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By: Samantha Hatfield & Rachel Irwing. A severe lung infection that affects humans and animals.

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Presentation on theme: "By: Samantha Hatfield & Rachel Irwing. A severe lung infection that affects humans and animals."— Presentation transcript:

1 By: Samantha Hatfield & Rachel Irwing

2 A severe lung infection that affects humans and animals

3 The Yersina Pestis bacteria

4 Can survive up to one hour after being released into the air (varies depending on conditions) Can be easily destroyed by sunlight and drying Found in rodents and fleas

5 Symptoms usually appear 2-3 days after exposure

6 Fever Headache Weakness Shortness of breath Chest pain Cough Bloody/watery sputum (mucus that is coughed up from the lower airways) Rapidly developing pneumonia Pneumonia may progress for 2-4 days causing repiratory/shock *Lower airways: trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, lungs

7 Spreads from person to person by inhaling the bacteria released in air Also spreads by: Saliva Coughing Fecal/oral routes Surfaces Blood/needles/transfusions Sexual contact Mother to fetus

8 Early treatment is essential To reduce death patients should take antibiotics within 24 hours of first symptoms

9 Medications that are given: Streptomycin Gentamicin Tetracyclines Chloramphenicol Wearing a close fitting mask around an infected person may help someone in close contact with them A patient that has been taking antibiotics for 7 days also reduces the chances of contamination

10 There are two types of Pneumonic Plague Primary- Inhalation/direct contamination of Y.Pestis bacteria Secondary- If Bubonic or Septicemic plague goes untreated it allows the bacteria to spread to the lungs Pneumonic Plague is also 1 of the 3 plagues also known as “Black Death” Three types of Plague Pneumonic Bubonic Septicemic

11 Ring Around the Rosie Originated from the symptoms of the 3 types of plague "The invariable sneezing and falling down in modern English versions have given would-be origin finders the opportunity to say that the rhyme dates back to the Plague. A rosy rash, they allege, was a symptom of the plague, and posies of herbs were carried as protection and to ward off the smell of the disease. Sneezing or coughing was a final fatal symptom, and "all fall down" was exactly what happened.“ The line “Ashes, Ashes” can be interpreted as the many bodies being incinerated during an outbreak There were so many deaths bodies were lining the streets

12 There is currently no vaccine in the U.S. for this plague Pneumonic is the only type of plague that can be spread from person to person A person is not contagious until the bacteria reaches the lungs Listed as a “rare disease” The Office of Rare Disease of National Institutes of Health

13 The first major epidemic was in 540 Pelusium, Egypt Reached Constantinople in 542 In the following decade spread to Europe & Asia The last major pandemic was in 1855-1896 worldwide, but mostly occurred in China & India 12 million people died

14 Bioterrorism Y. Pestis was used as a weapon Released clouds of bacteria into countries Brought infected people to opposing countries on ships to kill off population Became a common tactic not only with plague

15 Affects less than 200,000 people in the U.S. population Which is why it is classified as a rare disease With treatment there is a 5% mortality rate Without treatment there is a 100% mortality rate An estimated 75 million people died in Europe ( about 30- 60% of their population A 1970 World Health Organization (WHO) assessment asserted that in a worst-case scenario a dissemination of 50 kg of Y. Pestis in an aerosol cloud over a city of 5 million might result in 150,000 cases of pneumonic plague. Of those, 80,000 to 100,000 cases would require hospitalization, and 36,000 victims would be expected to die.

16 UHAVAX.HARTFORD.EDU/BUGL/HISTEPI.HTM Plague.htm ‎ plague.html ‎

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