Presentation on theme: "MWH – 1.2, 1.4, 1.5, 3.1, 3.2. Europe was largely isolated from Asian and African cultures after the fall of Rome - The Fall of the Roman Empire destroyed."— Presentation transcript:
Europe was largely isolated from Asian and African cultures after the fall of Rome - The Fall of the Roman Empire destroyed a government, economic, and society that had existed for 1000 years Locked into ways of thinking by custom and the Church Stagnant culture due to constant warfare and lack of stable government systems
Series of wars between Christian kingdoms and the Islamic world between 1097 and the 1300s First called by Pope Urban II Led to back and forth control over the “Holy Land”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player _detailpage&v=z-niTeTY7pw http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player _detailpage&v=z-niTeTY7pw View the video and think about whether or not the Crusades were an overall positive or negative for Europe and the Middle East.
Cross culture interaction From European perspective, wars were unsuccessful BUT! Europe gained knowledge of Arab and Byzantine… Medicine, Trade, Math, Architecture, Shipbuilding, Sailing, and Philosophy New Goods, Old Knowledge Exposure to Muslim culture and goods spread through Spain and Italy and to the rest of Europe Pasta, paper, colored glass, spices Ancient philosophy is reintroduced to Europe Greek philosophical and scientific works change European thought
Pre-Crusade philosophy that dominated European thought; focused upon knowledge in the fields of law, medicine, and religion Focused upon using logical reasoning to define the “truth”. Led to attempts to harmonize Christianity with ancient philosophy Scholasticism Post-Crusade philosophy that developed throughout the Renaissance; focused on literary and philosophical scholarship, being a well-rounded person, and on human achievement Spread through Italy as the rediscovery of Greek and Roman philosophy grew out of Christian and Islamic interactions during and after the Crusades Humanism
Growth of Trade Italy’s Advantages Trade empires grow from Northern Italian city-states Venice, Florence, Genoa Hanseatic League forms Baltic Sea trade agreement between kingdoms in Northern Europe Overland and overseas trade begins to return to the forefront of European society
Make a prediction about some negative consequences that can come about from major cities being connected like this during the Middle Ages…
What caused the Black Death? The Oriental Rat Flea carried the disease How did it spread?
Cures? Medieval medicine did not understand germs or disease and thought “bad humors” affected the body Noticed some people healed after sores burst so…. Tried to draw poison out by placing a paste made of figs and cooked onions mixed with yeast and butter on the swelling then lancing it with a knife Put live frogs’ belly on sores until the frog burst… and repeat "They died by the hundreds, both day and night, and all were thrown in... ditches and covered with earth. And as soon as those ditches were filled, more were dug. And I, Agnolo di Tura … buried my five children with my own hands … And so many died that all believed it was the end of the world.“ – Agnolo di Tura of Sienna, Italy
How does this compare with the map of trade routes that we previously looked at?
The move from the Middle Ages to Renaissance culture
PRE-CRUSADESPOST-CRUSADES/PLAGUE Kings – held control over the kingdom’s warring and taxation powers Lords – held control over a manor and knights Knights – held small parts of manor and fought for the Lord & King Serfs – owned little and were bound to work the manor by Feudal law Social hierarchy totally disrupted Lords and Knights died on Crusade and by plague Serfs died in great numbers by the plague Result? Kings had less power, money, food, workforce etc. Society HAD to change to compensate for the losses
PRE CRUSADES/PLAGUEPOST CRUSADES/PLAGUE King Lords Knights Serfs King Lords Knights Serfs
Feudalism was… A form of government An economic system A social structure Sounds a lot like what Rome meant to Europe right? So, what’s going to replace it? A) Another “dark age” where the European world gets worse B) A massive movement towards new ways of doing business, conducting government, and gaining knowledge
School should focus solely upon preparing you for your career path. School should focus upon turning you into a well rounded individual and citizen.
Spread through Italy as an elitist movement Took hold in the 14 th century as (ancient) Greek revivalist thought became popular Socrates, Plato, Aristotle Movement North and West Next spread to Germany, England, and Spain
1350(ish) to 1500’s Began in Italian cities Florence, Milan, Naples, Rome, Venice Educated merchants, bankers, and politicians lived there Humanist Influence Humanists sought to prepare soul for afterlife AND bring admiration for human achievement on earth Created a drive to succeed
Grew with trade routes Organizations like the Templar Knights set up banks in the Crusades Became very important in Crusading and post- Crusading world…why? Powerful banking families arose in Italy Played prominent role in the Italian Renaissance
Merchants & the Medici Wealthy merchant class develops through trade Emphasis placed on individual achievement Banking families arise in Italian city-states The Medici rule Florence and become patrons of the arts Ancient Inspiration Artists and scholars study ancient Greece and Rome Scholars move to Rome after fall of Constantinople in 1453