Presentation on theme: "Europe’s Transition from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance."— Presentation transcript:
Europe’s Transition from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance
What were the Middle, or Dark Ages? -A period of European history between the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 A.D. and the Renaissance which began in the 1400s.
PeriodizationPeriodization Early Middle Ages: 500 – 1000 High Middle Ages: 1000 – 1250 Late Middle Ages:
Life in the High Middle Ages (1000 – 1250)
Life in the Middle Ages King Lords (Vassals) Knights (Vassals) Peasants (Serfs) Loyalty & Military Aid Fief & Peasants Military Service Food & Shelter Farm Labor & Rent Food, Shelter & Protection Manoralism = Economic System Feudalism = Political System
The Medieval Manor
Life on the Medieval Manor Serfs at work
To what extent were climate and disease key factors in producing economic and social changes?
PERSIA!! POLITICAL ECONOMIC RELIGIOUS SOCIAL INTELLECTUAL ARTISTIC
Illustration of 1358 Jacquerie Peasant Rebellion in northern France
Pieter Bruegel’s The Triumph of Death
The Hundred Years’ War ( )
The Hundred Years War How did the war contribute to the end of feudalism in France? Soldiers earned wealth from pillaging…returned home with new attitudes Countryside destroyed so large number of serfs migrated to the cities Monarchs built huge armies with the taxes they collected, which reduced the power of nobles. People became more patriotic, more devoted to the monarch than their feudal lord… beginning of national identities!
The Hundred Years War (1337 – 1453) France becomes larger! France in 1337 France in 1453
Analyze the shift in the prevailing religious culture by the end of the Middle Ages.
The Role of the Church in the Middle Ages September from Tres Riches Heures, early 1400s Only one Christian church… The Catholic Church + Church has own laws, land (1/3 rd of all land in Western Europe), and taxes (filled the power vacuum left from the collapse of the classical world) + People who disagreed with church law, or criticized the church were called heretics and were often burned at the stake = The Catholic Church is a very powerful institution!
A Medieval Monastery: The Scriptorium
A Medieval Monk’s Day
Christian Crusades: East and West
The Power of the Church vs. the Power of the State Vs. Pope Boniface VIII French King Philip IV Unam Sanctum
Decline of the Church Boniface VIII and conflict with State, −Unam Sanctum, Bull issued that placed spiritual above the temporal. Excommunicated King Philip IV of France. −The Papacy at Avignon ( ) Initiated by Pope Clement V Church administration improved Brought doubt to power of Church Great Schism – 2 popes as head of 1 church −Papacy returned to Rome, 1378 −Pope Urban VI, = Italian/English Support −Pope Clement VII, = French Support
New Thoughts on Church and State and the Rise of Conciliarism −Marsiglio of Padua (1270?-1342) −Defender of the Peace −Denied temporal authority is subject to spiritual authority. Greatest long term importance. −Conciliarism – a general council should decide how to end Schism and who should lead.
Popular Religion in an Age of Adversity −Performance of Good Works – ways to deal with Black Plague and 100 Years War. −Mysticism and Lay Piety Meister Eckhart - Union of the soul and God (basics of what Mysticism is) Gerard Groote - Modern Devotion – imitate Jesus −Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life Female mystics – Catherine of Siena William of Occam - Nominalism −Only objects perceived by the senses are real −Faith not reason
Trade and Commerce: Change the Foundations of Town Life Towns were centers for trade and shipping Luxury goods such as silk, spices, ivory and porcelain could be bought in towns Guilds (associations of people in the same trade or craft) dominated social and civic life of towns Guilds reflected importance of Christianity in towns a)Contributed to building of Cathedrals b)Adopted patron saints and sponsored parades in their honor
Trade and Commerce Change Town Life Town Life During the Middle Ages Towns were small because society was based on agriculture and most people lived in the country side Nobles had most of the power a)Lords owned the land where most towns were located b)Towns needed protection from the knights that lords could provide Status was determined by birthright
Urban Advances Family Life and Gender Roles Rise of Nuclear Family Repression of Women Care and Education of Children Advances in Medicine Medical Schools Physicians – surgeons & barbers Public Health & Sanitation Inventions and New Patterns Mechanical Clock Eyeglasses – reading & paper Gunpowder – war & defense Use of the Vernacular Chaucer, Petrarch, Pizan, Bocaccio
Decline of Feudalism 1.Black Death killed one third of Europe's population 2. Peasants revolted and demanded more freedom 3. Hundred Years War allowed monarchs to build huge armies and reduce power of lords 4.People moved to cities to earn better wages 5. Status began to be determined by wealth and ability, not birthright
1305: Avignon Papacy begins 1315 – 1317: Great Famine 1337: Hundred Years’ War begins 1347: Black Death reaches Europe 1351: End of 1 st major plague outbreak 1358: Jacquerie (peasant revolt) in France 1377: Pope Gregory XI returns papacy to Rome 1378: Great Schism begins 1381: English Peasants’ Revolt 1415: Battle of Agincourt 1417: Great Schism ends 1429: Battle of Orleans 1431: Joan of Arc burned at the stake 1453: Hundred Years’ War ends
The Greatest Extent of the Roman Empire – 14 CE
The Legacy of Rome Republic Government Roman Law Latin Language Roman Catholic Church City Planning Romanesque Architectural Style Roman Engineering Aqueducts Aqueducts Sewage systems Sewage systems Dams Dams Cement Cement Arch Arch
Roman Roads: The Appian Way
Imperial Roman Road System
Barbarian Invasions: 4c-5c
Europe in the 6 th Century
A Medieval Castle in Carcassonne, France A Medieval Castle in Carcassonne, France
Parts of a Medieval Castle
The Road to Knighthood KNIGHT SQUIRE PAGE
Chivalry: A Code of Honor and Behavior
William the Conqueror: Battle of Hastings, 1066 (Bayeaux Tapestry)
Magna Carta, 1215 King John I (r – 1216) (r – 1216) Runnymeade “Great Charter” monarchs were not above the law. kings had to consult a council of advisors. kings could not tax arbitrarily. Evolution of England’s Political System
The Beginnings of the British Parliament Great Council: middle class merchants, townspeople [burgesses in Eng., bourgeoisie in Fr., burghers in Ger.] were added at the end of the 13c. eventually called Parliament. by 1400, two chambers evolved: o House of Lords nobles & clergy. o House of Commons knights and burgesses.
Medieval Guilds Guild Hall Commercial Monopoly: Controlled membership apprentice journeyman master craftsman Controlled quality of the product [masterpiece]. Controlled prices
Late Medieval Town Dwellings
The Crises of the Late Middle Ages (1250 – Approx. 1500)
Deadly plague that spread across Europe from 1346 – 1352 Caused by a form of bacteria Appeared in three forms: −Pneumonic: attacked the lungs −Septicemic: appeared in the bloodstream −Bubonic: caused buboes on the body The Black Death What was the Black Death ?
The Symptoms Bulbous Septicemia Form: almost 100% mortality rate.
The Black Death How did the Black Death spread throughout Europe? Originated in Mongolia and spread to Black Sea along Silk Road Bacteria carried by fleas who lived on black rats Italian merchant ships brought rats to Europe along with trade goods First appeared in Sicily and eventually spread
The Disease Cycle Flea drinks rat blood that carries the bacteria. Flea’s gut clogged with bacteria. Bacteria multiply in flea’s gut. Flea bites human and regurgitates blood into human wound. Human is infected!
The Black Death Why couldn’t people stop the spread of the Black Death? People were ignorant about its cause; they blamed the stars, God’s anger, and the Jews They tried ineffective cures such as pomanders, flagellation, and repentance of sins.
The Black Death How did the Black Death change life in Europe? Killed one third of the population Forced farmers to diversify their crops Peasants revolted and demanded more freedom Working class moved to cities to earn better wages Reduced the power of the feudal lords
Question of French Succession French king Charles IV died in 1328 with no male heir Two men attempted to claim the vacant throne: 1.Edward III of England, nephew of Charles IV 2.Philip of Valois, regent of France after the death of Charles IV French nobles preferred Philip to the foreigner The Hundred Years War ( ) What were the causes?
A longer standing issue was the status of lands within France that belonged to English kings. Gascony, Brittany & Aquitaine The Hundred Years War ( ) What were the causes? French Land Belonging to British Kings
The Hundred Years War ( ) What were the causes? Conflict Over Flanders ( parts of Belgium, SW Netherlands, NE France) The ‘dagger’ pointing at the ‘heart’ of England! Wool industry. Flanders wants its independence from French control. Asks England for help.
The Hundred Years War ( ) What were the causes? French Struggle for National Identity France was NOT a united country before the war began. The French king only controlled about half of the country.
Phase 1 - Early British Victories Phase 2 - Guerilla warfare by French king - French king captured & ransomed - Treaty of Bretigny Phase 3 - English dominance - French rally & eventually win **Joan of Arc & Orleans The Hundred Years War ( )
The Hundred Years War How did the nature of warfare change? Longbows eliminated advantages of armor (Could pierce an inch of wood or the armor of a knight at 200 yards!) Cannons could be used to blast holes in castles Monarchs used armies recruited from common people Pikes
King Henry V (ruled 1412 – 1422) Renewed his family’s claim to the French throne. At Agincourt in 1415, the English, led by Henry himself, baited a larger French army into attacking a fortified English position. −With the aid of the dukes of Burgundy, Henry gained control over Normandy, Paris, and much of northern France! The Hundred Years War ( )
Height of English Dominance
Young French peasant woman who was inspired by God to save France Convinced Charles VII to let her lead an army against the English in 1429 Helped push the English armies out of central France Was captured by the Burgundians (sided with British), accused of heresy, and burned at the stake in 1431; was sainted in 1922 The Hundred Years War Who was Joan of Arc and how did she change the course of the war?