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The Middle Ages World History Sr. Mara Rose, O.P..

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Presentation on theme: "The Middle Ages World History Sr. Mara Rose, O.P.."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Middle Ages World History Sr. Mara Rose, O.P.

2 Break Down Early Middle Ages High Middle Ages Late Middle Ages

3 Early Middle Ages Rise of the Germanic kingdoms New system of government: Manorialism Revival of the Eastern Empire Carolingian dynasty Seljuk Turks Birth of the prophet Muhammad St. Benedict found monastery Charlemagne becomes emperor Fall of Rome Otto I becomes emperor Second Council of Nicea 622 Muslim Calendar begins 732 Franks defeat Muslims at Tours

4 Rise in Feudalism New & better farming techniques First European universities Communal enterprises in government High Middle Ages William, duke of Normandy, conquers England Constantinople falls Early Middle Ages Acre falls to the Muslims Saladin defeats Crusaders 1163 Begin building Notre Dame Cathedral Late Middle Ages 1095 Pope Urban II calls for the first crusade King John signs Magna Carta

5 Late Middle Ages The Black Death/Plague Rise in Literature and literacy Threat from the east of the Ottoman Empire Increase in popular piety and religious ideas High Middle Ages Avignon papacy begins Constantinople falls for the last time 1417 Great Schism Ends 1378 Great Schism begins Rennaisance 1347 Black Death first appears in Italy 1453 Pop-Up Quiz What were the reasons for the fall of Rome? A.Christianity B.A series of events C.Constantine

6 CHAPTER 9 Regional Rule, Local Views,

7 Regional Rule, Local Views Question of the day: What impact did the disappearance of centralized authority have on the economy in western Europe?

8 Regional Rule, Local Views Power vacuum: who will fill the void? – Barbarian leaders Small political units Independent from former Mediterranean rule Violent and unstable

9 Three Civilizations, 800 What might be the consequences of the diversity among Rome’s successors?

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11 Regional Rule, Local Views Kingship and Rule in Merovingian Gaul – A Father’s Estate Consequence: Familial Violence – Warrior Chieftains The sword hilts pictured here reveal the high quality of Merovingian crafts. The delicate gold leaf on the handle indicates that the king who wielded these weapons used them for display more than for battle. Pop-Up Quiz From your reading: After the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus was deposed, the a. Emphasis in western Europe was on local rule. b. Gothic tribes formed a political alliance. c. Former provinces of the Roman Empire were run by legion commanders. d. Church stepped in to rule instead of the imperial senate.

12 The Iberian and Italian Peninsulas – Visigothic Rule in Iberia Conversion from Arian to Roman Christianity Conquest by the Muslims, 718 – Italy and the Lombards Tensions with the Church and Pope – Frankish Protection of the Pope Regional Rule, Local Views The conversion of the Visigoths from Arian to Roman Christianity made them more acceptable as rulers to the people of the Iberian Peninsula. What does the fortress-like appearance of this church suggest about the role churches sometimes played in the sixth century?

13 The Decline of Trade – Economic Changes Decrease in Luxury Goods Change from Gold to Silver Heightened Self-Sufficiency – Fewer Markets The Decline of Cities – Little Safety in Numbers – Cities in the Italian Peninsula The Survival of Roman Infrastructure Regional Rule, Local Views Pop-Up Quiz One of the major problems contributing to warfare in Merovingian Gaul was that A.All branches of the family were entitled to form their own dynasty B.All property was divided equally among descendants, instigating fights for power C.They were on the border with the Vandals D.There was much intermarriage between clans

14 On a piece of paper, using RATS, answer the question of the day: What impact did the disappearance of centralized authority have on the economy in western Europe? Regional Rule, Local Views

15 CHAPTER 8 Justinian and the Revival of the Empire in the East,

16 Question of the Day: In what ways did Emperor Justinian seek to codify Christian belief? Justinian and the Revival of the Empire in the East,

17 Remember: Three Civilizations, 800 Think Back/Look Back In Chapter 7 on page 209 it discusses the beginning of the Byzantine Empire. Take a minute to look over the text. Then with your neighbor, take 2 minutes to discuss the differences with the West.

18 Justinian and the Revival of the Empire in the East, The Ambitions of Justinian I (r ) – Reconquest The Campaigns of Belisarius ( ) – Success in North Africa and the Italian Peninsula Eastern Threats: Persia and the Slavs The Costs of Empire – Ceremony Imperial Dignity Empress Theodora ( ) – The Nika Riot, 532

19 Justinian and the Revival of the Empire in the East, Justinian’s Empire What does this map reveal about the challenges that confronted Byzantium in its attempts to maintain Justinian’s ambitious reconquest and his plans to restore imperial glory?

20 Justinian and the Revival of the Empire in the East, The Search for Christian Unity – Authority The Mystery of the Mass The Limitations of Laity – Belief The Debate over the Nature of Christ – The Condemnation of the Monophysites The asymmetrical eyes of this life-size icon of Jesus Christ are intended to signal Christ’s dual nature. Pop-Up Quiz Which was the most costly of Justinian’s economic expenses? A. Building fortifications to fend off the Slavs B. Maintaining armies against Persia C. Building the Hagia Sophia cathedral D. Retaking Italy Pop-Up Quiz In Justinian's attempts to strengthen the church, in which he considered his power co-equal, he persecuted all of the following except the A.Monophysites B.Nicenes C.Jews D.Neoplatonics

21 The Codification of Roman Law – The Body of Civil Law – Family Law The Governance of the Patria Potestas – Commerce The Regulating Power of Contracts Justinian and the Revival of the Empire in the East,

22 Constantinople: The New Rome – The Grandeur of the Hagia Sophia – The Epicenter of Commerce Bazaars – The Ravages of Bubonic Plague The immense dome of Constantinople’s Hagia Sophia was meant to instill a sense of awe.

23 The Hagia Sophia Justinian’s Hagia Sophia dominated the urban landscape of sixth-century Constantinople and still stands out in the skyline of modern Istanbul.

24 The Empire after Justinian – New Pressures Lombards in the West Avars in the East – Heraclius (r ) Reforms and Stabilization Victory against the Persians Justinian and the Revival of the Empire in the East,

25 On a piece of paper, using RATS, answer the question of the day: In what ways did Emperor Justinian seek to codify Christian belief? Justinian and the Revival of the Empire in the East,

26 CHAPTER 9 The Western Church,

27 Question of the Day: How did bishops and monasteries help to preserve social order and literacy after the end of the empire in the West?

28 The Western Church, The Christianization of Northern Europe – Mission to Britain Pope Gregory I (r ) and Augustine of Canterbury (d. 604) – Aethelbert (r. ca ) and Bertha of Kent – Synod of Whitby, 664 – Irish Monks Columba ( ) Columbanus ( ) Boniface (ca ) Pope Gregory I sent missionaries to convert the peoples of northern Europe and the British Isles. He also wrote theological works that led to his inclusion among the Church Fathers.

29 The Bishops – Regional Consultation Administration: Bishopric/Diocese, Parish, Cathedral Masses, Tithes, and Dogma Secular Cooperation The Bishop of Rome – A Prestigious Office: the Papacy and Papal States – Far-Reaching Claims The Donation of Constantine The Western Church,

30 Monasticism and Learning – A Way of Life and Prayer Benedict of Nursia (ca ) – Rules, the Divine Office, and Cloister – Intellectual Work Scribes and Illumination Bede (ca ) – Religious Women Monks spent part of their day walking in silent contemplation around the cloister with their prayer books. In all honesty they did more than that!

31 The Western Church, On a piece of paper, using RATS, answer the question of the day: How did bishops and monasteries help to preserve social order and literacy after the end of the empire in the West?

32 CHAPTER 9 The Rise of Islam, & The Expansion of Islam,

33 The Rise & Expansion of Islam Question of the Day: How did the spread of Islam in the eighth century change the religious and political landscape of the Mediterranean?

34 The Rise of Islam, The Setting: the Arabian Peninsula – Trade and the Caravans – The Coastal Plain and the Towns Mecca and the Importance of the Kaaba – The Domination of the Quraysh Tribe

35 The Life of Muhammad ( ) – Conversion The Recitations (Sura; the Basis for the Quran) The Spread of Muhammad’s Message – Hostility in Mecca and Invitation to Medina The Hejira, 622 – Muhammad’s Leadership and Death The Rise of Islam, During pre-Islamic times the Kaaba in Mecca served as an important destination for religious pilgrims.

36 Religious Beliefs – Submission and Obedience to God’s Will – The Five Pillars of Islam One God—Allah Prayer Fasting During Ramadan Charity The Hajj, Pilgrimage to Mecca The Rise of Islam,

37 Christians and Jews: People of the Book – Contrasts in Ideas and Practices of Authority – Treatment of the Dhimmi Muslim Families – The Practice of Polygamy – Privacy, Protection, and Restrictions for Women The Harem, Seclusion, and Veiling Opportunities: Property Management and Moral Authority The Rise of Islam,

38 The Expansion of Islam, The First Caliphs and Territorial Expansion The Umayyad Dynasty – The Schism between Shi’ites and Sunnis – The New Capital in Damascus, 661 Conquest of Persia and Byzantine Lands Under the leadership of the caliphs, Islam spread dramatically in the first one hundred years after the death of Muhammad.

39 The Expansion of Islam, Conquest in the West – The Conversion of the Berbers – Tariq ibn Ziyad (d. 720) and the Conquest of Gibralter – Settlement in Africa and Iberia Defeat by the Franks at Tours, 732 The Abbasid Dynasty and the New Capital at Baghdad The Creation of the Caliphate at Cordoba

40 The Expansion of Islam, Islamic Civilization – The Influence of Older Cultures and Traditions – Art and Literature The Poetry of Abu Nuwas (ca ) – Commerce and Urban Life The Promotion of Trade – Cultural Unification and the Arabic Language Islamic art and architecture, as depicted in this mosque in Cordoba, Spain, retained their distinctive features throughout the Muslim world.

41 On a piece of paper, using RATS, answer the question of the day: How did the spread of Islam in the eighth century change the religious and political landscape of the Mediterranean? The Expansion of Islam,

42 CHAPTER 9 Charlemagne and the Revival of Empire in the West,

43 Question of the Day:

44 Charlemagne and the Revival of Empire in the West, From Mayor (Major Domo) to King – The Carolingians Charles Martel ( ), “the Hammer” – Tours, 732 Pepin (r ) – Acting Like a King From King to Emperor – Charlemagne (r ) Reviving the Title of Emperor, 800 What might the difference in the size of Charlemagne and his wife signify besides relative height?

45 Europe and the Mediterranean, ca. 800 Does the Frankish kingdom seem integrated into the old Mediterranean world or isolated from it?

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47 Charlemagne and the Revival of Empire in the West, Imperial Rule – Ministerial Kingship Counts, Missi Dominici, and Cartularies – A New Capital: Aachen – A Cultural Revival Alcuin of York (ca ) Liturgy Seven Liberal Arts The Partition of Empire – Louis the Pious – Treaty of Verdun, 843 Charlemagne spent nearly his entire reign on military campaign. Late in life, he settled in his capital at Aachen in northern Germany. This bronze statue of Charlemagne on horseback shows him wearing a crown and holding an orb.

48 Charlemagne and the Revival of Empire in the West, On a piece of paper, using RATS, answer the question of the day:

49 CHAPTER 8 Middle Byzantine Period,

50 Questions of the Day: What concerns did Byzantine emperors have about the use of icons in religious worship? What factors contributed to the growing divide between the two halves of the old Roman Empire?

51 Middle Byzantine Period, Losses and Reforms – Territorial Decline in the South and West The Loss of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt – Military and Administrative Policies Constans II ( ) and the Creation of Themes Strengthening Defenses – The Navy and Greek Fire – The Cataphracts Creating Dissension

52 Middle Byzantine Period, The Waning of Byzantine Society – Plague and Population Collapse – The Decline of Education and Literacy The Controversy over Icons – Leo III (r ) and the Initiation of Iconoclasm Icons, like this depiction of Jacob’s ladder from the twelfth century, served as a focus for worship in early Byzantine history, but few survived the period of iconoclasm.

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54 Middle Byzantine Period, Irene (ca ): From Regent to Empress – Consolidating Power and Ending Iconoclasm A Reorientation to the North – The Threat of the Rus Conversion through Missionaries Cyril (ca ), Methodius (ca ), and the Cyrillic Alphabet – The Growing Muslim Threat in the South The Seljuk Turks and Manzikert, 1071

55 On a piece of paper, using RATS, answer the question of the day: What concerns did Byzantine emperors have about the use of icons in religious worship? What factors contributed to the growing divide between the two halves of the old Roman Empire? Middle Byzantine Period,

56 CHAPTER 9 Order and Disorder in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries

57 Question of the Day: Which factors played a role in perpetuating the warfare and violence among the ruling families of the Frankish kingdoms?

58 Order and Disorder in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries Lords and Vassals – Land Grants (Fiefs) and Fealty in Return for Military Service in Feudal Armies Peasants and the Manor – Working the Demesne – Serfs: Labor and Limitations – Bailiffs: Peasant Authority on the Manor

59 The Carolingian World Merchants in Europe never ceased to supply slaves to the Byzantines and Muslims. Captives were sold in the major slave markets of Constantinople, Cordoba, Rome, and Alexandria.

60 In which direction did most trade run? Which regions did the Vikings raid and which did they settle?

61 Order and Disorder in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries Saracens in the Mediterranean Vikings in the North – The Danes and Alfred of Wessex (r ) – The Norsemen in France – Viking Society: Sagas Beowulf Magyars in the East – Defeat at Lechfeld, 955 Seventy feet long and sixteen feet wide, a Viking long ship was capable of navigation over deep-sea water and up shallow river routes. How efficient would a vessel like this have been for carrying crew, provisions, and cargo?

62 Order and Disorder in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries The Empire Under Otto (r ) – Religious Authority – Conquest – Provincial Administration: Dukes The isolated setting of the monastery at Conques in southwestern France is typical of monasteries seeking refuge from invaders and warlords.

63 Order and Disorder in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries On a piece of paper, using RATS, answer the question of the day: Which factors played a role in perpetuating the warfare and violence among the ruling families of the Frankish kingdoms?

64 Work Cited Making Europe: The Story of the West. Kidner, Bucer, Mathisen McKee, and Weeks. Cengage Learning. (Boston, 2009).


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