Islam in 7th C (friendly to commercial life) Developed communities- spread their faith

16 Sea Roads as a Catalyst for Change: SE Asia
Ocean commerce transformed SE Asia and E Africa Stimulated political change Introduced foreign religious ideas SE Asia Malay sailors opened all-sea route through Straits of Malacca 350 CE Small sea ports competed to attract traders Malay Kingdom Srivijaya- dominated trade from CE Gold, spices, taxes on ships created state Inland States based on rice production also participated Funan CE (Vietnam and E Cambodia) Khmer kingdom- Angkor ( CE) forest products Champa- Vietnam- tried to control trade and provoked warfare Elements of Indian culture spread to SE Asia, Chinese culture to Vietnam Indian alphabets, artistic forms, political and religious ideas (Buddhism)

17 Sailendras Kingdom- Central Java influenced from India
Massive building of Hindu and Buddhist centers Shows Buddhist cultural grounding Hinduism SE Asia, Champas and Angkor areas “Indianization” Mixed Indian ideas and practices with existing Little conflict Less patriarchal tradition Islam came later

18 Products from Indian Ocean Trade
Mediterranean—ceramics, glassware, wine, gold, olive oil East Africa—ivory, gold, iron goods, slaves, tortoiseshells, quartz, leopard skins Arabia—frankincense (desired far beyond Indian Ocean world), myrrh, perfumes India—grain, ivory, precious stones, cotton textiles, spices, timber SE Asia—tin, sandalwood, cloves, nutmeg, mace China—silks, porcelain, tea

19 Influence of Buddhism in Java
Hindu temple in Java

20 Sea Roads as a Catalyst for Change: E Africa
History of Swahili Civilization Blend of Bantu and Islamic Indian Ocean life East Africa Coast CE Urban Cities politically independent Ruled by a king Most of trade was in Arab ships Deep participation in the Indian Ocean World Regular visitors from Arab, Indian and Persian merchants Swahili was written in Arabic script Spread conversion of Islam Islam and Swahili culture didn’t reach much beyond coast until the 19th c Traded with interior had an impact Trade with interior for gold led to Great Zimbabwe ( CE)

21 What was the role of Swahili civilization in the world of Indian Ocean commerce?
Your Turn:

22 To what extent did the Silk Roads and the Sea Roads operate in a similar/different fashion?
Your turn: Silk Road Similar Different Sea Road

23 Africa

24 West African Trade Routes

25 Sand Roads: Exchange Across the Sahara
Commercial Beginnings in W Africa Based on environmental variation N Africa- manufactured goods Sahara- copper, salt and dates Earliest Trade People among the Sudan Emergence of urban clusters Jenne-Jeno (Niger Valley Civilization) Gold, Salt and Slaves Camel Regular trans-Saharan commerce by 300 CE Merchants really wanted gold Sahara become international trade route Trade encouraged new political structures Ghana, Mali, Songhay, Kanem, Hausa Monarchies- elaborate court life Slavery West Africa, mostly women Male slaves- porters, craftsmen, miners, laborers Raided from further South

26 The Americas

27 An American Network: Commerce and Connection in the Western Hemisphere
NO interaction between E. and W. until Columbus American trade networks were not as dense as Afro-Eurasian Important limitations Lack of domesticated large mammals, wheeled vehicles, large ocean going ships Geographical/environmental obstacles “Loosely interactive web”- Great Lake to Andes Cultural elements spread gradually Cahokia was center of widespread trading network Amazon and Orinoco river exchange Caribbean peoples had interisland trade Chincha people traded along Pacific Coast of S America

28 Major trade network in Mesoamerica
Chaco canyon culture interacted with Mesoamerica Maya and Teotihuacan traded by land Maya traded by Sea on BOTH coasts (dugout canoes) Aztecs by 15th C had professional merchants - pochteca Major trade network in Andes was state run Inca distributed supplies from great state storehouses 20,000 miles of road Some local exchange at fairs along borders of empire

29 Mesoamerica

30 Andes/Incan Road System

31 Continuities and Change
Changes Move from barter to coins as system of exchange Greater interaction between civilizations – direct links between Rome and China Cultural diffusion through trade – spread of religion, architecture, disease Decline in trade in Europe after fall of Rome Continuities Dominance of India in trade The importance of the Silk Road and maritime trade routes Constantinople as western trade hub

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