Presentation on theme: "Lecture 13 : The Growth Of Capitalism Overview MERCHANT CAPITALISM Merchant Capitalism The Agricultural Revolution Health In The Mercantilist Era - Bubonic."— Presentation transcript:
Lecture 13 : The Growth Of Capitalism Overview MERCHANT CAPITALISM Merchant Capitalism The Agricultural Revolution Health In The Mercantilist Era - Bubonic Plague - Tuberculosis INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM The Industrial Revolution Health In The 19 th Century - The Epidemiological Transition
Merchant Capitalism Overseas discoveries resulted in doctrine of mercantilism. State power concentrated under control of monarchies. Wealth accumulated by merchants and financiers. Power and wealth was reflected in the built environment. Period of social inequalities, but living conditions gradually improved for most people.
The 2 nd Agricultural Revolution Money valued more than land. Land used to make money. More scientific approach to agriculture to maximise profits. Four year crop rotation (wheat, turnips, barley, clover). Seeds sown in rows, hoeing used to keep down weeds. New breeds of cattle and sheep. Cattle weights increased from 370lb (1710) to 800lb (1795). Sheep weights increased from 28lb to 80lb in same period.
Land Enclosures Open fields with small strips of land enclosed to form large fields. Peasants were often cheated out of their rights. Rural poor forced to leave the land – moved to cities in search of work.
Health In Mercantilist Era Increased trade provided safeguard against famines. Trade also resulted in interchange of infectious agents – many previously epidemic diseases became endemic. Some endemic diseases evolved into diseases of childhood. 18 th century saw rapid population increases due to increased birth rates and declining death rates.
Bubonic Plague Bubonic plague had flared up from time to time since the Black Death – e.g. Venice (1575-77 and 1630-31), Spain (1596-1602, 1648-52 and 1677-85). Plague began to disappear in Europe in the 17 th century. Last plague in England was Great Plague of London (1665) which killed 50,000 in first 3 months. Great Fire of London (1666) destroyed breeding grounds of the black rat. Last plague in Western Europe was in Marseilles (1720- 21). Persisted longer in Eastern Europe – Moscow lost 56,000 in 1771.
Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (consumption) became a major cause of death in the 17 th century. May have declined in 18 th, before becoming big again in the 19 th. The causal agent (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) is very similar to the causal agent of leprosy (Mycobacterium leprae). Infection by one seems to provide immunity against the other. Leprosy declined as TB increased.
Industrial Capitalism Industrial revolution initially based on the mechanisation of the textile industries. Factories initially built by fast flowing rivers, but invention of steam power enabled them to be built much larger. Rural cottage textile industries collapsed, driving more rural people into the cities. Laissez faire replaced mercantilism as industrial capitalists became the dominant class in society.
Working And Living Conditions People (including women and children) had to work very long hours to survive – no welfare system. Working conditions dangerous due to dust, fibres and noxious fumes, plus injuries from unguarded machinery. Workers housed at very high densities in poor quality housing. Houses lacked water supply and sewerage disposal. Courtyard and back to back designs inhibited ventilation. Diets were poor; food adulterated to maximise profits.
Health In Early Industrial Era Industrial cities were very unhealthy: death rate in cities in 1830s was 26.2 per thousand, compared with 18.2 in rural areas. Life expectancy was 50 in Wiltshire, 35 in Liverpool. Life expectancy for Liverpool working classes was 15. Common diseases included smallpox, cholera, tuberculosis, typhus and typhoid. Infant and childhood mortality rates were high due to scarlet fever; diphtheria, whooping cough; measles; and summer diarrhoea.
Epidemics There were major typhus epidemics in 1817-9, 1826-7, 1831-2, 1837, and 1846-8. There were major cholera epidemics in Britain and Ireland as part of the 2 nd to 5 th pandemics (1831-2, 1848-9, 1853-4 and 1865-6).
The Epidemiological Transition Major change between the mid-19 th and mid-20 th centuries. Living conditions improved, better sanitation and sewerage, big advances in medicine. Changes referred to as the epidemiological transition: a)Deaths from infectious diseases declined. b)More people died from non-infectious (degenerative diseases) such as heart disease, stroke and cancer. c)The mean age at death and hence life expectancy increased. d)Mortality ‘spikes’ caused by epidemics became uncommon.