Presentation on theme: "The 5 Era’s of Human Existence. Prehistoric Dates back to the first Hominids, 2,000,0000 years ago. Is divided into 3, unequal periods or “Ages” Paleolithic,"— Presentation transcript:
Prehistoric Dates back to the first Hominids, 2,000,0000 years ago. Is divided into 3, unequal periods or “Ages” Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic which are mean Old, Middle and New Stone Age. These take up most of the duration of human existence, that is most of man’s time on earth was spent in the Prehistoric.
Prehistoric Paleolithic In all of them, small, nomadic populations pursued a single life-style or economy: Hunting and Gathering. Life expectancy was extremely short, 25 was old age and many did not reach it. All tools and weapons were made of stone, bone or wood and clothing, if any, was of animal skins.
Prehistoric Mesolithic About 12,000 years ago, some, but not all, prehistoric men began to domesticate and keep animals for food, hides, and transportation. Domestication of animals and herding is what distinguishes the Mesolithic from the Paleolithic. The Middle Stone Age from the Old Stone Age. It did not happen everywhere and in some places never happened.
Prehistoric Neolithic About 8,000 years ago, an even more important change occurred. In a few areas of Africa, and Asia, some men, or more likely women, discovered that food could be produced by planting, cultivating and harvesting in addition to being gathered from the wilds. This Neolithic Revolution was the invention of Agriculture which transforms the world. Culture becomes Civilization.
6000 BC-1450 BC Earliest Civilizations In Africa and Asia the River Valley Civilizations based on agriculture develop. Nile, Tigris- Euphrates, Indus, Ganges, Mekong, Huang (Yellow) rivers. None in Europe or the America’s. Expanded sedentary populations Advanced Technologies Government and Religion Writing
1450 BC-476 AD Classical European Civilizations Civilizations rise in Europe. Minoan Civilization on Crete destroyed by Thera volcano. Greeks gain independence and build 1 st European Civilization. Common Culture, separate city-states, great sense of independence. Polytheism, Pantheism. Monarchy gives way to Democracy.
Classical Era Greece Persian War saves the West from tyranny. Athens and Sparta vie for leadership and eventually go to war (Peloponnesian War) which destroys both. Philip and Alexander of Macedon pick up the pieces and establish the Hellenistic Empire in Eastern Europe, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia and India Following death of Alexander the Empire divides.
Classical Era Rome Rise of Roman Civilization after 753 B.C. A minor farming village it expanded through central Italy. Gains independence from Etruscans. Abolishes monarchy. Rivalry with Carthage, in North Africa, led to the Punic Wars and the creation of a Roman Empire. System of government based on elected representatives, a Republic, eventually replaced by dynastic emperors.
Classical Era Rome The Empire spread to include most of Europe, Egypt and North Africa, and Western Asia as far as the Persian Gulf. Its territory included Judea, where the population of Jews practiced Monotheism. Here, during the reign of the 1 st Emperor, Augustus, Christ was born. The religion he established, Christianity, spread through the empire and, by the 4 th century A.D., became the official religion.
476 AD-1350 AD Medieval ERA The Roman Empire declined due to internal crises: – overexpansion of boundaries – Economic decline – internal corruption and poor leadership – lead poisoning and declining birth rate And to external invasion by the barbarian tribes including the Germanic Goths, Vandals, Franks, Angles and Saxons. The Roman Empire divides and collapses. 476 A.D./ 1453 A.D.
476 AD-1350 BC Medieval Era-Dark Ages From 476 AD to 800 AD Western Europe experienced a Dark Age. The Catholic Church was the only surviving institution of Rome. Feudalism, Manorialism and Chivalry replaced Imperial Rule, a diverse economy and the legions of infantry. Islam began its rise in Western Asia and North Africa, by 711 AD it had reached Spain.
476 AD-1350 AD Medieval Era In 800 AD the High Middle Ages began with the crowning of Charlemagne, King of the Franks as the Holy Roman Emperor. An attempt was made to re-establish the Roman Empire. It failed, but the dream remained alive and European Civilization began to flourish. Cities remerged and trade began to develop. Universities were established. Gothic Cathedrals were built. In 1095, a crusade was launched to regain control of the Holy Land from the Moslems. Trade with Africa and Asia increased.
End of The Medieval Era The crusades were ultimately unsuccessful but they did promote more external trade and increased the wealth of Europe. They also helped destroy the systems of small states, local economies and power of mounted horsemen which had been established in the Dark Ages. They also led, indirectly, to the Black Death, which would help trigger the Modern Era.
1350 AD to Present The Modern Era 14 th Century cities were crowded and unsanitary. Few people bathed and fleas were taken for granted. Rats swarmed through the streets and were taken for granted. In 1347, cargoes from East Asia, infested with fleas carrying Pasteurella Pestis (Plague) reached Genoa in Italy. The cargoes and the fleas infested the local vermin and were carried by merchants throughout Europe. Within 3 years, 1/3 of the population of Europe was dead.
The Modern Era Since no one knew that germs carried by infected fleas caused the plague, no one could treat it, or explain it, although many theories were raised, all of which were wrong. – Influence of the stars and planets--influenza. – Poisonous vapors from the earth—Miasma. – Bad odors from all the garbage and unwashed bodies. – God’s judgement on an sinful world. – Malicious attacks by the Jews against the Christians.
The Modern Era The Plague would burn itself out, when enough deaths reduced the population of the disease itself. It would re-ignite repeatedly until the 17 th century. Eventually improved sanitation broke the link between people and plague carrying vectors. “Ring around the Rosy” describes the plague in a 17 th century nursery rhyme.
The Modern Era About 1/3 of the population died. Every group was effected, nobles and peasants, rich and poor, young and old, religious and secular, Christian and Jew. Whole families and entire villages died. Trade was disrupted, farms were abandoned, economic decline began. But Then…
The Modern Era Survivors mourned their dead, but continued to live. The wealth of the dead was divided by the living. Workers demanded and received higher wages in the face of the labor shortage and standards of living improved. Towns became cleaner and so harbored fewer rats and fleas.
The Modern Era Most Importantly, the Black Death brought about a profound change in the outlook of Western man. Having confronted the apparent beginning of human extinction, men decided to improve the present world while they could. The “Here and Now” now emerged as equally important with the “Hereafter” of their religious belief. Faith was not abandoned but Hope for a better future was discovered. The Modern Era had arrived.