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CE: MIDDLE AGES Rise and fall of empire's Crusades

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Presentation on theme: "CE: MIDDLE AGES Rise and fall of empire's Crusades"— Presentation transcript:

1 300-1400 CE: MIDDLE AGES Rise and fall of empire's Crusades
Roman Empire - Eastern Roman Empire, which became the Byzantine Empire, survived. The Western Roman Empire: population decline, especially in urban areas, decrease of trade, and increase in immigration. DARK AGES – Shows the cultural and economic deterioration that supposedly occurred in Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire (Western). A time when the forces of darkness, the barbarians, overwhelmed the forces of light, the Romans. Crusades Wars - Germanic tribes took over Western Roman Empire And most destructive…bubonic plague (Black Death)

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3 Feudalism MAIN IDEA: Feudalism, a political and economic system based on land-holding and protective alliances, emerges in Europe. Why does it matter? The rights and duties of feudal relationships helped shape today’s form of representative government.

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5 A Typical Town Street Buildings are timber framed
rubbish thrown into the street Pigs eating rubbish in the street Upper storey overhangs to maximise space Buildings are closely packed - fire risk Sewage in the middle of the street Shops in front room rats

6 A Typical Village Scene
Ploughing “I must make sure I harvest enough for my family as well as for my Lord and the Church” Peasant clothing Houses are made of wood, mud and straw Sowing Weeding Water Mill

7 Entertainment Music Jousting Watching Punishments Board Games
Sword Fights Ball Games Plays Dancing

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9 BUBONIC PLAGUE = BLACK DEATH
1300’s – 1/3 of population of Europe died Began in Asia by traveling on trade routes through the Muslim world and Europe (fleas on rats) Effects of Plague: Trade declined Population declined Church suffered because prayers failed Jews blamed and pushed out of towns and homes.

10 Birth of the European Renaissance

11 CORE CONTENT SS-HS Students will explain how humans began to rediscover the ideas of the Classical Age (e.g., humanism, developments in art and architecture, literature, political theories) and to question their place in the universe during the Renaissance and Reformation. DOK 2

12 I CAN ….. I can identify and explain Renaissance advances in architecture and engineering, painting, sculpture, literature, science, and mathematics.. I can discuss the factors that made Florence an important cultural center during the Renaissance. I can explain how various advances made during the Renaissance reflect humanist thinking and ideals.

13 Renaissance Renaissance is a French word meaning “Rebirth”.
The Renaissance was a cultural awakening that began in Italy and spread throughout Western Europe. It lasted from 1350 until 1600. Before the Renaissance, Europe was in the Dark Ages. The Crusades helped bring Europe out of the Dark Ages. – HOW?

14 “A Visual Metaphor for the Renaissance”
How are the different parts of the root of the “Renaissance plant" labeled? What might this tell us about how the two time periods influenced the growth of the Renaissance? What three things seem to be contributing to the growth of the Renaissance? What three things seem to be contributing to the growth of the Renaissance?

15 How are the different parts of the root of the “Renaissance plant" labeled?
What might this tell us about how the two time periods influenced the growth of the Renaissance? What three things seem to be contributing to the growth of the Renaissance? What is the soil labeled? Why do you think it is labeled this way?

16 What changes in Europe led to the Renaissance?
Essential Question What changes in Europe led to the Renaissance?

17 Read “Section 1: Introduction” and “Section 2: What was the Renaissance?” in Student Text.
Copy and complete the following...

18 Muslim scholars. goods and ideas from the East, including classical learning. copying documents that survived from the classical period. a rediscovery of ancient Greek and Roman culture.

19 THE GODFATHERS OF THE RENAISSANCE
Medici

20 Example of Classical Art:
Roman copy of Myron's Discobolus, Statue, circa 450 B.C.E. The statue is a Roman copy of a Greek statue that was probably created to celebrate the achievement of a famous athlete, perhaps his Olympic victory. Notice how his strong, defined body is carefully arranged into simple and harmonious shapes. He is neither an ordinary man nor a god, but he represents an ideal man in Greek society.

21 Example of Medieval Art: Narthex Tympanum, Sculpture, 1120 C.E.
The figure in the center is Jesus, who is sending his apostles all over the world to preach. The figures in the scenes surrounding them, and in the long line across the bottom, are people around the world waiting for the apostles. Making the figures’ bodies look realistic was not important to this artist. The artist’s intention was to tell a story and convey religious meaning. This sculpture was made to fit into an arched niche, called a tympanum, over the entrance doors to a church in France.

22 Example of Renaissance Art:
The School of Athens, Raphael, Mural, about 1510 C.E. This mural was created to decorate an entire wall of a room in the pope’s palace in Rome. It shows an imaginary gathering of the great thinkers of ancient Greece in a large, open building. It is arranged to frame the two most important philosophers, Plato and Aristotle, who stand in the center. The building recalls the architecture of classical antiquity and uses perspective to create depth.

23 Look back at “Section 2”, “Exploring the Rebirth of Classical Ideas Through Art”...
To show the importance of ordinary people, civic leaders, and gods and goddesses. To teach religion to people who could not read or write. To show the importance of people and nature. Possible answers: figure is nude; body is active and in motion; face is calm and without emotion Possible answers: highlights Jesus who is larger than other figures; figures are all fully dressed in stiff clothing Possible answers: lifelike three-dimensional figures; figures are shown in motion; colors reflect lighting

24 Copy the following chart into your notes...
Classical Medieval Renaissance

25 In which period do you think each work of art was created
In which period do you think each work of art was created? Examine the images and fill in the matrix.

26 Classical Medieval Renaissance C B A The woman is in a scene from her daily life; the poses are harmonious and balanced; the faces of the figures are very calm; no background or sense of perspective Mary is larger than the other figures; figures look flat, not real Figures look realistic; facial expressions are revealing; full landscape in background; has depth

27 Examine this image. What interesting details do you see
Examine this image. What interesting details do you see? What are the people doing? Who do you think are the merchants? Who do you think are the customers?

28 Read “Section 3: The Growth in Trade and Commerce” in Student Text.
Answer the following questions... Describe how Marco Polo’s travels along the Silk Road helped reawaken interest in classical culture. List and explain two results of the increase in trade in Europe.

29 List and explain two results of the increase in trade in Europe.
Describe how Marco Polo’s travels along the Silk Road helped reawaken interest in classical culture. In the 13th century, Mongol conquests made it safe to travel along the Silk Road. Marco Polo’s travels sparked a greater interest in the East, and helped encourage the transport of food, art, and luxury goods along the trade route. List and explain two results of the increase in trade in Europe. An increase in trade led to a new, money economy. It also helped crafts people, merchants, and bankers become more important in society.

30 What interesting details do you see
What interesting details do you see? Describe the geographic features that surround this city. How is the city protected? What visual clues tell you that this is a prosperous city? Why might this city be an exciting and interesting place to live? 

31 Read “Section 4: The Influence of Italian City-States” in Student Text.
Answer the following questions... What were Italian city-states? How were they governed? How did Italian city-states become so powerful?

32 What were Italian city-states? How were they governed?
Italian city-states were powerful cities in Renaissance Italy that ruled the surrounding towns and countryside. They were independent and were open republics governed by elected councils. Sometimes, in reality, they were ruled by rich merchants, guilds, or powerful families. How did Italian city-states become so powerful? Because of their central Mediterranean location, Italian city-states became major centers of trade and business.

33 Main Idea The Italian Renaissance was a great rebirth of learning that produced many great works of art and literature. CE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vufba_ZcoR0&list=PLBDA2E52FB1EF80C9&index=23

34 Italy’s Advantages Why did the Renaissance start in Italy?
Thriving Cities Wealthy Merchant Class Classical Heritage of Greece and Rome

35 City-States Oversea trade Urbanized, large cities
Intellectual Revolution

36 2. Merchants and the Medici
Wealthy merchant class High percentage of citizens involved in politics, didn’t inherit social rankings Florence, Italy – came under the political rule of the wealthy banking family, Medici

37 Medici Family Political dynasty Successfully founded Medici Bank
Produced 4 popes, 2 queens of France, hereditary Dukes of Florence Fostered and inspired the birth of the Renaissance Came up with general ledger system

38 Patrons of the Arts Church leaders spent a lot of money on art
“Patrons of the arts” – financially supported the artists Would get their portraits painted or donate art – showed their importance

39 Looking to Greece and Rome
Didn’t like art/literature from Middle Ages Scholars/artists drew inspiration from Greek and Roman ruins Western scholars studied ancient Latin manuscripts Christian scholars in Constantinople fled to Rome with Greek manuscripts when the Turks conquered it (1453) What advantages fostered the Renaissance in Italy?

40 ANSWER: Thriving cities, a wealthy merchant class, and the heritage of Greece and Rome

41 Read “Section 2: The City of Florence” in Student Text.
Answer the following questions... 1. What factors helped Florence to become a wealthy city? 2. How did Florence’s wealth contribute to its cultural activity? 3. Why did many travelers come to Florence?

42 City of Florence 1. What factors helped Florence to become a wealthy city? Because of its ideal location on the Arno River, Florence became a center for trade and commerce. It also was dominated by the Medici family, who helped Florence become a banking center for Europe. 2. How did Florence’s wealth contribute to its cultural activity? The city’s residents could afford to be patrons of artists and thinkers. [wealthy merchant class] 3. Why did many travelers come to Florence? Some travelers came to do business, while others came to study art. Still others came to learn at the city’s schools and libraries.

43 Read “Section 5: The Growth of Humanism” in Student Text.
Answer the following questions... What did Renaissance humanists believe about people’s abilities? What subjects from ancient times did humanists study and explore? How did the Renaissance humanists’ beliefs sometimes conflict with those of the Catholic Church?

44 What did Renaissance humanists believe about people’s abilities?
Renaissance humanists believed that people could shape their own lives and achieve great things. What subjects from ancient times did humanists study and explore? Renaissance humanists studied classical art, architecture, government, history, poetry, and language. How did the Renaissance humanists’ beliefs sometimes conflict with those of the Catholic Church? The Church taught that laws were made by God and required people to follow its teachings without question. It also emphasized life after death as opposed to life on Earth. Renaissance humanists believed that people should question everything, and tried to balance religious faith with an active interest in human existence.

45 Growth of Humanism What did Renaissance humanists believe about people’s abilities? What subjects from ancient times did humanists study and explore? How did the Renaissance humanists’ beliefs sometimes conflict with those of the Catholic Church?

46 Classical and Worldly Views
Humanism – an intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievements Influenced artists and architects to carry on classical traditions Popularized study of common classical subjects, known as the Humanities (history, philosophy, literature)

47 WORLDLY PLEASURES Humanists believed you can enjoy life without offending God Wealthy people had luxuries Most people stayed devout Catholics BUT, majority was secular, worldly rather than spiritual and concerned with the here and now

48 Read “Section 6: Advances in Literature” in Student Text.
Answer the following questions... 1. Briefly describe two ways in which Renaissance literature differed from medieval literature. 2. How is Dante’s The Divine Comedy an example of humanist art?

49 Advances in Literature
1. Briefly describe two ways in which Renaissance literature differed from medieval literature. Renaissance writers wrote about secular topics and about personal experiences. They used more individual styles and expressed thoughts and feelings about life. Unlike medieval writers, who wrote primarily in Latin, Renaissance writers wrote in their own vernacular. 2. How is Dante’s The Divine Comedy an example of humanist art? Dante’s The Divine Comedy highlights strong emotions and the experiences of individuals. It is also a social commentary and includes real people.

50 Renaissance Writers Change Literature
Produced works that reflected their times Influenced writing today Vernacular – native language (Latin) Wrote for self expression

51 How did the study of science change during the Renaissance?
Read “Section : Advances in Science and Mathematics” in Student Text. Answer the following questions... How did the study of science change during the Renaissance?

52 Advances in Science and Mathematics
How did the study of science change during the Renaissance? During the Renaissance, people used a new approach: they questioned old ideas, made careful observations, performed experiments, and analyzed the results.

53 Leonardo de Vinci Painter Sculptor Inventor Scientist
Incorporated findings into art

54 Niccolo Machiavelli

55 What changes in Europe led to the Renaissance?
The Growth of Trade and Commerce The Influence of Italian City-States Merchants and bankers grew wealthy and could afford to pay for new buildings and art to beautify their cities. Growing trade meant that more classical texts, art, and artifacts were passed along trade routes, sparking interest in classical culture. Their wealth encouraged a growth in art and learning. Rich families supported the creation of art, new buildings, and centers of learning, such as universities and hospitals. What changes in Europe led to the Renaissance? People began to change their ideas about many things, such as government, social class, and religion. They tried to improve upon the art, architecture, and ideas of the classical period, which led to new discoveries, new ways of studying things, and new inventions in many areas of life. The Growth of Humanism


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