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The Middle Ages. The Middle Ages: By Period Early Middle Ages: 500 – 1000 (‘The Dark Ages’) -Rise of the Franks [Merovingians/Clovis I/Charlemagne] -Monks/Monasteries.

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Presentation on theme: "The Middle Ages. The Middle Ages: By Period Early Middle Ages: 500 – 1000 (‘The Dark Ages’) -Rise of the Franks [Merovingians/Clovis I/Charlemagne] -Monks/Monasteries."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Middle Ages

2 The Middle Ages: By Period Early Middle Ages: 500 – 1000 (‘The Dark Ages’) -Rise of the Franks [Merovingians/Clovis I/Charlemagne] -Monks/Monasteries preserve knowledge High Middle Ages: 1000 – 1250 (‘The Crusades’) -Increased Catholic Church Power -Ongoing battles against Muslims in Spain (began in 8 th century) Late Middle Ages: 1250 – 1450 (‘The Plague & Recovery’) -Resurgence of learning and inventions lead to Renaissance -Increased Catholic Church power leads to Reformation -Regional Kingdoms gain power leading to increased trade routes and Exploration Early Middle Ages: 500 – 1000 (‘The Dark Ages’) -Rise of the Franks [Merovingians/Clovis I/Charlemagne] -Monks/Monasteries preserve knowledge High Middle Ages: 1000 – 1250 (‘The Crusades’) -Increased Catholic Church Power -Ongoing battles against Muslims in Spain (began in 8 th century) Late Middle Ages: 1250 – 1450 (‘The Plague & Recovery’) -Resurgence of learning and inventions lead to Renaissance -Increased Catholic Church power leads to Reformation -Regional Kingdoms gain power leading to increased trade routes and Exploration

3 The Middle Ages FMajor Events: F476ce - Destruction of Western Roman Empire F Creation of Feudal Kingdoms F s Rise of powerful Kings (Clovis, Charles Martel, Charlemagne) F800s - Viking Invasions of Europe F11 th Century - Christian Crusades F Great Schism of Christianity FMid-14 th Century The Bubonic Plague “Black Death” strikes western Europe F13 th -15 th Centuries Rise of Nation-States of Europe FMajor Events: F476ce - Destruction of Western Roman Empire F Creation of Feudal Kingdoms F s Rise of powerful Kings (Clovis, Charles Martel, Charlemagne) F800s - Viking Invasions of Europe F11 th Century - Christian Crusades F Great Schism of Christianity FMid-14 th Century The Bubonic Plague “Black Death” strikes western Europe F13 th -15 th Centuries Rise of Nation-States of Europe

4 The Middle Ages FAfter the fall of Rome, Europe was in a state of chaos with no government FAlso known as the Medieval Period or the Dark Ages because of the lack of development (trade, education, gov’t reform). FLife expectancy goes up while life becomes harder/harsher/more dangerous…why? FLasted from about 500 to 1000CE in Europe FTrade slowed, towns emptied, learning slowed FAfter the fall of Rome, Europe was in a state of chaos with no government FAlso known as the Medieval Period or the Dark Ages because of the lack of development (trade, education, gov’t reform). FLife expectancy goes up while life becomes harder/harsher/more dangerous…why? FLasted from about 500 to 1000CE in Europe FTrade slowed, towns emptied, learning slowed

5 The Middle Ages FThree Main Groups: FThose Who Work - Feudalism FThose Who Pray - Catholic Church FThose Who Fight - Kings, Knights, The Crusades FThree Main Groups: FThose Who Work - Feudalism FThose Who Pray - Catholic Church FThose Who Fight - Kings, Knights, The Crusades

6 Those Who Work: Feudalism FGov’t organized to protect territories from invaders Kings & Nobles Merchants & Soldiers Peasants/Serfs

7 Feudalism/Manorialism FPeople left cities to live on manors (the lord’s estate) in order to grow food to live FSelf-sufficient communities where people produced everything they needed FFeudalism: social/economic/political system FManorialism: Self-sufficient manors [3-field system] FPeople left cities to live on manors (the lord’s estate) in order to grow food to live FSelf-sufficient communities where people produced everything they needed FFeudalism: social/economic/political system FManorialism: Self-sufficient manors [3-field system] -Peasants paid taxes on milling grains, marriages, rents -Serfs: could not leave without permission; treated like slaves; children born into serfdom

8 Feudalism FPeople left cities to live on manors (the lord’s estate) in order to grow food to live FSelf-sufficient communities where people produced everything they needed FPeople left cities to live on manors (the lord’s estate) in order to grow food to live FSelf-sufficient communities where people produced everything they needed

9 Feudalism FPeasants paid taxes on milling grains, marriages, rents FSerfs: could not leave without permission; treated like slaves; children born into serfdom FPeasants paid taxes on milling grains, marriages, rents FSerfs: could not leave without permission; treated like slaves; children born into serfdom

10 Those Who Pray - The Catholic Church The Church provided charity: food, shelter, clothing to poor, orphans FMonasteries - become centers for learning; Monks know how to read and write FIlluminated Manuscripts - handwritten copies of religious documents The Church provided charity: food, shelter, clothing to poor, orphans FMonasteries - become centers for learning; Monks know how to read and write FIlluminated Manuscripts - handwritten copies of religious documents

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12 Catholic Church organization Cardinals Archbishops Bishops Priests

13 The Catholic Church FForced people to pay tithes to the Church FCould excommunicate members or kick them out of the church FSold indulgences, simony FKings and Nobles could appoint church officials FForced people to pay tithes to the Church FCould excommunicate members or kick them out of the church FSold indulgences, simony FKings and Nobles could appoint church officials Indulgence- forgiveness for sins Simony- buy church job

14 Medieval Art FMostly religious based FDark FOverly ornate FGothic - Late Middle Ages FMostly religious based FDark FOverly ornate FGothic - Late Middle Ages

15 Gothic Architecture

16 The High Middle Ages - Those Who Fight Lasted from 1100 to 1300 CE; during this period, Europe developed nation-states with populations and a national unity: FNations led by kings, princes as rulers FMade war against others to obtain territory FTrade rose and towns developed FCatholic Church led wars for Christian domination Lasted from 1100 to 1300 CE; during this period, Europe developed nation-states with populations and a national unity: FNations led by kings, princes as rulers FMade war against others to obtain territory FTrade rose and towns developed FCatholic Church led wars for Christian domination

17 Rise of Nation-States FEngland FFrance FHoly Roman Empire FSpain FEngland FFrance FHoly Roman Empire FSpain

18 The Crusades FForgiveness for sins FCancellation of debts FProtection for families and property FCancellation of criminal charges FLand and wealth (from the Turks) FForgiveness for sins FCancellation of debts FProtection for families and property FCancellation of criminal charges FLand and wealth (from the Turks) Holy wars to regain Jerusalem from the Muslims; first called by Pope Urban II who promised:

19 The Crusades 1st Crusade: 3 groups marched to Holy Land FMost successful; Crusaders captured Jerusalem & Antioch; massacred thousands of Muslims FProblems: heat, supplies, disunity 1st Crusade: 3 groups marched to Holy Land FMost successful; Crusaders captured Jerusalem & Antioch; massacred thousands of Muslims FProblems: heat, supplies, disunity

20 The Crusades F2nd Crusade: Muslims retake Jerusalem; group sent to take the city was defeated F3rd Crusade (King’s Crusade): led by a few famouskings; Muslims kept lands F2nd Crusade: Muslims retake Jerusalem; group sent to take the city was defeated F3rd Crusade (King’s Crusade): led by a few famouskings; Muslims kept lands

21 The Crusades F4th: excommunicated after they conquered Christian Constantinople; never reconquered Holy Land FChildren’s Crusade - Army made up of children hoped Turks would give up Holy land; children enslaved F4th: excommunicated after they conquered Christian Constantinople; never reconquered Holy Land FChildren’s Crusade - Army made up of children hoped Turks would give up Holy land; children enslaved

22 Results of the Crusades FDiscovery of new ideas, inventions, weapons from interactions with Muslims FKings gained power FStatus of women increased FIncreased trade throughout Europe FDiscovery of new ideas, inventions, weapons from interactions with Muslims FKings gained power FStatus of women increased FIncreased trade throughout Europe

23 The Plague FBlack Death FSpread by rats, ticks from trading ships in the early 14th century FKilled half the population of Europe FCame back in waves FBlack Death FSpread by rats, ticks from trading ships in the early 14th century FKilled half the population of Europe FCame back in waves

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25 The Disease Cycle Flea drinks rat blood that carries the bacteria. Flea’s gut clogged with bacteria. Bacteria multiply in flea’s gut. Flea bites human and regurgitates blood into human wound. Human is infected!

26 Attempts to Stop the Plague A Doctor’s Robe “Leeching” Also, tried containment and quarantine but often too late or not enough places participate

27 Attempts to Stop the Plague Flagellanti: Self-inflicted “penance” for our sins!

28 Attempts to Stop the Plague Blame the Jews “Jew” hat “Golden Circle” obligatory badge

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30 Post-classical Europe Questions: ce F1). What are Indulgences and Simony? F2). Describe life in the Dark Ages? When do the Dark Ages begin? F3). What is the difference between the beginning of the Middle Ages and the High Middle Ages? F4). What special defensive structure helped people survive the Dark Ages? F5). What is the major unifying force during the Dark Ages? F6). Explain the Feudal system that existed in Europe during the Middle Ages. Write in sentences for this one please. F7). How did the Plague spread and what are some reasons Europeans believe it happened? F8). Why did European men choose to join the Crusades? F9). How successful were the crusades? What are the major outcomes of the Crusades on Europe and on Dar-Al-Islam? F10). Why did the plague spread globally during the Post Classical era instead of an earlier era? Why couldn’t it spread globally during the Foundations period ( bce)? F1). What are Indulgences and Simony? F2). Describe life in the Dark Ages? When do the Dark Ages begin? F3). What is the difference between the beginning of the Middle Ages and the High Middle Ages? F4). What special defensive structure helped people survive the Dark Ages? F5). What is the major unifying force during the Dark Ages? F6). Explain the Feudal system that existed in Europe during the Middle Ages. Write in sentences for this one please. F7). How did the Plague spread and what are some reasons Europeans believe it happened? F8). Why did European men choose to join the Crusades? F9). How successful were the crusades? What are the major outcomes of the Crusades on Europe and on Dar-Al-Islam? F10). Why did the plague spread globally during the Post Classical era instead of an earlier era? Why couldn’t it spread globally during the Foundations period ( bce)?


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