Presentation on theme: "World History Sr. Mara Rose, O.P."— Presentation transcript:
1World History Sr. Mara Rose, O.P. The Middle AgesWorld HistorySr. Mara Rose, O.P.
2Break Down Early Middle Ages High Middle Ages Late Middle Ages 500 100013001500Early Middle AgesHigh Middle AgesLate Middle Ages
3Early Middle Ages Rise of the Germanic kingdoms New system of government: ManorialismRevival of the Eastern EmpireCarolingian dynastySeljuk Turks1000500600700800900Birth of the prophet MuhammadSt. Benedict found monastery525570Charlemagne becomes emperorFall of RomeOtto I becomes emperor962787Second Council of Nicea622Muslim Calendar begins732Franks defeat Muslims at Tours
4High Middle Ages Rise in Feudalism New & better farming techniques First European universitiesCommunal enterprises in governmentWilliam, duke of Normandy, conquers England1300100011001150120012501066Constantinople fallsEarly Middle AgesAcre falls to the Muslims12911187Saladin defeats Crusaders1163Begin building Notre Dame CathedralLate Middle Ages1095Pope Urban II calls for the first crusade12041215King John signs Magna Carta
5Late Middle Ages The Black Death/Plague Rise in Literature and literacyThreat from the east of the Ottoman EmpireIncrease in popular piety and religious ideasPop-Up QuizWhat were the reasons for the fall of Rome?ChristianityA series of eventsConstantineHigh Middle AgesAvignon papacy begins130013501400145015001305Constantinople falls for the last time1417Great Schism Ends1378Great Schism beginsRennaisance1347Black Death first appears in Italy1453
7Regional Rule, Local Views 500-750 Question of the day: What impact did the disappearance of centralized authority have on the economy in western Europe?
8Regional Rule, Local Views 500-750 Power vacuum: who will fill the void?Barbarian leadersSmall political unitsIndependent from former Mediterranean ruleViolent and unstable
9Three Civilizations, 800Three civilizations emerged out of the old Roman world: the barbarian kingdoms in western Europe, the Byzantine Empire centered around Constantinople, and the Muslims in the south and east.What might be the consequences of the diversity among Rome’s successors?
11Regional Rule, Local Views 500-750 Kingship and Rule in Merovingian GaulA Father’s EstateConsequence: Familial ViolenceWarrior ChieftainsPop-Up QuizFrom your reading: After the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus was deposed, thea. Emphasis in western Europe was on local rule.b. Gothic tribes formed a political alliance.c. Former provinces of the Roman Empire were run by legion commanders.d. Church stepped in to rule instead of the imperial senate.The sword hilts pictured here reveal the high quality of Merovingian crafts. The delicate gold leaf on the handle indicates that the king who wielded these weapons used them for display more than for battle.
12Regional Rule, Local Views 500-750 The Iberian and Italian PeninsulasVisigothic Rule in IberiaConversion from Arian to Roman ChristianityConquest by the Muslims, 718Italy and the LombardsTensions with the Church and PopeFrankish Protection of the PopeThe conversion of the Visigoths from Arian to Roman Christianity made them more acceptable as rulers to the people of the Iberian Peninsula. What does the fortress-like appearance of this church suggest about the role churches sometimes played in the sixth century?
13Regional Rule, Local Views 500-750 The Decline of TradeEconomic ChangesDecrease in Luxury GoodsChange from Gold to SilverHeightened Self-SufficiencyFewer MarketsThe Decline of CitiesLittle Safety in NumbersCities in the Italian PeninsulaThe Survival of Roman InfrastructurePop-Up QuizOne of the major problems contributing to warfare in Merovingian Gaul was thatAll branches of the family were entitled to form their own dynastyAll property was divided equally among descendants, instigating fights for powerThey were on the border with the VandalsThere was much intermarriage between clans
14Regional Rule, Local Views 500-750 On a piece of paper, using RATS, answer the question of the day:What impact did the disappearance of centralized authority have on the economy in western Europe?
15Justinian and the Revival of the Empire in the East, 500-650 Chapter 8
16Justinian and the Revival of the Empire in the East, 500-650 Question of the Day: In what ways did Emperor Justinian seek to codify Christian belief?
17Remember: Three Civilizations, 800 Think Back/Look BackIn Chapter 7 on page 209 it discusses the beginning of the Byzantine Empire.Take a minute to look over the text.Then with your neighbor, take 2 minutes to discuss the differences with the West.
18Justinian and the Revival of the Empire in the East, 500-650 The Ambitions of Justinian I (r )ReconquestThe Campaigns of Belisarius ( )Success in North Africa and the Italian PeninsulaEastern Threats: Persia and the SlavsThe Costs of EmpireCeremonyImperial DignityEmpress Theodora ( )The Nika Riot, 532
19Justinian and the Revival of the Empire in the East, 500-650 What does this map reveal about the challenges that confronted Byzantium in its attempts to maintain Justinian’s ambitious reconquest and his plans to restore imperial glory?During costly campaigns in Justinian’s reign, the Byzantine Empire conquered lands held by several barbarian kingdoms in the west, including Italy.Justinian’s Empire
20Justinian and the Revival of the Empire in the East, 500-650 The Search for Christian UnityAuthorityThe Mystery of the MassThe Limitations of LaityBeliefThe Debate over the Nature of ChristThe Condemnation of the MonophysitesPop-Up QuizWhich was the most costly of Justinian’s economic expenses?A. Building fortifications to fend off the SlavsB. Maintaining armies against PersiaC. Building the Hagia Sophia cathedralD. Retaking ItalyPop-Up QuizIn Justinian's attempts to strengthen the church, in which he considered his power co-equal, he persecuted all of the following except theMonophysitesNicenesJewsNeoplatonicsThe asymmetrical eyes of this life-size icon of Jesus Christ are intended to signal Christ’s dual nature.
21Justinian and the Revival of the Empire in the East, 500-650 The Codification of Roman LawThe Body of Civil LawFamily LawThe Governance of the Patria PotestasCommerceThe Regulating Power of Contracts
22Justinian and the Revival of the Empire in the East, 500-650 Constantinople: The New RomeThe Grandeur of the Hagia SophiaThe Epicenter of CommerceBazaarsThe Ravages of Bubonic PlagueThe immense dome of Constantinople’s Hagia Sophia was meant to instill a sense of awe.
23The Hagia SophiaJustinian’s Hagia Sophia dominated the urban landscape of sixth-century Constantinople and still stands out in the skyline of modern Istanbul.
24Justinian and the Revival of the Empire in the East, 500-650 The Empire after JustinianNew PressuresLombards in the WestAvars in the EastHeraclius (r )Reforms and StabilizationVictory against the Persians
25Justinian and the Revival of the Empire in the East, 500-650 On a piece of paper, using RATS, answer the question of the day:In what ways did Emperor Justinian seek to codify Christian belief?
27Question of the Day: How did bishops and monasteries help to preserve social order and literacy after the end of the empire in the West?
28The Western Church, 500-800 The Christianization of Northern Europe Mission to BritainPope Gregory I (r ) and Augustine of Canterbury (d. 604)Aethelbert (r. ca ) and Bertha of KentSynod of Whitby, 664Irish MonksColumba ( )Columbanus ( )Boniface (ca )Pope Gregory I sent missionaries to convert the peoples of northern Europe and the British Isles. He also wrote theological works that led to his inclusion among the Church Fathers.
29The Western Church, 500-800 The Bishops The Bishop of Rome Regional ConsultationAdministration: Bishopric/Diocese, Parish, CathedralMasses, Tithes, and DogmaSecular CooperationThe Bishop of RomeA Prestigious Office: the Papacy and Papal StatesFar-Reaching ClaimsThe Donation of Constantine
30The Western Church, 500-800 Monasticism and Learning A Way of Life and PrayerBenedict of Nursia (ca )Rules, the Divine Office, and CloisterIntellectual WorkScribes and IlluminationBede (ca )Religious WomenMonks spent part of their day walking in silent contemplation around the cloister with their prayer books. In all honesty they did more than that!
31The Western Church,On a piece of paper, using RATS, answer the question of the day:How did bishops and monasteries help to preserve social order and literacy after the end of the empire in the West?
32The Rise of Islam, 600-700 & The Expansion of Islam, 700-800 Chapter 9
33The Rise & Expansion of Islam Question of the Day: How did the spread of Islam in the eighth century change the religious and political landscape of the Mediterranean?
34The Rise of Islam, 600-700 The Setting: the Arabian Peninsula Trade and the CaravansThe Coastal Plain and the TownsMecca and the Importance of the KaabaThe Domination of the Quraysh Tribe
35The Rise of Islam, 600-700 The Life of Muhammad (570-632) Conversion The Recitations (Sura; the Basis for the Quran)The Spread of Muhammad’s MessageHostility in Mecca and Invitation to MedinaThe Hejira, 622Muhammad’s Leadership and DeathDuring pre-Islamic times the Kaaba in Mecca served as an important destination for religious pilgrims.
36The Rise of Islam, 600-700 Religious Beliefs Submission and Obedience to God’s WillThe Five Pillars of IslamOne God—AllahPrayerFasting During RamadanCharityThe Hajj, Pilgrimage to Mecca
37The Rise of Islam, 600-700 Christians and Jews: People of the Book Contrasts in Ideas and Practices of AuthorityTreatment of the DhimmiMuslim FamiliesThe Practice of PolygamyPrivacy, Protection, and Restrictions for WomenThe Harem, Seclusion, and VeilingOpportunities: Property Management and Moral Authority
38The Expansion of Islam, 700-800 The First Caliphs and Territorial ExpansionThe Umayyad DynastyThe Schism between Shi’ites and SunnisThe New Capital in Damascus, 661Conquest of Persia and Byzantine LandsUnder the leadership of the caliphs, Islam spread dramatically in the first one hundred years after the death of Muhammad.
39The Expansion of Islam, 700-800 Conquest in the WestThe Conversion of the BerbersTariq ibn Ziyad (d. 720) and the Conquest of GibralterSettlement in Africa and IberiaDefeat by the Franks at Tours, 732The Abbasid Dynasty and the New Capital at BaghdadThe Creation of the Caliphate at Cordoba
40The Expansion of Islam, 700-800 Islamic CivilizationThe Influence of Older Cultures and TraditionsArt and LiteratureThe Poetry of Abu Nuwas (ca )Commerce and Urban LifeThe Promotion of TradeCultural Unification and the Arabic LanguageIslamic art and architecture, as depicted in this mosque in Cordoba, Spain, retained their distinctive features throughout the Muslim world.
41The Expansion of Islam, 700-800 On a piece of paper, using RATS, answer the question of the day:How did the spread of Islam in the eighth century change the religious and political landscape of the Mediterranean?
42Charlemagne and the Revival of Empire in the West, 700-900 Chapter 9
43Charlemagne and the Revival of Empire in the West, 700-900 Question of the Day:
44Charlemagne and the Revival of Empire in the West, 700-900 From Mayor (Major Domo) to KingThe CarolingiansCharles Martel ( ), “the Hammer”Tours, 732Pepin (r )Acting Like a KingFrom King to EmperorCharlemagne (r )Reviving the Title of Emperor, 800Charlemagne, seen here with his wife, was the first ruler in the West to bear the title of emperor in over three hundred years.What might the difference in the size of Charlemagne and his wife signify besides relative height?
45Europe and the Mediterranean, ca. 800 In the Treaty of Verdun, Charlemagne’s grandsons, Louis the German, Lothar, and Charles the Bald, divided the Frankish kingdom among themselves. They continued the Frankish inheritance custom of dividing kingdoms equally among male heirs.Europe and the Mediterranean, ca. 800Does the Frankish kingdom seem integrated into the old Mediterranean world or isolated from it?
47Charlemagne and the Revival of Empire in the West, 700-900 Imperial RuleMinisterial KingshipCounts, Missi Dominici, and CartulariesA New Capital: AachenA Cultural RevivalAlcuin of York (ca )LiturgySeven Liberal ArtsThe Partition of EmpireLouis the PiousTreaty of Verdun, 843Charlemagne spent nearly his entire reign on military campaign. Late in life, he settled in his capital at Aachen in northern Germany. This bronze statue of Charlemagne on horseback shows him wearing a crown and holding an orb.
48Charlemagne and the Revival of Empire in the West, 700-900 On a piece of paper, using RATS, answer the question of the day:
50Middle Byzantine Period, 600-1071 Questions of the Day:What concerns did Byzantine emperors have about the use of icons in religious worship?What factors contributed to the growing divide between the two halves of the old Roman Empire?
51Middle Byzantine Period, 600-1071 Losses and ReformsTerritorial Decline in the South and WestThe Loss of Syria, Palestine, and EgyptMilitary and Administrative PoliciesConstans II ( ) and the Creation of ThemesStrengthening DefensesThe Navy and Greek FireThe CataphractsCreating Dissension
52Middle Byzantine Period, 600-1071 The Waning of Byzantine SocietyPlague and Population CollapseThe Decline of Education and LiteracyThe Controversy over IconsLeo III (r ) and the Initiation of IconoclasmIcons, like this depiction of Jacob’s ladder from the twelfth century, served as a focus for worship in early Byzantine history, but few survived the period of iconoclasm.
54Middle Byzantine Period, 600-1071 Irene (ca ): From Regent to EmpressConsolidating Power and Ending IconoclasmA Reorientation to the NorthThe Threat of the RusConversion through Missionaries Cyril (ca ), Methodius (ca ), and the Cyrillic AlphabetThe Growing Muslim Threat in the SouthThe Seljuk Turks and Manzikert, 1071
55Middle Byzantine Period, 600-1071 On a piece of paper, using RATS, answer the question of the day:What concerns did Byzantine emperors have about the use of icons in religious worship?What factors contributed to the growing divide between the two halves of the old Roman Empire?
56Order and Disorder in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries Chapter 9
57Order and Disorder in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries Question of the Day: Which factors played a role in perpetuating the warfare and violence among the ruling families of the Frankish kingdoms?
58Order and Disorder in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries Lords and VassalsLand Grants (Fiefs) and Fealty in Return for Military Service in Feudal ArmiesPeasants and the ManorWorking the DemesneSerfs: Labor and LimitationsBailiffs: Peasant Authority on the Manor
59The Carolingian WorldMerchants in Europe never ceased to supply slaves to the Byzantines and Muslims. Captives were sold in the major slave markets of Constantinople, Cordoba, Rome, and Alexandria.
60In which direction did most trade run In which direction did most trade run? Which regions did the Vikings raid and which did they settle?
61Order and Disorder in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries Saracens in the MediterraneanVikings in the NorthThe Danes and Alfred of Wessex (r )The Norsemen in FranceViking Society: SagasBeowulfMagyars in the EastDefeat at Lechfeld, 955Seventy feet long and sixteen feet wide, a Viking long ship was capable of navigation over deep-sea water and up shallow river routes. How efficient would a vessel like this have been for carrying crew, provisions, and cargo?
62Order and Disorder in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries The Empire Under Otto (r )Religious AuthorityConquestProvincial Administration: DukesThe isolated setting of the monastery at Conques in southwestern France is typical of monasteries seeking refuge from invaders and warlords.
63Order and Disorder in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries On a piece of paper, using RATS, answer the question of the day: Which factors played a role in perpetuating the warfare and violence among the ruling families of the Frankish kingdoms?
64Work CitedMaking Europe: The Story of the West. Kidner, Bucer, Mathisen McKee, and Weeks. Cengage Learning. (Boston, 2009).