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The Middle Ages Image: Feudal Manor Image: Coronation of Charlemagne

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Presentation on theme: "The Middle Ages Image: Feudal Manor Image: Coronation of Charlemagne"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Middle Ages Image: Feudal Manor Image: Coronation of Charlemagne
Image: Pope Urban II

2 The Middle Ages: By Period
Early Middle Ages: 500 – (‘The Dark Ages’) -Rise of the Franks [Merovingians/Clovis I/Charlemagne] -Monks/Monasteries preserve knowledge High Middle Ages: – (‘The Crusades’) -Increased Catholic Church Power -Ongoing battles against Muslims in Spain (began in 8th century) Late Middle Ages: – (‘The Plague & Recovery’) -Resurgence of learning and inventions lead to Renaissance -Increased Catholic Church power leads to Reformation -Regional Kingdoms gain power leading to increased trade routes and Exploration

3 The Middle Ages Major Events:
476ce - Destruction of Western Roman Empire Creation of Feudal Kingdoms s Rise of powerful Kings (Clovis, Charles Martel, Charlemagne) 800s - Viking Invasions of Europe 11th Century - Christian Crusades Great Schism of Christianity Mid-14th Century The Bubonic Plague “Black Death” strikes western Europe 13th-15th Centuries Rise of Nation-States of Europe The Middle Ages - After the fall of Rome, Europe was in a state of chaos with no government - Also known as the Medieval Period or the Dark Ages because of the lack of learning - Lasted from about 500 to 1000BCE in Europe

4 The Middle Ages After the fall of Rome, Europe was in a state of chaos with no government Also known as the Medieval Period or the Dark Ages because of the lack of development (trade, education, gov’t reform). Life expectancy goes up while life becomes harder/harsher/more dangerous…why? Lasted from about 500 to 1000CE in Europe Trade slowed, towns emptied, learning slowed The Middle Ages - After the fall of Rome, Europe was in a state of chaos with no government - Also known as the Medieval Period or the Dark Ages because of the lack of learning - Lasted from about 500 to 1000BCE in Europe

5 The Middle Ages Three Main Groups: Those Who Work - Feudalism
Those Who Pray - Catholic Church Those Who Fight - Kings, Knights, The Crusades The Middle Ages Image: Feudal manor Image: Medieval church - Germanic tribes & Muslim armies fought for control - Two forces rose to maintain order: feudalism & the Catholic Church

6 Those Who Work: Feudalism
Gov’t organized to protect territories from invaders Feudalism Image: Knight pledging loyalty - Gov’t organized to protect territories from invaders - Kings, lords exchanged land for military service from thousands; knights fought for lords - Created social system with kings, nobles on top, merchants & soldiers in the middle & peasants on the bottom

7 Feudalism/Manorialism
People left cities to live on manors (the lord’s estate) in order to grow food to live Self-sufficient communities where people produced everything they needed Feudalism: social/economic/political system Manorialism: Self-sufficient manors [3-field system] -Peasants paid taxes on milling grains, marriages, rents -Serfs: could not leave without permission; treated like slaves; children born into serfdom Image: Feudal manor – Lord’s Estate; homes/shops; outer fields Most of the common people in medieval times worked in agriculture. Those who didn't, such as the blacksmiths and millers in the towns, worked in jobs directly related to agriculture. Women worked side by side with men in the fields, and they also performed such essential functions as nursing the sick, cooking, and spinning and weaving wool. Wool became an extremely important commodity, and, in the 1400's, raising sheep for wool became more profitable than growing crops. When William, Duke of Normandy (also known as William the Conqueror) became king of England in 1066, he took land away from the native Anglo-Saxons and divided it up among his loyal followers. The followers pledged their undying support to the king, which usually meant they had to furnish fully equipped knights when the king needed them for war. The estates the followers received were known as manors, and the head of each manor was known as the lord.

8 Feudalism People left cities to live on manors (the lord’s estate) in order to grow food to live Self-sufficient communities where people produced everything they needed Feudalism Image: Feudal manor – Lord’s Estate; homes/shops; outer fields Most of the common people in medieval times worked in agriculture. Those who didn't, such as the blacksmiths and millers in the towns, worked in jobs directly related to agriculture. Women worked side by side with men in the fields, and they also performed such essential functions as nursing the sick, cooking, and spinning and weaving wool. Wool became an extremely important commodity, and, in the 1400's, raising sheep for wool became more profitable than growing crops. When William, Duke of Normandy (also known as William the Conqueror) became king of England in 1066, he took land away from the native Anglo-Saxons and divided it up among his loyal followers. The followers pledged their undying support to the king, which usually meant they had to furnish fully equipped knights when the king needed them for war. The estates the followers received were known as manors, and the head of each manor was known as the lord. - People left cities to live on manors (the lord’s estate) in order to grow food to live - Self-sufficient communities where people produced everything they needed

9 Feudalism Peasants paid taxes on milling grains, marriages, rents
Serfs: could not leave without permission; treated like slaves; children born into serfdom Feudalism - Peasants paid taxes on milling grains, marriages, rents - Serfs: could not leave without permission; treated like slaves; children born into serfdom

10 Those Who Pray - The Catholic Church
The Church provided charity: food, shelter, clothing to poor, orphans Monasteries - become centers for learning; Monks know how to read and write Illuminated Manuscripts - handwritten copies of religious documents The Catholic Church Image: Medieval woman begging - Based in the Vatican in Rome - After the fall of Roman Empire, people turned to Christianity for guidance & strength - The Church provided food, shelter, clothing to poor, orphans - Organized centers for learning; sent out missionaries to recruit new members

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12 Catholic Church organization

13 The Catholic Church Forced people to pay tithes to the Church
Could excommunicate members or kick them out of the church Sold indulgences, simony Kings and Nobles could appoint church officials Indulgence- forgiveness for sins Simony- buy church job Image: Priests counting money from the sale of indulgences - Forced people to pay tithes to the Church - Built cathedrals, ordered works of art - Could excommunicate members or kick them out of the church - Sold indulgences, simony

14 Medieval Art Mostly religious based Dark Overly ornate
Gothic - Late Middle Ages

15 Gothic Architecture

16 The High Middle Ages - Those Who Fight
Lasted from 1100 to 1300 CE; during this period, Europe developed nation-states with populations and a national unity: Nations led by kings, princes as rulers Made war against others to obtain territory Trade rose and towns developed Catholic Church led wars for Christian domination Image: King Richard I of England (Lionheart) Image: Christians vs. Muslims Image: Medieval woman buying eggs

17 Rise of Nation-States England France Holy Roman Empire Spain

18 The Crusades Holy wars to regain Jerusalem from the Muslims; first called by Pope Urban II who promised: Forgiveness for sins Cancellation of debts Protection for families and property Cancellation of criminal charges Land and wealth (from the Turks)

19 The Crusades 1st Crusade: 3 groups marched to Holy Land
Most successful; Crusaders captured Jerusalem & Antioch; massacred thousands of Muslims Problems: heat, supplies, disunity Image: Capture of Jerusalem Image: Siege of Antioch

20 The Crusades 2nd Crusade: Muslims retake Jerusalem; group sent to take the city was defeated 3rd Crusade (King’s Crusade): led by a few famouskings; Muslims kept lands Image: artistic interpretation of Crusades Image: Iconic image of Crusade soldier

21 The Crusades 4th: excommunicated after they conquered Christian Constantinople; never reconquered Holy Land Children’s Crusade - Army made up of children hoped Turks would give up Holy land; children enslaved Image: Children on way to the Crusades, marching through town.

22 Results of the Crusades
Discovery of new ideas, inventions, weapons from interactions with Muslims Kings gained power Status of women increased Increased trade throughout Europe Image: bags of spices at market Image: Compass rose Image: King Henry VIII of England Image: Antique tapestry - European monarchs levied taxes, raised armies, and cooperating on a large-scale. They gained land from nobles who died on the Crusades without leaving heirs. - Demand for Eastern luxury goods increased: spices, sugar, melons, tapestries, and silk. - Crusaders learned how to build better ships, make more accurate maps, and use the magnetic compass to tell direction. - Muslims united against a common enemy.

23 The Plague Black Death Spread by rats, ticks from trading ships in the early 14th century Killed half the population of Europe Came back in waves

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25 The Disease Cycle Human is infected!
Flea drinks rat blood that carries the bacteria. Bacteria multiply in flea’s gut. Human is infected! Flea bites human and regurgitates blood into human wound. Flea’s gut clogged with bacteria.

26 Attempts to Stop the Plague
“Leeching” Also, tried containment and quarantine but often too late or not enough places participate A Doctor’s Robe

27 Attempts to Stop the Plague
Flagellanti: Self-inflicted “penance” for our sins!

28 Attempts to Stop the Plague “Golden Circle” obligatory badge
Blame the Jews “Golden Circle” obligatory badge “Jew” hat

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30 Post-classical Europe Questions: 600-1450ce
1). What are Indulgences and Simony? 2). Describe life in the Dark Ages? When do the Dark Ages begin? 3). What is the difference between the beginning of the Middle Ages and the High Middle Ages? 4). What special defensive structure helped people survive the Dark Ages? 5). What is the major unifying force during the Dark Ages? 6). Explain the Feudal system that existed in Europe during the Middle Ages. Write in sentences for this one please. 7). How did the Plague spread and what are some reasons Europeans believe it happened? 8). Why did European men choose to join the Crusades? 9). How successful were the crusades? What are the major outcomes of the Crusades on Europe and on Dar-Al-Islam? 10). Why did the plague spread globally during the Post Classical era instead of an earlier era? Why couldn’t it spread globally during the Foundations period ( bce)?


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