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Medieval England 1066-1485. Beginning of the Period… Norman Conquest Battle of Hastings – December 25, 1066 – William the Conqueror becomes William I.

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Presentation on theme: "Medieval England 1066-1485. Beginning of the Period… Norman Conquest Battle of Hastings – December 25, 1066 – William the Conqueror becomes William I."— Presentation transcript:

1 Medieval England

2 Beginning of the Period… Norman Conquest Battle of Hastings – December 25, 1066 – William the Conqueror becomes William I French becomes language of the courts Everyday language (Old English) is blended with French to become Middle English – Blend of French and German

3 1073—Religious Power Canterbury, England becomes the second most important city in England—it is named the Religious center The Archbishop of Canterbury has special political powers Answers directly to the Pope Is considered nearly equal to the king Some Archbishops had good relationships with the king. Some did not. Laws of the land were supposed to be Catholic Law If the king disobeyed the Pope he could be ex- communicated from the church “Divine Right of Kings”

4 ST. THOMAS À BECKETT Archbishop of Canterbury (1170) Friends with King Henry II since they were children Henry named Thomas the Archbishop to get favors Thomas was too moral to be a hypocrite They argued often because Henry was not happy with the changes that Thomas went through with his promotion Henry angered Thomas by passing laws that were against Church law Thomas complained straight to the Pope instead of talking to Henry Pope contacted Henry to force him to stop Henry called his four favorite knights to the castle “Will anyone rid me of this evil?!?”

5 ST. THOMAS À BECKETT CONT’D Next day, knights show up at Canterbury Cathedral and kill Thomas in his own church (1170) Refused to give in—very difficult to kill him Referred to as a “martyr”—he died for what he believed in People loved Thomas—was believed he had healing powers Henry II claimed he had nothing to do with the murder To satisfy suspicion against him—went on a pilgrimage to Canterbury People still go there today for healing 1173—Thomas was “canonized” (named a saint)

6 The Plague Started on mainland of Europe First seen in Britain Brought over by rats/fleas on cargo ships Made worse by horrible living conditions in British cities “Black Plague” kills more than 25 million people across Europe (full 1/3 of the European population) Government institutes harsh quarantines “Ring Around the Roses”—nursery rhyme invented to teach children about the plague

7 The Plague cont’d People began to move back to the rural areas Cleaner environment Distant neighbors Raised social consciousness Citizens began to openly complain about the government for allowing unsanitary practices with no judicial limitations Many writers focused on social injustice—began to feel comfortable writing negatively about leaders Government forced to make changes Rebuilt sewage systems Garbage cleaned up

8 PRINTING PRESS 1436—Johannes Gutenburg invents first “moveable type” printing press In Germany Guards plans to keep them secret First piece of literature printed on it—The Gutenberg Bible (printed in Middle English) 1476—William Caxton steals plans and builds 1 st press in Britain First piece of literature printed in Britain— The Canterbury Tales in Middle English First time literature and other documents can be mass produced—improves literacy tremendously!

9 SCRIBES Before printing press—all writing produced by scribes Wrote in beautiful calligraphy Illuminated letters Colorful and trimmed in 24 karat gold Contained miniature pictures that told the story of the literature Often went blind Eye strain (tiny printing under magnification and low light) Lead poisoning from the ink Paid VERY well to make up for dangers of job Most were Catholic monks

10 Wars of the Roses Series of civil wars between two branches of the Plantagenet family Lancasters (red rose on family crest) Yorks (white rose on family crest) 1453—beginning of 1 st war Henry VI (House of Lancaster) has first bout with madness Sent to sanitarium to recover Parliament asks his cousin Richard (House of York) to run government temporarily Henry returns and Richard will not leave War ensues—Richard is victorious Several years of war. Throne changes hands many times—always with bloodshed

11 Wars of the Roses cont’d 1485—Beginning of last War of the Roses Henry Tudor (from Wales)—cousin and friend of the Lancasters Hears rumors that Richard III (York) gained throne by killing two young nephews in the Tower of London Henry and his gang defeat and kill Richard Becomes Henry VII Ends Wars of the Roses by marrying Elizabeth York End of Medieval Period and Plantagenet reign— begins the Tudor Era


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