Presentation on theme: "Roman Cities and Architecture Video: Roman City by David Macaulay."— Presentation transcript:
Roman Cities and Architecture Video: Roman City by David Macaulay
Roman Empire: Augustus Caesar The legions remained loyal to him…
On a separate piece of paper, answer these questions, using Primary Sources packet… 1. What are two things you learned from our guest? 2. How do Suetonius and Tacitus differ in their accounts from that of Augustus’s own account? 3. List the five most significant reforms of Octavian. Why did you choose these? 4. What evidence is there that Augustus used “bread and circuses” to gain the support of the people? (Find a quote and explain it)
Elected Govt Under Augustus Went On… He was consul 13 times; then tribune 37 times Other Consuls - consulted Senate – consulted Other Tribunes – consulted Civil Service – Salaried, unelected officials chosen by Caesar BUT… – Silver Age historian Cassius Dio's revealing words: “Nothing was done that did not please Caesar."
Augustus Unifies Roman Empire Large Civil Service Enhances Trade – Denarius – Ended taxes between provinces Widespread Construction – Aquaducts, temples, roads, the curia (Senate building) – Concrete – Marble façade over brick and concrete Pax Romana continues until death of Last Good Emperor 27BCE – 180 AD
The Good, the Bad and the Evil Emperors What made the Julian Emperors Julian? – Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero And the Good Emperors good? – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius, Marcus Aurelius
Pax Romana damaged: How so? Plague from the East Danube River Attacks by Germanic tribesmen Marcus Aurelius’ son Commodus was a bad choice for emperor, civil conflicts renew
How did literature and attitudes change after Augustus? Augustinian Age (31BC-14AD) versus the Silver Age (14AD-138 AD) Livy Virgil “Remember Romans, these are your talents; to rule people by law, and to establish the ways of peace, To spare the conquered, and to crush the haughty.” Juvenal “What should I do in Rome? I am no good at lying.” Tacitus “They make a desert and call it peace.” Suetonius Find a quote in the packet Satire
Roman Baths, or Thermae in Bath, England Calderium, Tepiderium, Frigiderium, or Palaestra?
Roads/Bridges Who built these? How? For what what reasons?
The Pantheon 118-125 AD What’s it used for? How was it built? Dome, Oculus
Note the Greek temple pediment and Corinthian columns…
Aqueducts Click on link to build and learn about aqueducts PBS Aquedict LinkPBS Aquedict Link
Why does you book say that the law was Rome’s most lasting Influence?? 1. No person should be judged guilty of a crime until after the facts of case are examined. 2. All accused of a crime have a right to face accusers and defend themselves before a judge. 3. Guilt must be proved beyond a reasonable doubt. 4. Unreasonable laws should be eliminated or altered.
Philosophy Cicero was a Stoic, as was Marcus Aurelius (emperor 162- 180 AD) who wrote the Book, Meditations. Stoics and the Law From Greek word for “porch” A pervading “logos” rules everything Logos is natural law Each person has this logos also within The Universe is logical Teaches self-control to individuals Virtue, wisdom, and integrity of character Clear thinking, eliminate bias Change laws to be rational: pater familias Detachment from distracting emotions.
Epicurean Philosophy: Pursuit of Pleasure The Question is: what gives the most and highest pleasure? Epicurus: The highest pleasure was obtained by knowledge, friendship, and living a virtuous life. – Enjoy simple pleasures, – Turn away from excessive bodily desires. – When eating, one should not eat too richly, for it could lead to dissatisfaction later. Later Romans altered the basic meaning – Focus: The love of pleasure or hedonism. An excuse to indulge in food, wine and other activities. Roman Parties would last days and include meal after meal, purging themselves (vomitorium).vomitorium Epicurus was a Greek (c. 340–c. 270 BC)