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Reaching Out: Expanding Horizons of Cross Cultural Interaction

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Presentation on theme: "Reaching Out: Expanding Horizons of Cross Cultural Interaction"— Presentation transcript:

1 Reaching Out: Expanding Horizons of Cross Cultural Interaction

2 I. Long Distance Trade and Travel

Trading Cities Marco Polo Trade went 2 ways: Luxury goods of high value relative to weight (stones, silk) went through Silk Roads. Bulkier commodities (steel, stone) by sea lanes. Venetian, Traveled for the Mongols, well liked Diplomatic missions Influenced European readers because the mention of goods in his travels. European merchants wanted to take part Trading ports and cities grew rapidly . Melaka known as the principal trading route in the Easter Indian Ocean

4 Mongol-Christian Diplomacy &
Political and Diplomatic Travel Ibn Battuta Mongol-Christian Diplomacy & Rabban Sauma Both Mongols and Christians attacked the Muslims. Pope Innocent IV invites Mongols to convert and join Decline invite Christians to do the same, they use Rabban Sauma to help them, unsuccessful DIPLOMATIC AFFAIRS ARE COMPLEX IN THE EAST Muslim traveler Well liked where he went Educated in legal matters and made it able for him to find gov’t positions where he went Guided newly converted areas of Islam

5 Christian Missionaries
Missionary Campaigns Sufi Missionaries Christian Missionaries John of Montecorvino In the East many Christians attempted to convert. Sought to convert Mongols and Chinese Expatriate communities from Europe created a demand for Roman Catholic Services Helped to spread Islam Did not force strict doctrine Emphasized piety & devotion Being flexible led to less resistance Italian Franciscan missionary Active in China Tried to est. Christianity in China Attracted few Geography hurt Roman Catholic conversion so did other already established religions

6 Long Distance Travel and Cross Cultural Exchanges
Muslims Gunpowder Technologies Long distance travel of all kinds encouraged exchanges of all Societies Exchanges include but not limited to: science, agriculture, technology, poetry etc. ALL THIS PROMOTED CULTURAL DIFFUSION Muslims introduced citrus fruits in sub- Saharan Africa Cotton in W. Africa Diffused sugarcane to SW Asia, N Africa and Europe Sugarcane would help lead to slave labor & plantations Mongols helped spread gunpowder from east to west


8 Social & Economic Effects
Bubonic Plague Little Ice Age Origins and Spread of Bubonic Plague Social & Economic Effects Originated and spread from China (Yunnan) 1300s Mongols/merchants spread the disease west Areas that DID NOT see the plague: Northernmost parts of Europe, India, & sub-Saharan africa Disrupted societies & economies in Europe, & N. Africa Urban workers wanted higher wages Political authorities froze wages Lords wanted reinstate serfdom 1300 global climate change Temperatures cooled Agriculture declined

9 Recovery in China: The Ming Dynasty
Hongwu & Ming Centralization Economic Recovery & Cultural Revival Eunuchs & Mandarins Yuan dynasty falls, Mongols leave Hongwu emperor of Ming Dynasty Orphaned, moved through military Went back to traditional Chinese models Confucian school & civil service exam Enhanced authority of central gov’t Mandarins=officials as emmisaries Eunuchs=could not build families or power bases Gave absolute Obediance to policies and initiatives of gov’t Rebuilt irrigation systems Lacquerware, silk, cotton No trade w/other lands Got rid of any signs of Mongol rule

10 Recovery in Europe: State Building Taxes, Armies & Italian States
Spain & Russia Taxes, Armies & Italian States France & England In Spain Ferdinand and Isabel united wealthiest Iberian realms Reconquista in Spain In Russia Ivan III ended tribute to Mongols Est. its own principality and origin in Muscovy Est. strong central gov’t Regional states held political authority Western Europe grew stronger societies and monarchies Major cities: Milan, Florence & Venice Hundred Years War Fought over land intermittently Levied taxes and assembled armies Central gov’t overpowered nobility

11 Recovery in Europe: The Renaissance Humanist and Moral Thought
Renaissance Art & Architecture Humanist and Moral Thought s Inspiration from Classical Greece and Rome Represented human form and emotion Architecture domed buildings Humanists interested in humanities: history, literature, philosophy Inspired by classical Greece and Rome Morally virtuous life could be led in a actively urban world

12 III. Exploration and Colonization III. Exploration and Colonization

13 Chinese Reconnaissance of the Indian Ocean Basin End of Voyages
Zheng He’s Expeditions Chinese Naval Power End of Voyages Eunuch admiral led many expeditions Naval expeditions to impose presence in Indian Ocean 2 purposes: Impose imperial control over foreign trade w/ China and impress people with power & might of Ming Dynasty Dispensed gifts and received gifts Zheng He tried diplomacy to reach goals If he had he would impose Chinese might 7 expeditions succeeded in establishing Chinese might in the Indian Ocean Basin 1430s Ming emperors end expeditions Confucian ministers felt expense could be better used for agriculture Treasure ships decommissioned and Chinese would forget how to create these large vessels Showed political, economic and military influence in Indian Ocean Basin

14 European Exploration in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans
Slave Trade & Indian Ocean Trade Portuguese Exploration & Colonization of Atlantic Christopher Columbus First in Atlantic exploration First to try to find new routes to Asian markets through Indian Ocean Prince Henry the Navigator wanted to spread Christianity & increase Portuguese influence in the seas Portuguese colonize in the Atlantic and along the West African coast Portuguese always had traded guns/manufactured items for slaves As colonization increased so did the volume of trade in slaves Often went to colonized plantations Other explorers sought new routes to Asian silk & spices Didn’t want to deal w/ intermediaries Explorers: Bartolomeau Dias & Vasco de Gama Believed you can sail West to reach Asian markets Ferdinand & Isabel underwrite his campaign 1492 sets sail Him and his crew land in Bahamas , insisted he reached land near Asia (FALSE) Showed there was a different world apart from Europe, Asia and Africa

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