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Now playing: Ladysmith Black Mombasa “Ungoyani Into Enhle (Destroy not this Beauty)” Lecture 14 Insects and Disease.

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Presentation on theme: "Now playing: Ladysmith Black Mombasa “Ungoyani Into Enhle (Destroy not this Beauty)” Lecture 14 Insects and Disease."— Presentation transcript:

1 Now playing: Ladysmith Black Mombasa “Ungoyani Into Enhle (Destroy not this Beauty)” Lecture 14 Insects and Disease

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4 Websites: Goals: Assignment: 1.Define: vector, parasite, myiasis, envemonization, plague, and epidemic 2.Know the effects of arthropods on humans and other animals 1.Define: vector, parasite, myiasis, envemonization, plague, and epidemic 2.Know the effects of arthropods on humans and other animals

5 Where Have we Come From? Where are we Going? What is Science? Theory of Life: –Organization –Organismal Theory of Inheritance Theory of Evolution Germ Theory of Disease What is Science? Theory of Life: –Organization –Organismal Theory of Inheritance Theory of Evolution Germ Theory of Disease 497 Cases of Human West Nile Virus in Michigan; 41 Total Deaths… 497 Cases of Human West Nile Virus in Michigan; 41 Total Deaths… Arthropods Environment & Ecology Biological Sustainability Food Security Your Future & Biology? Arthropods Environment & Ecology Biological Sustainability Food Security Your Future & Biology?

6 I. Introduction The 12 basic ways in which arthropods affect the health and well-being of man and animals... Tsetse fly

7 2. Envenomization - toxemia - Stinging of Wasps or Biting of Spiders Brown recluse wound two years after the bite 6. Accidental injury to sense organs 1. Annoyance - Buzzing flies or feeding mosquitoes. 4. Blood loss or Weight Loss, Reduction in egg, milk production 3. Mechanical pain from bites. 3. Mechanical pain from bites. 5. Myiasis and mechanical pain associated with larval invasion of, and establishment in tissues 5. Myiasis and mechanical pain associated with larval invasion of, and establishment in tissues

8 9. Vectoring or parasites causing such diseases as plague, malaria, yellow fever, and encephalitis 7. Dermatosis -- dermatitis 10. Causing paralysis of animals & humans--as in tick paralysis 11. Gadding, running, or milling of animals caused by insect-induced fright or extreme annoyance 8. Allergy and related conditions

9 12. Entomophobia--fear of insects or arthropods or imagined infestation

10 B. Biting Arthropods 1. Mosquitoes (Family Culicidae)-- Several species of mosquitoes bite man and animals in Michigan. Some species develop in pools while others develop in ponds and marshes. Occur during the spring and summer in Michigan.

11 Life Cycle of Insects Metamorphosis –Complete Egg (1 stage) Larva (many stages) Pupa (1 stage) Adult (1 stage) –Incomplete Egg (1 stage) Nymph (many stages) Adult (1 stage) Metamorphosis –Complete Egg (1 stage) Larva (many stages) Pupa (1 stage) Adult (1 stage) –Incomplete Egg (1 stage) Nymph (many stages) Adult (1 stage)

12 II. Arthropods as Transmitters of Infectious Agents of Disease A. Pathogenic Agent 1. Protozoa A. Leishmania spp. (sand fly vector) C. Plasmodium spp (malaria)– mosquitoes vector B. Trypanosoma spp. (human sleeping sickness): Tsetse Fly and Assassin Bug vector

13 Invasive Species: Tiger Mosquito Introduced into MI –Transmits Encephalitis –Came from Asia Product of travel & trade… Will you be able to identify this species? Introduced into MI –Transmits Encephalitis –Came from Asia Product of travel & trade… Will you be able to identify this species? Female Male Human arm feeding the mosquito…the price of science. Mating

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15 Plasmodium life cycle Malaria

16 2. Helminths - Worms Fluke 60 ft from head to tail A. Trematodes and Cestodes (a.k.a. flukes and tapeworms) -- arthropods may serve as intermediate hosts for these parasites

17 After ingestion cyticercoids released from beetle, then shed tails and evaginate Definitive hosts: humans or rodents Scolex attaches to intestinal wall, develops into adult cestode Eggs swallowed by definitive host, hatch in duodenum, and oncospheres penetrate the instinal villi Tailed cysticercoids develop in hemocoel Optional intermediate host (larval and adult beetles) Eggs swalloed by beetle hatch in intestine Direct reinfection (without intermediate host) Oncospheres develop into cysticercoid in lymphatics of villus Egg Gravid proglottid released and eggs released in feces Life Cycle of Vanpirolepis spp.

18 2. Helminths - worms B. Nematodes -- I. Filariasis and Elephantiasis-- Filarial worms transmitted by mosquitoes Filarisis world distribution Elephantiasis

19 II. Onchocerciasis (river blindness)-- Filarial worms transmitted by Black Fly

20 B. Biting Arthropods 2. Black Flies (Family Simuliidae)-- Immatures occur in clear streams with high oxygen concentration, and the adults emerge during late May and June– both Upper and Lower Peninsulas. Bite mark

21 III. Heart Worm-- Filarial Worm Transmitted by mosquitoes

22 3. Viruses A. Yellow Fever--Transmitted by mosquito

23 3. Viruses B. Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever-- Transmitted by mosquito

24 C. Encephalitides -- (Eastern Encephalitides, St. Louis, and Western Encephalitides) transmitted by mosquito

25 III. Arthropods and Diseases of Major Importance to Michigan A. Diseases 1. Eastern Equine Encephalitis-- enzotic setting: hardwood swamps Mosquito passes virus among swamp- dwelling birds Mosquito vector, Culiseta melanura

26 pathogenic in both mosquitoes and birds virus sometimes leaves swamp setting and is transmitted to horses, game birds (penned pheasants), and people highly pathogenic in these “dead-end” hosts outbreaks occurred in the early 1940’s, 1973, , 1989, , 2001 most serious mosquito borne disease in Michigan

27 -Virus found in Africa, West Asia, Middle East. -Imported in USA in the summer of 1999.

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30 - Most cases with no symptoms or mild flu like symptoms - Inflammation of brain (encephalitis) cases and 176 deaths by October 21, Survival - Without symptoms but infected - Neurologic disease - Limb incoordination - Death HOSTS

31 Counties with testing activity negative to date for West Nile Virus Counties with testing activity positive for West Nile Virus AVIAN CASES Updated 10/28/ West Nile Virus Horse cases to date HORSE CASES

32 30% exhibit any noticeable symptoms Less than 1% of these cases become life-threatening Most people have mild, flu-like symptoms, or no symptoms at all. Most susceptible are the elderly and those with compromised immune systems. West Nile Virus is not transmissible from person to person. Updated 11/08/2004 2:00 PM 497 Cases of Human West Nile Virus in Michigan 41 Total Deaths in Michigan HUMAN CASES

33 Cases by Age and Sex AgeFemaleMaleUnknownTotal Unknown to to Age Total % Female or Male43.26%56.54%0.20% Updated 11/08/2004 2:00 PM Michigan WNV Cases

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37 VECTOR MANAGEMENT Eliminate Standing water Eliminate exposure Insecticides Vaccine development How Control?

38 4. Rickettsia A. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and Colorado Tick Fever Transmitted by Tick

39 4. Rickettsia B. Epidemic Typhus-- Transmitted by the Louse

40 5. Bacteria Western Reservoir Eastern Reservoir A. Plague (Yersinia pestis)-- Transmitted by the flea from rodent to rodent then man to man…

41 Plague distribution

42 B. Tularemia-- Transmitted by ticks, deer flies to man. Direct inoculation from skinning Rabbits… B. Tularemia-- Transmitted by ticks, deer flies to man. Direct inoculation from skinning Rabbits…

43 B. Biting Arthropods 3. Stable Flies (Family Muscidae)-- spoiled feed or hay mixed with wastes from horses and other livestock on farms or in stables. Upper Peninsula of Michigan, particularly Porcupine Mountains and along Lake Superior beaches.

44 B. Biting Arthropods 4. Deer and Horse Flies (Family Tabanidae)-- swamps and marshes, along stream banks and ponds and lakes.

45 C. Lyme Disease-- A spirochete bacteria transferred by the tick Borrelia burgdorferi

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47 B. Biting Arthropods Life stages of deer tick Life stages of dog tick 5. Ticks (Family Ixodidae)-- Until the discovery of Lyme disease and the deer tick, lxodes scapularis (formerly dammini), in Michigan, the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis) was the most pestiferous tick in Michigan. Both of these ticks are more abundant in the Upper Peninsula.

48 2.Lyme Disease -- bacteria: Borrelia burgdorferi Vector = deer tick Ixodes dammini in Upper Michigan and probably lower Michigan The tick feeds on small rodents, deer and man. In 1991, Michigan reported 46 cases of Lyme Disease, based on the new case definition. Michigan has reported 542 Lyme disease cases…many cases unreported or misdiagnosed. 2.Lyme Disease -- bacteria: Borrelia burgdorferi Vector = deer tick Ixodes dammini in Upper Michigan and probably lower Michigan The tick feeds on small rodents, deer and man. In 1991, Michigan reported 46 cases of Lyme Disease, based on the new case definition. Michigan has reported 542 Lyme disease cases…many cases unreported or misdiagnosed.

49 The mortal enemies of man are not his fellows of another continent or race; they are the aspects of the physical world which limit or challenge his control, the disease germs that attack him and his domesticated plants and animals, and the insects that carry many of these germs as well as working notable direct injury. --W. C. Allee ( ) US zoologist, The Social Life of Insects (1939) The mortal enemies of man are not his fellows of another continent or race; they are the aspects of the physical world which limit or challenge his control, the disease germs that attack him and his domesticated plants and animals, and the insects that carry many of these germs as well as working notable direct injury. --W. C. Allee ( ) US zoologist, The Social Life of Insects (1939)


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