Presentation on theme: "300-1400 CE: MIDDLE AGES Rise and fall of empire's Roman Empire - Eastern Roman Empire, which became the Byzantine Empire, survived. The Western Roman."— Presentation transcript:
300-1400 CE: MIDDLE AGES Rise and fall of empire's Roman Empire - Eastern Roman Empire, which became the Byzantine Empire, survived. The Western Roman Empire: population decline, especially in urban areas, decrease of trade, and increase in immigration. DARK AGES – Shows the cultural and economic deterioration that supposedly occurred in Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire (Western). A time when the forces of darkness, the barbarians, overwhelmed the forces of light, the Romans. Crusades Wars - Germanic tribes took over Western Roman Empire And most destructive…bubonic plague (Black Death)
MAIN IDEA: Feudalism, a political and economic system based on land-holding and protective alliances, emerges in Europe. Why does it matter? The rights and duties of feudal relationships helped shape today’s form of representative government.
Buildings are timber framed Upper storey overhangs to maximise space Sewage in the middle of the street rats Shops in front room Buildings are closely packed - fire risk Pigs eating rubbish in the street rubbish thrown into the street A Typical Town Street
A Typical Village Scene Houses are made of wood, mud and straw Ploughing Sowing Water Mill Weeding Peasant clothing “I must make sure I harvest enough for my family as well as for my Lord and the Church”
Entertainment Plays Dancing Ball Games Watching Punishments Board Games Sword Fights Jousting Music
BUBONIC PLAGUE = BLACK DEATH 1300’s – 1/3 of population of Europe died Began in Asia by traveling on trade routes through the Muslim world and Europe (fleas on rats) Effects of Plague: Trade declined Population declined Church suffered because prayers failed Jews blamed and pushed out of towns and homes.
CORE CONTENT SS-HS-5.3.1 Students will explain how humans began to rediscover the ideas of the Classical Age (e.g., humanism, developments in art and architecture, literature, political theories) and to question their place in the universe during the Renaissance and Reformation. DOK 2
I CAN ….. I can identify and explain Renaissance advances in architecture and engineering, painting, sculpture, literature, science, and mathematics.. I can discuss the factors that made Florence an important cultural center during the Renaissance. I can explain how various advances made during the Renaissance reflect humanist thinking and ideals.
Renaissance Renaissance is a French word meaning “Rebirth”. The Renaissance was a cultural awakening that began in Italy and spread throughout Western Europe. It lasted from 1350 until 1600. Before the Renaissance, Europe was in the Dark Ages. The Crusades helped bring Europe out of the Dark Ages. – HOW?
“A Visual Metaphor for the Renaissance” How are the different parts of the root of the “Renaissance plant" labeled? What might this tell us about how the two time periods influenced the growth of the Renaissance? What three things seem to be contributing to the growth of the Renaissance?
How are the different parts of the root of the “Renaissance plant" labeled? What might this tell us about how the two time periods influenced the growth of the Renaissance? What three things seem to be contributing to the growth of the Renaissance? What is the soil labeled? Why do you think it is labeled this way?
Essential Question What changes in Europe led to the Renaissance?
Read “Section 1: Introduction” and “Section 2: What was the Renaissance?” in Student Text. Copy and complete the following...
goods and ideas from the East, including classical learning. copying documents that survived from the classical period. Muslim scholars. a rediscovery of ancient Greek and Roman culture.
Example of Classical Art : Roman copy of Myron's Discobolus, Statue, circa 450 B.C.E. The statue is a Roman copy of a Greek statue that was probably created to celebrate the achievement of a famous athlete, perhaps his Olympic victory. Notice how his strong, defined body is carefully arranged into simple and harmonious shapes. He is neither an ordinary man nor a god, but he represents an ideal man in Greek society.
Example of Medieval Art : Narthex Tympanum, Sculpture, 1120 C.E. This sculpture was made to fit into an arched niche, called a tympanum, over the entrance doors to a church in France. The figure in the center is Jesus, who is sending his apostles all over the world to preach. The figures in the scenes surrounding them, and in the long line across the bottom, are people around the world waiting for the apostles. Making the figures’ bodies look realistic was not important to this artist. The artist’s intention was to tell a story and convey religious meaning.
Example of Renaissance Art : The School of Athens, Raphael, Mural, about 1510 C.E. This mural was created to decorate an entire wall of a room in the pope’s palace in Rome. It shows an imaginary gathering of the great thinkers of ancient Greece in a large, open building. It is arranged to frame the two most important philosophers, Plato and Aristotle, who stand in the center. The building recalls the architecture of classical antiquity and uses perspective to create depth.
Look back at “Section 2”, “Exploring the Rebirth of Classical Ideas Through Art”... To show the importance of ordinary people, civic leaders, and gods and goddesses. To teach religion to people who could not read or write. To show the importance of people and nature. Possible answers: figure is nude; body is active and in motion; face is calm and without emotion Possible answers: highlights Jesus who is larger than other figures; figures are all fully dressed in stiff clothing Possible answers: lifelike three- dimensional figures; figures are shown in motion; colors reflect lighting
Copy the following chart into your notes... ClassicalRenaissanceMedieval
In which period do you think each work of art was created? Examine the images and fill in the matrix.
CAB The woman is in a scene from her daily life; the poses are harmonious and balanced; the faces of the figures are very calm; no background or sense of perspective Mary is larger than the other figures; figures look flat, not real Figures look realistic; facial expressions are revealing; full landscape in background; has depth Classical MedievalRenaissance
Read “Section 3: The Growth in Trade and Commerce” in Student Text. Answer the following questions... 1.Describe how Marco Polo’s travels along the Silk Road helped reawaken interest in classical culture. 2.List and explain two results of the increase in trade in Europe.
1.Describe how Marco Polo’s travels along the Silk Road helped reawaken interest in classical culture. In the 13th century, Mongol conquests made it safe to travel along the Silk Road. Marco Polo’s travels sparked a greater interest in the East, and helped encourage the transport of food, art, and luxury goods along the trade route. 1.List and explain two results of the increase in trade in Europe. An increase in trade led to a new, money economy. It also helped crafts people, merchants, and bankers become more important in society.
Read “Section 4: The Influence of Italian City-States” in Student Text. Answer the following questions... 1.What were Italian city-states? How were they governed? 2.How did Italian city-states become so powerful?
1.What were Italian city-states? How were they governed? Italian city-states were powerful cities in Renaissance Italy that ruled the surrounding towns and countryside. They were independent and were open republics governed by elected councils. Sometimes, in reality, they were ruled by rich merchants, guilds, or powerful families. 1.How did Italian city-states become so powerful? Because of their central Mediterranean location, Italian city-states became major centers of trade and business.
Main Idea The Italian Renaissance was a great rebirth of learning that produced many great works of art and literature. 1300-1600 CE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= Vufba_ZcoR0&list=PLBDA2E52FB1 EF80C9&index=23
Italy’s Advantages Why did the Renaissance start in Italy? 1. Thriving Cities 2. Wealthy Merchant Class 3. Classical Heritage of Greece and Rome
City-States Oversea trade Urbanized, large cities Intellectual Revolution
2. Merchants and the Medici Wealthy merchant class High percentage of citizens involved in politics, didn’t inherit social rankings Florence, Italy – came under the political rule of the wealthy banking family, Medici
Medici Family Political dynasty Successfully founded Medici Bank Produced 4 popes, 2 queens of France, hereditary Dukes of Florence Fostered and inspired the birth of the Renaissance Came up with general ledger system
Patrons of the Arts Church leaders spent a lot of money on art “Patrons of the arts” – financially supported the artists Would get their portraits painted or donate art – showed their importance
Looking to Greece and Rome Didn’t like art/literature from Middle Ages 1.Scholars/artists drew inspiration from Greek and Roman ruins 2.Western scholars studied ancient Latin manuscripts 3.Christian scholars in Constantinople fled to Rome with Greek manuscripts when the Turks conquered it (1453) Didn’t like art/literature from Middle Ages 1.Scholars/artists drew inspiration from Greek and Roman ruins 2.Western scholars studied ancient Latin manuscripts 3.Christian scholars in Constantinople fled to Rome with Greek manuscripts when the Turks conquered it (1453) What advantages fostered the Renaissance in Italy?
ANSWER: Thriving cities, a wealthy merchant class, and the heritage of Greece and Rome ANSWER: Thriving cities, a wealthy merchant class, and the heritage of Greece and Rome
Read “Section 2: The City of Florence” in Student Text. Answer the following questions... 1. What factors helped Florence to become a wealthy city? 2. How did Florence’s wealth contribute to its cultural activity? 3. Why did many travelers come to Florence?
City of Florence 1. What factors helped Florence to become a wealthy city? Because of its ideal location on the Arno River, Florence became a center for trade and commerce. It also was dominated by the Medici family, who helped Florence become a banking center for Europe. 2. How did Florence’s wealth contribute to its cultural activity? The city’s residents could afford to be patrons of artists and thinkers. [wealthy merchant class] 3. Why did many travelers come to Florence? Some travelers came to do business, while others came to study art. Still others came to learn at the city’s schools and libraries.
Read “Section 5: The Growth of Humanism” in Student Text. Answer the following questions... 1.What did Renaissance humanists believe about people’s abilities? 2.What subjects from ancient times did humanists study and explore? 3.How did the Renaissance humanists’ beliefs sometimes conflict with those of the Catholic Church?
1.What did Renaissance humanists believe about people’s abilities? Renaissance humanists believed that people could shape their own lives and achieve great things. 1.What subjects from ancient times did humanists study and explore? Renaissance humanists studied classical art, architecture, government, history, poetry, and language. 1.How did the Renaissance humanists’ beliefs sometimes conflict with those of the Catholic Church? The Church taught that laws were made by God and required people to follow its teachings without question. It also emphasized life after death as opposed to life on Earth. Renaissance humanists believed that people should question everything, and tried to balance religious faith with an active interest in human existence.
Growth of Humanism 1. What did Renaissance humanists believe about people’s abilities? 2. What subjects from ancient times did humanists study and explore? 3. How did the Renaissance humanists’ beliefs sometimes conflict with those of the Catholic Church?
Classical and Worldly Views Humanism – an intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievements Influenced artists and architects to carry on classical traditions Popularized study of common classical subjects, known as the Humanities (history, philosophy, literature)
WORLDLY PLEASURES Humanists believed you can enjoy life without offending God Wealthy people had luxuries Most people stayed devout Catholics BUT, majority was secular, worldly rather than spiritual and concerned with the here and now
Read “Section 6: Advances in Literature” in Student Text. Answer the following questions... 1. Briefly describe two ways in which Renaissance literature differed from medieval literature. 2. How is Dante’s The Divine Comedy an example of humanist art?
Advances in Literature 1. Briefly describe two ways in which Renaissance literature differed from medieval literature. Renaissance writers wrote about secular topics and about personal experiences. They used more individual styles and expressed thoughts and feelings about life. Unlike medieval writers, who wrote primarily in Latin, Renaissance writers wrote in their own vernacular. 2. How is Dante’s The Divine Comedy an example of humanist art? Dante’s The Divine Comedy highlights strong emotions and the experiences of individuals. It is also a social commentary and includes real people.
Renaissance Writers Change Literature Produced works that reflected their times Influenced writing today Vernacular – native language (Latin) Wrote for self expression
Read “Section : Advances in Science and Mathematics” in Student Text. Answer the following questions... How did the study of science change during the Renaissance?
Advances in Science and Mathematics How did the study of science change during the Renaissance? During the Renaissance, people used a new approach: they questioned old ideas, made careful observations, performed experiments, and analyzed the results.
Leonardo de Vinci Painter Sculptor Inventor Scientist Incorporated findings into art http://www.biography.com/people /leonardo-da-vinci-40396
The Growth of Trade and Commerce The Influence of Italian City-States The Growth of Humanism Merchants and bankers grew wealthy and could afford to pay for new buildings and art to beautify their cities. Growing trade meant that more classical texts, art, and artifacts were passed along trade routes, sparking interest in classical culture. Their wealth encouraged a growth in art and learning. Rich families supported the creation of art, new buildings, and centers of learning, such as universities and hospitals. People began to change their ideas about many things, such as government, social class, and religion. They tried to improve upon the art, architecture, and ideas of the classical period, which led to new discoveries, new ways of studying things, and new inventions in many areas of life. What changes in Europe led to the Renaissance?