17The Hundred Years War How did the war contribute to the end of feudalism in France? Soldiers earned wealth from pillaging…returned home with new attitudesCountryside destroyed so large number of serfs migrated to the citiesMonarchs built huge armies with the taxes they collected, which reduced the power of nobles.People became more patriotic, more devoted to the monarch than their feudal lord… beginning of national identities!
18The Hundred Years War (1337 – 1453) France becomes larger! France in 1453France in 1337
19Analyze the shift in the prevailing religious culture by the end of the Middle Ages.
20The Role of the Church in the Middle Ages Only one Christian church…The Catholic Church+Church has own laws, land (1/3rd of allland in Western Europe) , and taxes(filled the power vacuum left from thecollapse of the classical world)People who disagreed with churchlaw, or criticized the church werecalled heretics and were often burned atthe stake=The Catholic Church is a verypowerful institution!September from Tres Riches Heures, early 1400s
26The Power of the Church vs. the Power of the State Vs. Pope BonifaceVIIIFrench KingPhilip IVUnam Sanctum
27Decline of the Church Boniface VIII and conflict with State, Unam Sanctum, Bull issued that placed spiritual above the temporal. Excommunicated King Philip IV of France.The Papacy at Avignon ( )Initiated by Pope Clement VChurch administration improvedBrought doubt to power of ChurchGreat Schism – 2 popes as head of 1 churchPapacy returned to Rome, 1378Pope Urban VI, = Italian/English SupportPope Clement VII, = French Support
31New Thoughts on Church and State and the Rise of Conciliarism Marsiglio of Padua (1270?-1342)Defender of the PeaceDenied temporal authority is subject to spiritual authority. Greatest long term importance.Conciliarism – a general council should decide how to end Schism and who should lead.
32Popular Religion in an Age of Adversity Performance of Good Works – ways to deal with Black Plague and 100 Years War.Mysticism and Lay PietyMeister Eckhart - Union of the soul and God (basics of what Mysticism is)Gerard Groote - Modern Devotion – imitate JesusBrothers and Sisters of the Common LifeFemale mystics – Catherine of SienaWilliam of Occam - NominalismOnly objects perceived by the senses are realFaith not reason
33Trade and Commerce: Change the Foundations of Town Life Towns were centers for trade and shippingLuxury goods such as silk, spices, ivory and porcelain could be bought in townsGuilds (associations of people in the same trade or craft) dominated social and civic life of townsGuilds reflected importance of Christianity in townsContributed to building of CathedralsAdopted patron saints and sponsored parades in their honor
34Trade and Commerce Change Town Life Town Life During the Middle Ages Towns were small because society was based on agriculture and most people lived in the country sideNobles had most of the powerLords owned the land where most towns were locatedTowns needed protection from the knights that lords could provideStatus was determined by birthright
35Family Life and Gender Roles Urban AdvancesFamily Life and Gender RolesRise of Nuclear FamilyRepression of WomenCare and Education of ChildrenAdvances in MedicineMedical SchoolsPhysicians – surgeons & barbersPublic Health & SanitationInventions and New PatternsMechanical ClockEyeglasses – reading & paperGunpowder – war & defenseUse of the VernacularChaucer, Petrarch, Pizan, Bocaccio
37Decline of FeudalismBlack Death killed one third of Europe's population2. Peasants revolted and demanded more freedom3. Hundred Years War allowed monarchs to build huge armies and reduce power of lordsPeople moved to cities to earn better wages5. Status began to be determined by wealth and ability, not birthright
51William the Conqueror: Battle of Hastings, 1066 (Bayeaux Tapestry)
52Evolution of England’s Political System Magna Carta, 1215King John I(r – 1216)Runnymeade“Great Charter”monarchs were not above the law.kings had to consult a council of advisors.kings could not tax arbitrarily.
53The Beginnings of the British Parliament Great Council:middle class merchants, townspeople [burgesses in Eng., bourgeoisie in Fr., burghers in Ger.] were added at the end of the 13c.eventually called Parliament.by 1400, two chambers evolved:House of Lords nobles & clergy.House of Commons knights and burgesses.
57The Crises of the Late Middle Ages (1250 – Approx. 1500)
58The Black Death What was the Black Death ? Deadly plague that spread across Europe from – 1352Caused by a form of bacteriaAppeared in three forms:Pneumonic: attacked the lungsSepticemic: appeared in the bloodstreamBubonic: caused buboes on the body
59Septicemia Form: almost 100% mortality rate. The SymptomsBulbousSepticemia Form: almost 100% mortality rate.
60The Black Death How did the Black Death spread throughout Europe? Originated in Mongolia and spread to Black Sea along Silk RoadBacteria carried by fleas who lived on black ratsItalian merchant ships brought rats to Europe along with trade goodsFirst appeared in Sicily and eventually spread
61The Disease Cycle Human is infected! Flea drinks rat blood that carries the bacteria.Bacteriamultiply inflea’s gut.Human is infected!Flea bites human and regurgitates blood into human wound.Flea’s gut clogged with bacteria.
62The Black Death Why couldn’t people stop the spread of the Black Death? People were ignorant about its cause; they blamed the stars, God’s anger, and the JewsThey tried ineffective cures such as pomanders, flagellation, and repentance of sins.
63The Black Death How did the Black Death change life in Europe? Killed one third of the populationForced farmers to diversify their cropsPeasants revolted and demanded more freedomWorking class moved to cities to earn better wagesReduced the power of the feudal lords
64The Hundred Years War (1337-1453) What were the causes? Question of French SuccessionFrench king Charles IV died in with no male heirTwo men attempted to claim the vacant throne:Edward III of England, nephew of Charles IVPhilip of Valois, regent of Franceafter the death of Charles IVFrench nobles preferred Philipto the foreigner
65The Hundred Years War (1337-1453) What were the causes? French Land Belonging to British KingsA longer standing issue was the status of lands within France that belonged to English kings.Gascony, Brittany & Aquitaine
66The ‘dagger’ pointing at the ‘heart’ of England! The Hundred Years War ( )What were the causes?Conflict Over Flanders (parts of Belgium, SWNetherlands, NE France)The ‘dagger’ pointing at the ‘heart’ of England!Wool industry.Flanders wants its independence from French control.Asks England for help.
67The Hundred Years War (1337-1453) What were the causes? French Struggle for National IdentityFrance was NOT a united country before the war began.The French king only controlled about half of the country.
68The Hundred Years War (1337-1453) Phase 1- Early British VictoriesPhase 2- Guerilla warfare by French king French king captured & ransomed- Treaty of BretignyPhase 3- English dominance- French rally & eventually win**Joan of Arc & Orleans
69The Hundred Years War How did the nature of warfare change? Longbows eliminated advantages of armor (Could pierce an inch of wood or the armor of a knight at 200 yards!)Cannons could be used to blast holes in castlesMonarchs used armies recruited from common peoplePikes
70The Hundred Years War (1337-1453) King Henry V (ruled 1412 – 1422) Renewed his family’s claim to the French throne.At Agincourt in 1415, the English, led by Henry himself, baited a larger French army into attacking a fortified English position.With the aid of the dukes of Burgundy, Henry gained control over Normandy, Paris, and much of northern France!
71The Hundred Years War (1337-1453) Height of English Dominance
72The Hundred Years War Who was Joan of Arc and how did she change the course of the war? Young French peasant woman who was inspired by God to save FranceConvinced Charles VII to let her lead an army against the English in 1429Helped push the English armies out of central FranceWas captured by the Burgundians (sided with British), accused of heresy, and burned at the stake in 1431; was sainted in 1922