Presentation on theme: "CE: MIDDLE AGES Rise and fall of empire's Crusades"— Presentation transcript:
1300-1400 CE: MIDDLE AGES Rise and fall of empire's Crusades Roman Empire - Eastern Roman Empire, which became the Byzantine Empire, survived.The Western Roman Empire: population decline, especially in urban areas, decrease of trade, and increase in immigration.DARK AGES – Shows the cultural and economic deterioration that supposedly occurred in Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire (Western). A time when the forces of darkness, the barbarians, overwhelmed the forces of light, the Romans.CrusadesWars - Germanic tribes took over Western Roman EmpireAnd most destructive…bubonic plague (Black Death)
3FeudalismMAIN IDEA: Feudalism, a political and economic system based on land-holding and protective alliances, emerges in Europe.Why does it matter?The rights and duties of feudal relationships helped shape today’s form of representative government.
5A Typical Town Street Buildings are timber framed rubbish thrown into the streetPigs eating rubbish in the streetUpper storey overhangs to maximise spaceBuildings are closely packed - fire riskSewage in the middle of the streetShops in front roomrats
6A Typical Village Scene Ploughing“I must make sure I harvest enough for my family as well as for my Lord and the Church”Peasant clothingHouses are made of wood, mud and strawSowingWeedingWater Mill
7Entertainment Music Jousting Watching Punishments Board Games Sword FightsBall GamesPlaysDancing
9BUBONIC PLAGUE = BLACK DEATH 1300’s – 1/3 of population of Europe diedBegan in Asia by traveling on trade routes through the Muslim world and Europe (fleas on rats)Effects of Plague:Trade declinedPopulation declinedChurch suffered because prayers failedJews blamed and pushed out of towns and homes.
11CORE CONTENTSS-HS Students will explain how humans began to rediscover the ideas of the Classical Age (e.g., humanism, developments in art and architecture, literature, political theories) and to question their place in the universe during the Renaissance and Reformation. DOK 2
12I CAN …..I can identify and explain Renaissance advances in architecture and engineering, painting, sculpture, literature, science, and mathematics..I can discuss the factors that made Florence an important cultural center during the Renaissance.I can explain how various advances made during the Renaissance reflect humanist thinking and ideals.
13Renaissance Renaissance is a French word meaning “Rebirth”. The Renaissance was a cultural awakening that began in Italy and spread throughout Western Europe.It lasted from 1350 until 1600.Before the Renaissance, Europe was in the Dark Ages.The Crusades helped bring Europe out of the Dark Ages. – HOW?
14“A Visual Metaphor for the Renaissance” How are the different parts of the root of the “Renaissance plant" labeled?What might this tell us about how the two time periods influenced the growth of the Renaissance?What three things seem to be contributing to the growth of the Renaissance?What three things seem to be contributing to the growth of the Renaissance?
15How are the different parts of the root of the “Renaissance plant" labeled? What might this tell us about how the two time periods influenced the growth of the Renaissance?What three things seem to be contributing to the growth of the Renaissance?What is the soil labeled? Why do you think it is labeled this way?
16What changes in Europe led to the Renaissance? Essential QuestionWhat changes in Europe led to the Renaissance?
17Read “Section 1: Introduction” and “Section 2: What was the Renaissance?” in Student Text. Copy and complete the following...
18Muslim scholars.goods and ideas from the East, including classical learning.copying documents that survived from the classical period.a rediscovery of ancient Greek and Roman culture.
20Example of Classical Art: Roman copy of Myron's Discobolus, Statue, circa 450 B.C.E.The statue is a Roman copy of a Greek statue that was probably created to celebrate the achievement of a famous athlete, perhaps his Olympic victory.Notice how his strong, defined body is carefully arranged into simple and harmonious shapes.He is neither an ordinary man nor a god, but he represents an ideal man in Greek society.
21Example of Medieval Art: Narthex Tympanum, Sculpture, 1120 C.E. The figure in the center is Jesus, who is sending his apostles all over the world to preach. The figures in the scenes surrounding them, and in the long line across the bottom, are people around the world waiting for the apostles. Making the figures’ bodies look realistic was not important to this artist. The artist’s intention was to tell a story and convey religious meaning.This sculpture was made to fit into an arched niche, called a tympanum, over the entrance doors to a church in France.
22Example of Renaissance Art: The School of Athens, Raphael, Mural, about 1510 C.E.This mural was created to decorate an entire wall of a room in the pope’s palace in Rome.It shows an imaginary gathering of thegreat thinkers of ancient Greece in a large, open building.It is arranged to frame the two most important philosophers, Plato and Aristotle, who stand in the center. The building recalls the architecture of classical antiquity and uses perspective to create depth.
23Look back at “Section 2”, “Exploring the Rebirth of Classical Ideas Through Art”... To show the importance of ordinary people, civic leaders, and gods and goddesses.To teach religion to people who could not read or write.To show the importance of people and nature.Possible answers: figure is nude; body is active and in motion; face is calm and without emotionPossible answers: highlights Jesus who is larger than other figures; figures are all fully dressed in stiff clothingPossible answers: lifelike three-dimensional figures; figures are shown in motion; colors reflect lighting
24Copy the following chart into your notes... ClassicalMedievalRenaissance
25In which period do you think each work of art was created In which period do you think each work of art was created? Examine the images and fill in the matrix.
26ClassicalMedievalRenaissanceCBAThe woman is in a scene from her daily life; the poses are harmonious and balanced; the faces of the figures are very calm; no background or sense of perspectiveMary is larger than the other figures; figures look flat, not realFigures look realistic; facial expressions are revealing; full landscape in background; has depth
27Examine this image. What interesting details do you see Examine this image. What interesting details do you see? What are the people doing? Who do you think are the merchants? Who do you think are the customers?
28Read “Section 3: The Growth in Trade and Commerce” in Student Text. Answer the following questions...Describe how Marco Polo’s travels along the Silk Road helped reawaken interest in classical culture.List and explain two results of the increase in trade in Europe.
29List and explain two results of the increase in trade in Europe. Describe how Marco Polo’s travels along the Silk Road helped reawaken interest in classical culture.In the 13th century, Mongol conquests made itsafe to travel along the Silk Road. Marco Polo’stravels sparked a greater interest in the East,and helped encourage the transport of food, art,and luxury goods along the trade route.List and explain two results of the increase in trade in Europe.An increase in trade led to a new, moneyeconomy. It also helped crafts people,merchants, and bankers become moreimportant in society.
30What interesting details do you see What interesting details do you see? Describe the geographic features that surround this city. How is the city protected? What visual clues tell you that this is a prosperous city? Why might this city be an exciting and interesting place to live?
31Read “Section 4: The Influence of Italian City-States” in Student Text. Answer the following questions...What were Italian city-states? How were they governed?How did Italian city-states become so powerful?
32What were Italian city-states? How were they governed? Italian city-states were powerful cities inRenaissance Italy that ruled the surroundingtowns and countryside. They were independentand were open republics governed by electedcouncils. Sometimes, in reality, they were ruledby rich merchants, guilds, or powerful families.How did Italian city-states become so powerful?Because of their central Mediterraneanlocation, Italian city-states became majorcenters of trade and business.
33Main IdeaThe Italian Renaissance was a great rebirth of learning that produced many great works of art and literature.CEhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vufba_ZcoR0&list=PLBDA2E52FB1EF80C9&index=23
34Italy’s Advantages Why did the Renaissance start in Italy? Thriving CitiesWealthy Merchant ClassClassical Heritage of Greece and Rome
35City-States Oversea trade Urbanized, large cities Intellectual Revolution
362. Merchants and the Medici Wealthy merchant classHigh percentage of citizens involved in politics, didn’t inherit social rankingsFlorence, Italy – came under the political rule of the wealthy banking family, Medici
37Medici Family Political dynasty Successfully founded Medici Bank Produced 4 popes, 2 queens of France, hereditary Dukes of FlorenceFostered and inspired the birth of the RenaissanceCame up with general ledger system
38Patrons of the Arts Church leaders spent a lot of money on art “Patrons of the arts” – financially supported the artistsWould get their portraits painted or donate art – showed their importance
39Looking to Greece and Rome Didn’t like art/literature from Middle AgesScholars/artists drew inspiration from Greek and Roman ruinsWestern scholars studied ancient Latin manuscriptsChristian scholars in Constantinople fled to Rome with Greek manuscripts when the Turks conquered it (1453)What advantages fostered the Renaissance in Italy?
40ANSWER:Thriving cities, a wealthy merchant class, and the heritage of Greece and Rome
41Read “Section 2: The City of Florence” in Student Text. Answer the following questions...1. What factors helped Florence to become a wealthy city?2. How did Florence’s wealth contribute to its cultural activity?3. Why did many travelers come to Florence?
42City of Florence1. What factors helped Florence to become a wealthy city?Because of its ideal location on the Arno River, Florence became a center for trade and commerce. It also was dominated by the Medici family, who helped Florence become a banking center for Europe.2. How did Florence’s wealth contribute to its cultural activity?The city’s residents could afford to be patrons of artists and thinkers. [wealthy merchant class]3. Why did many travelers come to Florence?Some travelers came to do business, while others came to study art. Still others came to learn at the city’s schools and libraries.
43Read “Section 5: The Growth of Humanism” in Student Text. Answer the following questions...What did Renaissance humanists believe about people’s abilities?What subjects from ancient times did humanists study and explore?How did the Renaissance humanists’ beliefs sometimes conflict with those of the Catholic Church?
44What did Renaissance humanists believe about people’s abilities? Renaissance humanists believed that peoplecould shape their own lives and achieve greatthings.What subjects from ancient times did humanists study and explore?Renaissance humanists studied classical art,architecture, government, history, poetry,and language.How did the Renaissance humanists’ beliefs sometimes conflict with those of the Catholic Church?The Church taught that laws were made byGod and required people to follow its teachingswithout question. It also emphasized life afterdeath as opposed to life on Earth. Renaissancehumanists believed that people should questioneverything, and tried to balance religious faithwith an active interest in human existence.
45Growth of HumanismWhat did Renaissance humanists believe about people’s abilities?What subjects from ancient times did humanists study and explore?How did the Renaissance humanists’ beliefs sometimes conflict with those of the Catholic Church?
46Classical and Worldly Views Humanism – an intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievementsInfluenced artists and architects to carry on classical traditionsPopularized study of common classical subjects, known as the Humanities (history, philosophy, literature)
47WORLDLY PLEASURESHumanists believed you can enjoy life without offending GodWealthy people had luxuriesMost people stayed devout CatholicsBUT, majority was secular, worldly rather than spiritual and concerned with the here and now
48Read “Section 6: Advances in Literature” in Student Text. Answer the following questions...1. Briefly describe two ways in which Renaissance literature differed from medieval literature.2. How is Dante’s The Divine Comedy an example of humanist art?
49Advances in Literature 1. Briefly describe two ways in which Renaissance literature differed from medieval literature.Renaissance writers wrote about secular topics and about personal experiences. They used more individual styles and expressed thoughts and feelings about life. Unlike medieval writers, who wrote primarily in Latin, Renaissance writers wrote in their own vernacular.2. How is Dante’s The Divine Comedy an example of humanist art?Dante’s The Divine Comedy highlights strong emotions and the experiences of individuals. It is also a social commentary and includes real people.
50Renaissance Writers Change Literature Produced works that reflected their timesInfluenced writing todayVernacular – native language (Latin)Wrote for self expression
51How did the study of science change during the Renaissance? Read “Section : Advances in Science and Mathematics” in Student Text.Answer the following questions...How did the study of science change during the Renaissance?
52Advances in Science and Mathematics How did the study of science change during the Renaissance?During the Renaissance, people used a new approach: they questioned old ideas, made careful observations, performed experiments, and analyzed the results.
53Leonardo de Vinci Painter Sculptor Inventor Scientist Incorporated findings into art
55What changes in Europe led to the Renaissance? The Growth of Trade and CommerceThe Influence of Italian City-StatesMerchants and bankers grew wealthy and could afford to pay for new buildings and art to beautify their cities.Growing trade meant that more classical texts, art, and artifacts were passed along trade routes, sparking interest in classical culture.Their wealth encouraged a growth in art and learning. Rich families supported the creation of art, new buildings, and centers of learning, such as universities and hospitals.What changes in Europe led to the Renaissance?People began to change their ideas about many things, such as government, social class, and religion. They tried to improve upon the art, architecture, and ideas of the classical period, which led to new discoveries, new ways of studying things, and new inventions in many areas of life.The Growth of Humanism