Presentation on theme: "McGill University-World Economic Forum Session on the Economic Benefits of Space Joseph N. Pelton Former Dean, International Space Univ. and former Director."— Presentation transcript:
McGill University-World Economic Forum Session on the Economic Benefits of Space Joseph N. Pelton Former Dean, International Space Univ. and former Director of Intelsat’s Project SHARE July 2013
Space technology is now essential to coping with climate change, problems such as the Ozone Hole and other atmospheric and stratospheric issues. Recently there are signs of “cracks in the Earth’s magnetic field and changes to the Van Allen’s belts that suggest serious concerns from cosmic hazards may increase in coming years. Again the economic impact and risk levels are outside the scope of easy imagination but understand that this ricks are potentially far, far greater than the damage caused by weapons of mass destruction.
Tele-education and tele-health services are just the start Emergency warning systems (hurricanes, tsunamis, volcanoes, tornados, earthquakes, etc.) and emergency recovery National and regional coordination of governmental programs Health alerts and pandemic warnings National criminal data bases & police communications (terrorist attack responses, amber alerts, etc.) Air traffic control and management, especially during take off and landing. Air, land and water pollution alerts (oil spills, toxic waste) Global ability to respond to climate change & severe weather events/natural disasters.
Remote/Rural Education and Healthcare. Effective land use by Farmers, Foresters, Miners, etc. Fire detection and mitigation. Location of fish or wildlife Detection of oil, gas, or mineral reserves Air and water pollution detection and mitigation National Defense Map Making and Updating Weather forecasting Flood control (planning, forecasting, mitigation) Industrial training Development of new industries Effective broadband digital national telecommunications, IT and video networks for news, sports, entertainment, education and health services.
There are about 1,400 communicable diseases and half of the world's population lives in endemic areas. Despite the advances of modern medicine, diseases like malaria, dengue fever and even the plague still afflict millions of people each year. Malaria alone infects up to 500 million persons each year, killing at least a million. Global climate change and variations with the seasons have a significant effect on environment- dependent diseases. In recent years earth observation technology has been used to improve risk mapping for communicable diseases such as malaria, blue tongue, water-borne cholera and of course malaria. Much more needs to be done to get this information to health care workers and doctors.
Australia satellite based health services are integrated with bush-pilot doctors Canada has perhaps the most experience with rural based tele-education and tele-health services than any country. Satellite networks for the Caribbean and South Pacific have been providing tele-health and tele- education for decades. (University of the South Pacific) and the Caribbean Knowledge and Learning Network) (Satmex) Evolution of the Indosat network. (Indonesia satellite one of the first networks—first designed for remote oil & mining, then extended to tele-education and now for tele-health services.
The “vibrations” that were set in motion with the flight of Sputnik in October 1957 have shaken up global civilization. The shifts, triggered by new space-related enterprise, now provide improvement to our lives, more effective education and research system and better health care, improved methods to cope with climate change, and even strengthened patterns of global cooperation. The result has been thousands of new industrial products and tens of thousands new services. Earlier studies concluded that every dollar invested in space research producing $7 in new economic activity. (See Mid West Research Report), Most fundamentally space applications and research plays a critical role in human survival by its contributions to the understanding of climate change and the key role the ozone layer plays in saving humans from genetic destruction due to radiation from outer space. Dr. Lance Bush, Pres. & CEO, The Challenger Center. Today almost 1/3 of India’s ATM are broadband Satellite based. The African Development Bank connections to the cloud at 32 and soon 36 locations are satellite based. New O3b satellite will change the equation even more in equatorial regions. Note: MRI study of the Apollo program projected that $25 Billion in research produced $181 Billion in economic activity. Other studies have estimated as much as 40 to 1 return from basic research in terms of all new economic products and services and social benefits. Note: The MRI study estimated NASA’s R&D spending on the Apollo Program during the 1959-69 period at US$25 billion (in 1958 dollars). The corresponding return on this investment was estimated at US$181 billion between 1959 and 1987.
Satellite and Fiber network objective is to convert Ethiopia from Rural and Agricultural society to an “Information Society” (World Bank financed) 454 senior secondary schools, 36 agricultural colleges, and 620 Woredas sites using broadband satellites and some fiber connection (2004-2006) Over 800 HDTV screens connected across the country. Only means to achieve transformation. African Development Bank (36 site sat network)
Hub site: Cyberjaya in Kuala Lumpur with 2.6 Mbps Outbound transmission. Interactive Sites at 170 kbps include Penang, Melaka, Kuantan, Kota Kinabalu, and Kuching
Edusat launched in 2004 is dedicated to tele-education. Operated by ISRO. Program started with SITE Experiments in 1974-75 with NASA ATS-6 satellite. Then with INSAT and now EDUSAT. In phase 3-150,000 terminals
KU and C band national coverage plus five KU band regional spot beams provide: radio broadcasting, tv broadcasting, videoconference, Internet chat, night time computer loading, On-line education via Internet, use of telephone, Internet and webcam as return link, Assymetrical Internet via TVRO terminals
Experiments began via INTELSAT’s Project Share in 1986. 35 locations in remote China Today there are plans for half of China’s elementary and middle school students (i.e. half of 280 million and half of high school students (i.e. half of 73 million) to have access to education. Today 20% of all university students (20% of 4.3 million are using distance learning. More Internet than satellite based. China Sat: Offers basic education on health and sanitation, etc. TV based distance learning offered to general public in remote areas. 90,000 TVRO terminals. Central China TV, Ministry of Education, but also private ventures and joint projects with other countries such as Japan, etc. More than 10 million teachers in China.
Every classroom is equipped with one computer, the Enciclomedia software and a projector and interactive blackboard and has access to the Internet via satellite to support the teaching. Alef uses satellite bandwidth on an Intelsat 707 Ku-band transponder provided by GlobalSat Technology Corp. The cost of the equipment is about $5,000 per classroom, including the VSAT terminal provided by Gilat Satellite Networks Ltd. (or Via Sat), a computer, a projector, a touchscreen blackboard and a printer. The average rate of the services to the government is about $240 per month per classroom, which includes the use of the infrastructure, connectivity to the Internet, and full service and all technical support. Network uses DOCSIS (Digital over Cable System Interface Standard) rather than DVB-RCS (Digital Video Broadcast-Return Channel Service) standard because of cost efficiencies.
NIGCOMSAT 1 project started in 2004. Award to Great Wall Industry of China in 2007 (Satellite, launch, two control earth stations) The loss of the satellite at the time generated great furor. This led to calls that Nigeria should stop investing in costly satellite technology but should concentrate on investing in technologies that would bridge the digital divide at lesser cost to the country. Controversy subsided, when the Chinese authorities promised to replace the lost satellite at no cost to Nigeria. The replaced satellite named NIGCOMSAT R is nearly completed and launch set very soon. It features two L-Band transponders, eight Ka Band transponders, four C-Band transponders and 14 KU-Band transponders and has a projected 15 yr lifetime. The initial system leased capacity on Intelsat for regional schools. Also some educational services have been distributed via Afristar operated by Worldspace. (audio, text, and delayed video).
This 8 Satellite MEO constellation is optimized to provide service to the 3 billion people in the 150 countries and developing economies. This project is backed by HSBC bank, Google, SES, Liberty, Development Bank of So. Africa, etc. Concept is to link satellites to broadband wireless Internet (i.e. IP data backhaul via WiFi, etc.) with an architecture optimized to developing economies. O3b is able to offer cost effective ICT services that include tele-education, tele-health, and a host of other services. Started as terrestrial system for Zambia and abandoned in favor of satellite solution
Sample o f Various Satellite Based University Programs Around the World Name Hub & Concept NetworkCourse Offerings Jones Interna- tional University Denver, Co. Initially provided satellite-based courses but are now largely on-line Operates in 44 countries Degrees in MA & PhD in Education and Masters in Business Modern University of the Humanites of EurAsia Hub based in Russia and serves over 800 towns via V-Sat terminals Operates in Russia, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhastan, Kyrgyzstan, Modova, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Ukraine, Georgia, Vietnam, Israel and China Multiple degree in higher education, bachelors and Masters degrees, including economics, computer engineering, law, political science, management, linguistics, psychology, philosophy, and educational instruction. University of the Caribbean Hubs at each major campus Operates throughout the Caribbean Each country specializes in a few disciplines and shares faculty and course curricula throughout the Caribbean via satellite courseware. Also provide health services. University of the South Pacific Major Hub at Suva, Fiji Operates throughout the South Pacific Provides higher education courses but supports other forms of education and training and health care Worldspace Utilizes Afrisat satellite Operates throughout Africa. Although this provides commercial radio broadcasts, this satellite also provides health and education services.
Examples of Various Types of National Satellite-Based Educational and Health Services CountryHub-City Location Educational Network Types of Offerings Algeria AlgersProvides satellite services to regional centers in the Saharan desert area Education from primary through college level courses as well as health services. Australia SydneyOptus provides an extensive network of remote educational and health services to the Outback Provides extension courses across the country of Australia as well as emergency health and nutritional services. Brazil Brazilia, Rio de Janeiro, and Sao Paolo Brazilsat and Telebras support educational and health services. There are a number of networks, but one of the most extensive and vital is a satellite network to support the Amazonia region. Canada 1 VancouverKnowledge Network Wide range of programming available via Bell Satellite Television and Shaw Satellite Television. Canada 2 Toronto and Montreal CTV Two AtlanticASN also devoted a significant amount of its daytime schedule to educational programming. The Distance University Education via Television (DUET) service is offered by ASN in partnership with participating universities in Atlantic Canada. Some of the university programs offered through DUET include full degrees
Additional Examples of Various Types of National Satellite-Based Educational and Health Services China Beijing, Open University of China (OUC) Combines satellite network and Internet. Currently nearly 3 million students. OUC Partners with 21 conventional universities 75 majors in 9 disciplines and 24 specialties including science, engineering, agricultural science, medicine, literature, law, economics, management, and education Colombia BogotáProvides educational and health services Provides particularly vital services to the Andean region. Egypt Cairo via Nilesat7 dedicated satellite channels for education. Services some 9500 school locations in remote areas.. Began in 1998. Serves primary education, technical education, secondary education. One channel is for instruction of teachers. Another is used for literacy training. Ethiopian Satellite Education Program Addis AbbaProvides service to 450 schools via 8000 HDTV plasma screens Kagiso Educational TV and Sasani Instructional TV produced educational programming for Grades 9 to 12 under a World Bank loan. Transmits 70 half hour educational programs a week. India Edusat, operated by ISRO, Bangalore, India and New Delhi, University Grants Consortium Operates in about 8 languages and covers all of India. About 1 million students but only 5% (i.e. about 50k) are enrolled in higher education. Primary emphasis is primary and secondary education and vocational schools. Partnership with a number of universities include the National Open School.
Satellite based tele-education and tele-health services are only one option. Hybrid systems are often optimum solution. Fiber, broadband terrestrial and satellites are. (See O3b) Dedicated satellites are often not needed. Intelsat, SES, O3b lease can be cost effective way to start. The requirements for tele-education & tele-health are different. Tele-health services need greater resolution. Network, throughput and resolution requirements different for different application Many models are available in terms of satellite hardware, terminals, network design, educational & health delivery programs. Prior experience is key. Should always explore synergies for all types of integrated services. (eg. Indonesia—oil, mining, & education.) Project Share lessons are useful. “Imported programs” do not sustain themselves. “Home grown” program have much more staying power. Satellites are particularly key for island countries, countries with rain forests, mountains areas, extensive wetlands, deserts, remote populations. The future are hybrid networks.
Materials and construction Sporting equipment Surgery and Medical Care Heating, Ventilation and Cooling Systems Climate Change and Environmental Safety Security systems and strategic defense Telecommunications and Broadcasting Green energy systems Transportation and navigation Manufacturing
RankCountry 1.China 2.US 3.India 4.Japan 5.Russia 6.Brazil 7.Germany 8.Indonesia 9.Mexico 10.U.K. What the top 7 countries have in common are significant space programs and the top 3 have intensive sat education programs. There are other factors, but space industries and applications are key technology drivers and strategically significant.
Space technology can and in fact does leverage our global service economy in a wide range of ways. The Internet, global banking and insurance services, airlines and transportation systems, weather alerts, educational and health care systems, to name a few, are dependent on space systems to achieve global coverage and connectivity. A day without space would cripple connectivity to the Internet for about 100 countries, cancel millions of banking transactions, and shut down thousands of airline flights and put thousands more in peril. The direct economic cost to the space industry if it were out of business for a single day might be calculated in the millions of dollars, but the indirect secondary impacts might run into many billions.
Humans travel through space at 66,000 miles per hour (or about 125,000 kilometers/hour) on a modest space ship—at least when reckoned in cosmic terms. This spaceship has an external biosphere that is protected by a thin breathable atmosphere--equivalent in size to the rind of an apple. It is time we recognize that humans and all of our increasingly complex machinery are very vulnerable to cosmic threats. Space programs to create a planetary defense are not a frill but something that are needed to protect human civilization and our high tech modern infrastructure that is also prone to cosmic hazards. Billions could die and economic loss could be in the quadrillions of dollars (U.S.) if hit by an asteroid as large as 1 kilometer in size Space technology is now essential to coping with climate change, problems such as the Ozone Hole and other atmospheric and stratospheric issues. Again the economic impact and risk levels are outside the scope of easy imagination—far greater than the damage of weapons of mass destruction. Conventional economic metrics are simply not able to cope with the value with globally significant risks related to prevention of total catastrophic loss.