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Size of the Roman Empire

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1 Size of the Roman Empire

2 The Middle Ages A. Fall of the Roman Empire 1. Causes for the fall of Rome a. pressure from Germanic tribes along Rome’s frontier including Huns, Visigoths, Vandals, and Ostrogoths invaded and settled in Roman territory beginning around the year 350AD b. decline of patriotism, discipline, and devotion to duty forced the Roman government to hire mercenaries, foreign soldiers serving for pay, to defend its borders c. economic causes: the people of Rome were burdened by heavy taxes to support the massive military



5 Colosseum

6 d. The Roman Empire Split in Half (284AD):
1) Emperor Diocletian split the Empire in half in order to make it easier to govern a)Diocletian established the capital of the eastern part of the empire at Constantinople 2) He kept the wealthier eastern half of the empire for himself and appointed a co-emperor to rule the western part 3) the Eastern half of the empire flourished and became known as the Byzantine Empire as the west slowly fell into economic ruin


8 2. The Actual Fall of Rome a. in 476 AD the Ostrogoth leader Odoacer marched on Rome and took control of the city b. without a powerful government to maintain order, western Europe became decentralized and chaotic Western Europe Is Up For Grabs a. when Rome fell, the land in western Europe that had been part of the Empire was fought over by mostly small, but sometimes larger tribes of people b. small-scale battles for land persisted until around the year 1000 c. this period is often called the Dark Ages since constant warfare, famine, and poverty dominated this era

9 Hagia Sophia


11 B. Germanic Tribes Set Up Kingdoms in Europe
1. Ostrogoth Kingdom of Italy a. Emperor Theodoric (526AD) tried to maintain Roman practices b. conquered by the Byzantine Empire and ruled by Byzantine Emperor Justinian ( ) who ravaged the Italian peninsula in a series of wars c. Lombards invaded Italy in 568 and conquered much of northern and central parts of the peninsula 2. Visigothic Kingdom of Spain a. constant warfare over kingship b. invaded by Muslims from north Africa in 711 who destroyed the Visigoth Kingdom


13 a. Clovis united many Frankish tribes (510)
3. The Frankish Kingdom a. Clovis united many Frankish tribes (510) 1) converted to Christianity 2) established a massive empire that created a vast empire in modern-day France b. Charlemagne ( )—King of the Franks 1) powerful leader of the Franks who conquered surrounding land and established a massive empire that included France 2) given the title and crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III 3) Charlemagne fused Roman, Germanic, and Christian traditions which created a new dominant culture in Europe

14 4) Charlemagne and the Carolingian Renaissance
a) revived the learning of Latin and encouraged the study of ancient Roman and Greek history b) scriptura: this was a writing room where monks and scholars copied ancient manuscripts from the times of the Greeks and Romans which helped spread knowledge through western Europe c) Alcuin was the greatest scholar of the time period and taught subjects that are now known as the liberal arts at a university established by Charlemagne


16 Feudal Pyramid

17 Manor System

18 Feudalism and Manorialism
1. Reasons for the development of feudalism a. Viking and Magyar invasions during the eighth and ninth centuries created a need for protection b. With the breakdown of centralized government, like that of Rome, nobles took control of large areas of land and needed vassals to protect it c. when trade and commerce slowed down when the Roman Empire collapsed, land became the most valuable commodity 2. Feudalism a. definition: agreement in which a lord grants a fief, a piece of land, to a vassal in exchange for military service 1) the vassal pledges fealty, or loyalty to the lord in a formal ceremony b. duties of a vassal 1) make financial payments to the lord (taxes) on several occasions including the knighting of the lord’s eldest son, the marriage of his eldest daughter, and to pay a ransom if the lord is captured by an enemy 2) military service 3) advise the lord 4) appear at the lord’s court to help determine verdicts for legal cases





23 c. lord’s duties to the vassal
1) defend the vassal in battle 2) defend the vassal in legal courts 3) provide the vassal with a fief 3. The Manorial System a. manor: landed estates given to a vassal by his lord and worked by dependent serfs b. “bound to the land”: serfs belonged to the land and could not be removed from the land on which they were born c. Serfs: 1) gave up their freedom 2) paid rents for use of mill, oven, land, etc 3) labored the land of the vassal or lord d. Lord 1) provided protection for the peasants 2) allowed peasants to cultivate land for food

24 D. The Catholic Church in Europe
1. Christianity Spreads throughout Europe a. Jesus of Nazareth (6 BC-30AD): preached in and around Galilee, but he and his followers were persecuted by the Roman authorities b. Christians were persecuted by Roman emperors like Nero and Decius c. Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity 1) Edict of Milan: a law issued by Constantine that officially recognized and accepted Christianity in the Roman Empire d. Christianity appealed to human needs 1) it satisfied the need to belong in a way the huge, impersonal, Roman Empire could not 2) the promise of eternal life was for all people 3) emphasized spiritual equality among all people


26 Spread of Christianity

27 2. Christianity in the Middle Ages
a. Hierarchy in the Catholic Church (Pope, cardinal, archbishop, bishop, priest, monk, deacon 1) Pope Gregory the Great ( CE) a) organized the region around Rome into a political unit that became known as the Papal States b) responsible for sending missionaries to England and converting it to Christianity c) started the monastic movement d) due to Gregory’s successes, the Pope became one of the most powerful leaders in Europe b. Monasticism: 1) monk: someone who enters a monastery and cuts themselves off from ordinary society in order to completely dedicate their lives to the will of God 2) Benedictine Monasticism a) Saint Benedict of Nursia founded a house for monks and created a code for monastic life (chastity, obedience, and poverty) in 520 CE b) a typical day was divided into a series of activities with an emphasis on prayer and manual labor c) monasteries were located on large pieces of land that allowed it to be a self-sufficient unit


29 a) Cluny was established by Duke William of Aquitaine
d) abbot: “father of the monastery” who had complete control over the monks 3) Clunaic Reform Movement: in response to the growing secularization of the Church, a monastery was established at Cluny to lead a reform movement in the Catholic Church a) Cluny was established by Duke William of Aquitaine b) goal of the movement was to free the Church from the interference of lords in the election of Church officials *lay investiture: the practice by which lords appointed bishops in their region -Pope Gregory VII vs. King Henry IV of Germany (1077AD) argued over who had the right to appoint the bishop of Milan -Gregory excommunicated Henry and called for the people of Germany to rebel against Henry IV -Henry IV met with the Pope at Canossa and begged for forgiveness


31 c. Popular Religion in the Middle Ages
1) Sacraments (baptism, Eucharist, reconciliation, confirmation, holy matrimony, holy orders, and anointing of the sick) ensured that the Church was an integral part of people’s lives from birth to death a) sacraments are believed to be necessary for salvation and since priests administered sacraments, they were very important 2) Saints: men and women who achieved a special place in heaven due to having lived a particularly pious life a) saints worked as intercessors between God and humans b) relics, religious objects often associated with saints, were very important to medieval people

32 E. The Crusades: Series of Holy Wars fought between Muslims and Christians
1. Pope Urban II Calls for the First Crusade a. Reasons 1) Primogeniture: the practice whereby the oldest son inherits the father’s estate. a) primogeniture caused much violence in Europe as second and third-born knights fought others for land b) the Pope planned to united these warriors and encourage them to settle the Holy Land 2) Secure safe passage for pilgrims a) Muslims had traditionally accepted allowed Christians to visit the holy sites in Jerusalem; around the year 1000, pilgrims and shrines sacred to Christianity came under attack by Muslims

33 3) Increase his own political power
a) Emperor Alexius I of the Byzantine Empire asked Urban II to send warriors to help fight the Muslims in the Middle Ages b) The Pope believed this would give him political power over the Byzantine Empire and he even dreamed of a possible reunification of the Roman Catholic Church with the Greek orthodox Church Reasons People Answered Pope Urban II’s Call For A Crusade a. Salvation 1) The Pope promised “remission of all sins” to those who went on a Crusade 2) Crusaders were even promised forgiveness of all future sins

34 b. Land and Wealth 1) many crusaders wanted to gain large estates in the Middle East 2) crusaders wanted to loot towns and cities along the way to Jerusalem c. Respect 1) Going on a crusade was considered admirable and those who fought in crusades were treated like heroes d. Sense of Adventure 1) crusades provided people from western Europe with the opportunity to see the world



37 Effects of the Crusades
a. Revival of Trade 1) When crusaders returned from the Middle East, they brought goods with them and created a demand for these products in Europe (silks, spices, astronomical equipment) 2) Italian port cities of Venice, Pisa, and Genoa immediately prospered from trade with the Middle East 3) Crusades mark the reintegration of Europe into the global economic system b. Anti-Semitism 1) first widespread attacks on Jews began with the Crusades as many crusaders, as well as those who remained in Europe, attacked Jewish communities since they, too, were “infidels” 2) The massacre of Jews became a regular feature of medieval life

38 c. Impact on the development of nations
1) since so many nobles decided to leave Europe to fight in the Crusades it gave many kings the opportunity to consolidate their power over their kingdoms 2) the process of centralization of power under kings occurred rapidly during the Crusades

39 F. The Black Plague Origins a. believed to had come from central Asia b. First came to Europe in 1347 1) Merchants from Genoa, Italy were trading in the city of Kaffa on the Crimean Peninsula 2) Merchants came under attack by a group in that region known as the Tartars from whom they allegedly contacted the plague 3) Genoese merchants brought the plague first to Messina, Sicily from where it spread first to the Italian Peninsula, then northward throughout Europe 2. Types of Plague a. Bubonic b. Pneumonic

40 3. Impact and Reaction to the Plague in Europe
a. population decreased from an estimated 75 million people in 1347 to 45 million in 1351 1) plague ravaged Europe again in 1361 and 1369 and resurfaced every years until the year 1500; therefore, the population did not recover quickly b. psychological reactions 1) people began living for the moment and indulged in “alcoholic and sexual” orgies 2) flagellants c. some people began to massacre Jews d. many believed it was the end of the world

41 4. Economic and Social Effects of the Plague
a. labor shortage: since so many peasants and serfs died, the remaining peasants could demand higher wages 1) a peasant earning 2 schillings in England in 1347 earned 11 in 1350 2) this led to a decreased standard of living for the nobility b. serfs demanded freedom from lords and became wage laborers rather than bound to the land on which they worked c. peasant revolts 1) Jacqueire: peasant revolt in northern France caused by the destruction of the normal order by the Black Death; nobles were killed and castles burned; rebel peasants were eventually squashed and leaders massacred 2) English Peasants’ Revolt of 1381: peasants initially benefitted from the plague; when the king attempted to raise peasant taxes in 1381, the peasants revolted under the leadership of Wat Tyler

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