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FC44 THE EASTERN ROMAN (BYZANTINE) EMPIRE (c.500-1000 C.E.) Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emp. survives after the Western Emp. falls by 500 (FC. 36)

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Presentation on theme: "FC44 THE EASTERN ROMAN (BYZANTINE) EMPIRE (c.500-1000 C.E.) Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emp. survives after the Western Emp. falls by 500 (FC. 36)"— Presentation transcript:

1 FC44 THE EASTERN ROMAN (BYZANTINE) EMPIRE (c C.E.) Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emp. survives after the Western Emp. falls by 500 (FC. 36)

2 FC44 THE EASTERN ROMAN (BYZANTINE) EMPIRE (c C.E.) Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emp. survives after the Western Emp. falls by 500 (FC. 36) Bubonic plague devastates Empire

3 FC44 THE EASTERN ROMAN (BYZANTINE) EMPIRE (c C.E.) Byz.’s persecute heresies (FC. 38) Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emp. survives after the Western Emp. falls by 500 (FC. 36) Bubonic plague devastates Empire

4 FC44 THE EASTERN ROMAN (BYZANTINE) EMPIRE (c C.E.) Byz.’s persecute heresies (FC. 38) Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emp. survives after the Western Emp. falls by 500 (FC. 36) Emperor Justinian (527-65) tries to reconquer the West. Emp. while pacifying Persians in East with huge bribes  Take N. Africa & Italy after 20 yrs hard fighting Bubonic plague devastates Empire

5 FC44 THE EASTERN ROMAN (BYZANTINE) EMPIRE (c C.E.) Byz.’s persecute heresies (FC. 38) Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emp. survives after the Western Emp. falls by 500 (FC. 36) Emperor Justinian (527-65) tries to reconquer the West. Emp. while pacifying Persians in East with huge bribes  Take N. Africa & Italy after 20 yrs hard fighting Empire exhausted by wars, plague, & relig. strife  Open to invasions Bubonic plague devastates Empire

6 FC44 THE EASTERN ROMAN (BYZANTINE) EMPIRE (c C.E.) Byz.’s persecute heresies (FC. 38) Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emp. survives after the Western Emp. falls by 500 (FC. 36) Emperor Justinian (527-65) tries to reconquer the West. Emp. while pacifying Persians in East with huge bribes  Take N. Africa & Italy after 20 yrs hard fighting Long war w/Persia exhausts both emp’s Empire exhausted by wars, plague, & relig. strife  Open to invasions Bubonic plague devastates Empire

7 FC44 THE EASTERN ROMAN (BYZANTINE) EMPIRE (c C.E.) Hunnic Bulgars drive their Slavic subjects to overrun Balkans Byz.’s persecute heresies (FC. 38) Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emp. survives after the Western Emp. falls by 500 (FC. 36) Emperor Justinian (527-65) tries to reconquer the West. Emp. while pacifying Persians in East with huge bribes  Take N. Africa & Italy after 20 yrs hard fighting Long war w/Persia exhausts both emp’s Empire exhausted by wars, plague, & relig. strife  Open to invasions Bubonic plague devastates Empire

8 FC44 THE EASTERN ROMAN (BYZANTINE) EMPIRE (c C.E.) Hunnic Bulgars drive their Slavic subjects to overrun Balkans Byz.’s persecute heresies (FC. 38) Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emp. survives after the Western Emp. falls by 500 (FC. 36) Emperor Justinian (527-65) tries to reconquer the West. Emp. while pacifying Persians in East with huge bribes  Take N. Africa & Italy after 20 yrs hard fighting Long war w/Persia exhausts both emp’s Empire exhausted by wars, plague, & relig. strife  Open to invasions Lombards take most of Italy  Byz’s keep S.Italy & Venice in N. Bubonic plague devastates Empire

9 FC44 THE EASTERN ROMAN (BYZANTINE) EMPIRE (c C.E.) Hunnic Bulgars drive their Slavic subjects to overrun Balkans Byz.’s persecute heresies (FC. 38) Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emp. survives after the Western Emp. falls by 500 (FC. 36) Emperor Justinian (527-65) tries to reconquer the West. Emp. while pacifying Persians in East with huge bribes  Take N. Africa & Italy after 20 yrs hard fighting Long war w/Persia exhausts both emp’s Empire exhausted by wars, plague, & relig. strife  Open to invasions Arab Muslims conquer Palestine, Syria, Egypt, & N. Afr. (FC. 46) Lombards take most of Italy  Byz’s keep S.Italy & Venice in N. Bubonic plague devastates Empire

10 FC44 THE EASTERN ROMAN (BYZANTINE) EMPIRE (c C.E.) Hunnic Bulgars drive their Slavic subjects to overrun Balkans Byzantine diplomacy, perseverance, & Constantinople’s fortifications save the empire several times Byz.’s persecute heresies (FC. 38) Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emp. survives after the Western Emp. falls by 500 (FC. 36) Emperor Justinian (527-65) tries to reconquer the West. Emp. while pacifying Persians in East with huge bribes  Take N. Africa & Italy after 20 yrs hard fighting Long war w/Persia exhausts both emp’s Empire exhausted by wars, plague, & relig. strife  Open to invasions Arab Muslims conquer Palestine, Syria, Egypt, & N. Afr. (FC. 46) Lombards take most of Italy  Byz’s keep S.Italy & Venice in N. Bubonic plague devastates Empire

11 FC44 THE EASTERN ROMAN (BYZANTINE) EMPIRE (c C.E.) By 750, Byz. Emp. is reduced to a core of Asia Minor & Aegean  More unity Relig. unity after 843 when iconoclastic dispute is ended Emp. more ethnically & culturally unified Empire more compact & easier to defend Hunnic Bulgars drive their Slavic subjects to overrun Balkans Byzantine diplomacy, perseverance, & Constantinople’s fortifications save the empire several times Byz.’s persecute heresies (FC. 38) Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emp. survives after the Western Emp. falls by 500 (FC. 36) Emperor Justinian (527-65) tries to reconquer the West. Emp. while pacifying Persians in East with huge bribes  Take N. Africa & Italy after 20 yrs hard fighting Long war w/Persia exhausts both emp’s Empire exhausted by wars, plague, & relig. strife  Open to invasions Arab Muslims conquer Palestine, Syria, Egypt, & N. Afr. (FC. 46) Lombards take most of Italy  Byz’s keep S.Italy & Venice in N. Bubonic plague devastates Empire

12 FC44 THE EASTERN ROMAN (BYZANTINE) EMPIRE (c C.E.) By 750, Byz. Emp. is reduced to a core of Asia Minor & Aegean  More unity Relig. unity after 843 when iconoclastic dispute is ended Emp. more ethnically & culturally unified Empire more compact & easier to defend Hunnic Bulgars drive their Slavic subjects to overrun Balkans Byzantine diplomacy, perseverance, & Constantinople’s fortifications save the empire several times Byz.’s persecute heresies (FC. 38) Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emp. survives after the Western Emp. falls by 500 (FC. 36) Emperor Justinian (527-65) tries to reconquer the West. Emp. while pacifying Persians in East with huge bribes  Take N. Africa & Italy after 20 yrs hard fighting Long war w/Persia exhausts both emp’s Empire exhausted by wars, plague, & relig. strife  Open to invasions Arab Muslims conquer Palestine, Syria, Egypt, & N. Afr. (FC. 46) Lombards take most of Italy  Byz’s keep S.Italy & Venice in N. Bubonic plague devastates Empire

13 FC44 THE EASTERN ROMAN (BYZANTINE) EMPIRE (c C.E.) By 750, Byz. Emp. is reduced to a core of Asia Minor & Aegean  More unity Relig. unity after 843 when iconoclastic dispute is ended Emp. more ethnically & culturally unified Empire more compact & easier to defend Hunnic Bulgars drive their Slavic subjects to overrun Balkans Byzantine diplomacy, perseverance, & Constantinople’s fortifications save the empire several times Byz.’s persecute heresies (FC. 38) Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emp. survives after the Western Emp. falls by 500 (FC. 36) Emperor Justinian (527-65) tries to reconquer the West. Emp. while pacifying Persians in East with huge bribes  Take N. Africa & Italy after 20 yrs hard fighting Long war w/Persia exhausts both emp’s Empire exhausted by wars, plague, & relig. strife  Open to invasions Arab Muslims conquer Palestine, Syria, Egypt, & N. Afr. (FC. 46) Lombards take most of Italy  Byz’s keep S.Italy & Venice in N. Bubonic plague devastates Empire

14 FC44 THE EASTERN ROMAN (BYZANTINE) EMPIRE (c C.E.) By 750, Byz. Emp. is reduced to a core of Asia Minor & Aegean  More unity Relig. unity after 843 when iconoclastic dispute is ended Emp. more ethnically & culturally unified Empire more compact & easier to defend Hunnic Bulgars drive their Slavic subjects to overrun Balkans Byzantine diplomacy, perseverance, & Constantinople’s fortifications save the empire several times Byz.’s persecute heresies (FC. 38) Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emp. survives after the Western Emp. falls by 500 (FC. 36) Emperor Justinian (527-65) tries to reconquer the West. Emp. while pacifying Persians in East with huge bribes  Take N. Africa & Italy after 20 yrs hard fighting Long war w/Persia exhausts both emp’s Empire exhausted by wars, plague, & relig. strife  Open to invasions Arab Muslims conquer Palestine, Syria, Egypt, & N. Afr. (FC. 46) Lombards take most of Italy  Byz’s keep S.Italy & Venice in N. Bubonic plague devastates Empire

15 FC44 THE EASTERN ROMAN (BYZANTINE) EMPIRE (c C.E.) By 750, Byz. Emp. is reduced to a core of Asia Minor & Aegean  More unity Relig. unity after 843 when iconoclastic dispute is ended Emp. more ethnically & culturally unified Empire more compact & easier to defend Political, military, & econ. revival & expansion of Byz. Emp. thanks to: Good diplomacy to neutralize enemies Slavs forcibly settled to repopulate Asia Minor  Good peasant militia Trade & tolls  Money Hunnic Bulgars drive their Slavic subjects to overrun Balkans Byzantine diplomacy, perseverance, & Constantinople’s fortifications save the empire several times Byz.’s persecute heresies (FC. 38) Invasions let up by 750 Milit. provinces  Better defense Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emp. survives after the Western Emp. falls by 500 (FC. 36) Emperor Justinian (527-65) tries to reconquer the West. Emp. while pacifying Persians in East with huge bribes  Take N. Africa & Italy after 20 yrs hard fighting Long war w/Persia exhausts both emp’s Empire exhausted by wars, plague, & relig. strife  Open to invasions Arab Muslims conquer Palestine, Syria, Egypt, & N. Afr. (FC. 46) Lombards take most of Italy  Byz’s keep S.Italy & Venice in N. Bubonic plague devastates Empire

16 FC44 THE EASTERN ROMAN (BYZANTINE) EMPIRE (c C.E.) By 750, Byz. Emp. is reduced to a core of Asia Minor & Aegean  More unity Relig. unity after 843 when iconoclastic dispute is ended Emp. more ethnically & culturally unified Empire more compact & easier to defend Political, military, & econ. revival & expansion of Byz. Emp. thanks to: Good diplomacy to neutralize enemies Slavs forcibly settled to repopulate Asia Minor  Good peasant militia Trade & tolls  Money Hunnic Bulgars drive their Slavic subjects to overrun Balkans Byzantine diplomacy, perseverance, & Constantinople’s fortifications save the empire several times Byz.’s persecute heresies (FC. 38) Invasions let up by 750 Milit. provinces  Better defense Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emp. survives after the Western Emp. falls by 500 (FC. 36) Emperor Justinian (527-65) tries to reconquer the West. Emp. while pacifying Persians in East with huge bribes  Take N. Africa & Italy after 20 yrs hard fighting Long war w/Persia exhausts both emp’s Empire exhausted by wars, plague, & relig. strife  Open to invasions Arab Muslims conquer Palestine, Syria, Egypt, & N. Afr. (FC. 46) Lombards take most of Italy  Byz’s keep S.Italy & Venice in N. Bubonic plague devastates Empire

17 FC44 THE EASTERN ROMAN (BYZANTINE) EMPIRE (c C.E.) By 750, Byz. Emp. is reduced to a core of Asia Minor & Aegean  More unity Relig. unity after 843 when iconoclastic dispute is ended Emp. more ethnically & culturally unified Empire more compact & easier to defend Political, military, & econ. revival & expansion of Byz. Emp. thanks to: Good diplomacy to neutralize enemies Slavs forcibly settled to repopulate Asia Minor  Good peasant militia Trade & tolls  Money Hunnic Bulgars drive their Slavic subjects to overrun Balkans Byzantine diplomacy, perseverance, & Constantinople’s fortifications save the empire several times Byz.’s persecute heresies (FC. 38) Invasions let up by 750 Milit. provinces  Better defense Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emp. survives after the Western Emp. falls by 500 (FC. 36) Emperor Justinian (527-65) tries to reconquer the West. Emp. while pacifying Persians in East with huge bribes  Take N. Africa & Italy after 20 yrs hard fighting Long war w/Persia exhausts both emp’s Empire exhausted by wars, plague, & relig. strife  Open to invasions Arab Muslims conquer Palestine, Syria, Egypt, & N. Afr. (FC. 46) Lombards take most of Italy  Byz’s keep S.Italy & Venice in N. Bubonic plague devastates Empire

18 FC44 THE EASTERN ROMAN (BYZANTINE) EMPIRE (c C.E.) By 750, Byz. Emp. is reduced to a core of Asia Minor & Aegean  More unity Relig. unity after 843 when iconoclastic dispute is ended Emp. more ethnically & culturally unified Empire more compact & easier to defend Political, military, & econ. revival & expansion of Byz. Emp. thanks to: Good diplomacy to neutralize enemies Slavs forcibly settled to repopulate Asia Minor  Good peasant militia Trade & tolls  Money Hunnic Bulgars drive their Slavic subjects to overrun Balkans Byzantine diplomacy, perseverance, & Constantinople’s fortifications save the empire several times Byz.’s persecute heresies (FC. 38) Invasions let up by 750 Milit. provinces  Better defense Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emp. survives after the Western Emp. falls by 500 (FC. 36) Emperor Justinian (527-65) tries to reconquer the West. Emp. while pacifying Persians in East with huge bribes  Take N. Africa & Italy after 20 yrs hard fighting Long war w/Persia exhausts both emp’s Empire exhausted by wars, plague, & relig. strife  Open to invasions Arab Muslims conquer Palestine, Syria, Egypt, & N. Afr. (FC. 46) Lombards take most of Italy  Byz’s keep S.Italy & Venice in N. Bubonic plague devastates Empire

19 FC44 THE EASTERN ROMAN (BYZANTINE) EMPIRE (c C.E.) By 750, Byz. Emp. is reduced to a core of Asia Minor & Aegean  More unity Relig. unity after 843 when iconoclastic dispute is ended Emp. more ethnically & culturally unified Empire more compact & easier to defend Political, military, & econ. revival & expansion of Byz. Emp. thanks to: Good diplomacy to neutralize enemies Slavs forcibly settled to repopulate Asia Minor  Good peasant militia Trade & tolls  Money Hunnic Bulgars drive their Slavic subjects to overrun Balkans Byzantine diplomacy, perseverance, & Constantinople’s fortifications save the empire several times Byz.’s persecute heresies (FC. 38) Invasions let up by 750 Milit. provinces  Better defense Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emp. survives after the Western Emp. falls by 500 (FC. 36) Emperor Justinian (527-65) tries to reconquer the West. Emp. while pacifying Persians in East with huge bribes  Take N. Africa & Italy after 20 yrs hard fighting Long war w/Persia exhausts both emp’s Empire exhausted by wars, plague, & relig. strife  Open to invasions Arab Muslims conquer Palestine, Syria, Egypt, & N. Afr. (FC. 46) Lombards take most of Italy  Byz’s keep S.Italy & Venice in N. Bubonic plague devastates Empire

20 FC44 THE EASTERN ROMAN (BYZANTINE) EMPIRE (c C.E.) By 750, Byz. Emp. is reduced to a core of Asia Minor & Aegean  More unity Relig. unity after 843 when iconoclastic dispute is ended Emp. more ethnically & culturally unified Empire more compact & easier to defend Political, military, & econ. revival & expansion of Byz. Emp. thanks to: Good diplomacy to neutralize enemies Slavs forcibly settled to repopulate Asia Minor  Good peasant militia Trade & tolls  Money Hunnic Bulgars drive their Slavic subjects to overrun Balkans Byzantine diplomacy, perseverance, & Constantinople’s fortifications save the empire several times Byz.’s persecute heresies (FC. 38) Invasions let up by 750 Milit. provinces  Better defense Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emp. survives after the Western Emp. falls by 500 (FC. 36) Emperor Justinian (527-65) tries to reconquer the West. Emp. while pacifying Persians in East with huge bribes  Take N. Africa & Italy after 20 yrs hard fighting Long war w/Persia exhausts both emp’s Empire exhausted by wars, plague, & relig. strife  Open to invasions Arab Muslims conquer Palestine, Syria, Egypt, & N. Afr. (FC. 46) Lombards take most of Italy  Byz’s keep S.Italy & Venice in N. Bubonic plague devastates Empire

21 FC44 THE EASTERN ROMAN (BYZANTINE) EMPIRE (c C.E.) By 750, Byz. Emp. is reduced to a core of Asia Minor & Aegean  More unity Relig. unity after 843 when iconoclastic dispute is ended Emp. more ethnically & culturally unified Empire more compact & easier to defend Political, military, & econ. revival & expansion of Byz. Emp. thanks to: Good diplomacy to neutralize enemies Slavs forcibly settled to repopulate Asia Minor  Good peasant militia Trade & tolls  Money Hunnic Bulgars drive their Slavic subjects to overrun Balkans Byzantine diplomacy, perseverance, & Constantinople’s fortifications save the empire several times Byz.’s persecute heresies (FC. 38) Invasions let up by 750 Milit. provinces  Better defense Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emp. survives after the Western Emp. falls by 500 (FC. 36) Emperor Justinian (527-65) tries to reconquer the West. Emp. while pacifying Persians in East with huge bribes  Take N. Africa & Italy after 20 yrs hard fighting Long war w/Persia exhausts both emp’s Empire exhausted by wars, plague, & relig. strife  Open to invasions Arab Muslims conquer Palestine, Syria, Egypt, & N. Afr. (FC. 46) Lombards take most of Italy  Byz’s keep S.Italy & Venice in N. Steady expansion of the Empire under Macedonian Dyn. ( ) Bubonic plague devastates Empire

22 FC44 THE EASTERN ROMAN (BYZANTINE) EMPIRE (c C.E.) By 750, Byz. Emp. is reduced to a core of Asia Minor & Aegean  More unity Relig. unity after 843 when iconoclastic dispute is ended Emp. more ethnically & culturally unified Empire more compact & easier to defend Political, military, & econ. revival & expansion of Byz. Emp. thanks to: Good diplomacy to neutralize enemies Slavs forcibly settled to repopulate Asia Minor  Good peasant militia Trade & tolls  Money Hunnic Bulgars drive their Slavic subjects to overrun Balkans Byzantine diplomacy, perseverance, & Constantinople’s fortifications save the empire several times Byz.’s persecute heresies (FC. 38) Invasions let up by 750 Milit. provinces  Better defense Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emp. survives after the Western Emp. falls by 500 (FC. 36) Emperor Justinian (527-65) tries to reconquer the West. Emp. while pacifying Persians in East with huge bribes  Take N. Africa & Italy after 20 yrs hard fighting Long war w/Persia exhausts both emp’s Empire exhausted by wars, plague, & relig. strife  Open to invasions Arab Muslims conquer Palestine, Syria, Egypt, & N. Afr. (FC. 46) Lombards take most of Italy  Byz’s keep S.Italy & Venice in N. Steady expansion of the Empire under Macedonian Dyn. ( ) Byz. decline after Basil II’s death in 1025 (FC.45) Bubonic plague devastates Empire

23 FC44 THE EASTERN ROMAN (BYZANTINE) EMPIRE (c C.E.) By 750, Byz. Emp. is reduced to a core of Asia Minor & Aegean  More unity Relig. unity after 843 when iconoclastic dispute is ended Emp. more ethnically & culturally unified Empire more compact & easier to defend Political, military, & econ. revival & expansion of Byz. Emp. thanks to: Good diplomacy to neutralize enemies Slavs forcibly settled to repopulate Asia Minor  Good peasant militia Trade & tolls  Money Hunnic Bulgars drive their Slavic subjects to overrun Balkans Byzantine diplomacy, perseverance, & Constantinople’s fortifications save the empire several times Byz.’s persecute heresies (FC. 38) Invasions let up by 750 Milit. provinces  Better defense Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emp. survives after the Western Emp. falls by 500 (FC. 36) Emperor Justinian (527-65) tries to reconquer the West. Emp. while pacifying Persians in East with huge bribes  Take N. Africa & Italy after 20 yrs hard fighting Long war w/Persia exhausts both emp’s Empire exhausted by wars, plague, & relig. strife  Open to invasions Arab Muslims conquer Palestine, Syria, Egypt, & N. Afr. (FC. 46) Lombards take most of Italy  Byz’s keep S.Italy & Venice in N. Steady expansion of the Empire under Macedonian Dyn. ( ) Byz’s pass on Graeco-Roman Civ. to W. Eur. (FC.76) Byz. decline after Basil II’s death in 1025 (FC.45) Bubonic plague devastates Empire

24 FC44 THE EASTERN ROMAN (BYZANTINE) EMPIRE (c C.E.) By 750, Byz. Emp. is reduced to a core of Asia Minor & Aegean  More unity Relig. unity after 843 when iconoclastic dispute is ended Emp. more ethnically & culturally unified Empire more compact & easier to defend Political, military, & econ. revival & expansion of Byz. Emp. thanks to: Good diplomacy to neutralize enemies Slavs forcibly settled to repopulate Asia Minor  Good peasant militia Trade & tolls  Money Hunnic Bulgars drive their Slavic subjects to overrun Balkans Byzantine diplomacy, perseverance, & Constantinople’s fortifications save the empire several times Byz.’s persecute heresies (FC. 38) Invasions let up by 750 Milit. provinces  Better defense Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emp. survives after the Western Emp. falls by 500 (FC. 36) Emperor Justinian (527-65) tries to reconquer the West. Emp. while pacifying Persians in East with huge bribes  Take N. Africa & Italy after 20 yrs hard fighting Long war w/Persia exhausts both emp’s Empire exhausted by wars, plague, & relig. strife  Open to invasions Arab Muslims conquer Palestine, Syria, Egypt, & N. Afr. (FC. 46) Lombards take most of Italy  Byz’s keep S.Italy & Venice in N. Steady expansion of the Empire under Macedonian Dyn. ( ) Byz’s pass on Graeco-Roman Civ. to W. Eur. (FC.76) Byz. decline after Basil II’s death in 1025 (FC.45) Byz’s pass on Graeco-Roman Civ. to Russia (FC.92) Bubonic plague devastates Empire

25 FC44 THE EASTERN ROMAN (BYZANTINE) EMPIRE (c C.E.) By 750, Byz. Emp. is reduced to a core of Asia Minor & Aegean  More unity Relig. unity after 843 when iconoclastic dispute is ended Emp. more ethnically & culturally unified Empire more compact & easier to defend Political, military, & econ. revival & expansion of Byz. Emp. thanks to: Good diplomacy to neutralize enemies Slavs forcibly settled to repopulate Asia Minor  Good peasant militia Trade & tolls  Money Hunnic Bulgars drive their Slavic subjects to overrun Balkans Byzantine diplomacy, perseverance, & Constantinople’s fortifications save the empire several times Byz.’s persecute heresies (FC. 38) Invasions let up by 750 Milit. provinces  Better defense Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emp. survives after the Western Emp. falls by 500 (FC. 36) Emperor Justinian (527-65) tries to reconquer the West. Emp. while pacifying Persians in East with huge bribes  Take N. Africa & Italy after 20 yrs hard fighting Long war w/Persia exhausts both emp’s Empire exhausted by wars, plague, & relig. strife  Open to invasions Arab Muslims conquer Palestine, Syria, Egypt, & N. Afr. (FC. 46) Lombards take most of Italy  Byz’s keep S.Italy & Venice in N. Steady expansion of the Empire under Macedonian Dyn. ( ) Byz’s pass on Graeco-Roman Civ. to W. Eur. (FC.76) Byz. decline after Basil II’s death in 1025 (FC.45) Byz’s pass on Graeco-Roman Civ. to Russia (FC.92) Byz’s pass on Graeco-Roman Civ. to Arab Muslims (FC.47) Bubonic plague devastates Empire


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