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Zoonotic infection. Causative agents of the plague, tularemia, brucellosis and anthrax. Laboratory diagnostics and prophylaxis of diseases. Vinnitsa National.

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Presentation on theme: "Zoonotic infection. Causative agents of the plague, tularemia, brucellosis and anthrax. Laboratory diagnostics and prophylaxis of diseases. Vinnitsa National."— Presentation transcript:

1 Zoonotic infection. Causative agents of the plague, tularemia, brucellosis and anthrax. Laboratory diagnostics and prophylaxis of diseases. Vinnitsa National Pirogov Memorial Medical University / Department of microbiology

2 Pathogenic Yersinia Taxonomy and classification Family: Enterobacteriaceae Genus: Yersinia Medical important species: 1.Y.pestis 2.Y. pseudotuberculosis 3.Y.enterocolitica

3 Yersinia pestis

4 Cultivation It is facultative anaerobe, and can grow at wide range of pH (4-10) and temperature ( C) Ordinary nutrient media (MPA and MPB) Selective media with hemolyzed blood

5 Antigen structure and virulent factors 1.Fraction I (F-I) antigen 2.V and W antigens 3.Virulent enzymes 4.Plague toxins

6 Epidemiology of the plague Source of infection is wild or domestic rodents The major route of transmission: 1.By biting of infected fleas 2.By skinning and handling of carcasses of infected wild animals 3.By inhalation of the dried flea feces or respiratory droplets from person with pneumonic form 4.By drinking of polluted water

7 Pathogenesis of the plague Major clinical forms : 1.Bubonic form 2.Pneumonic form 3.Enteric form 4.Septicemia

8 Bubonic form of plague

9 Laboratory diagnostics 1.Microscopy 2.Culture method 3.Biological method

10 Prevention and therapy Specific prevention: Chemoprophylaxis

11 Other Yersinia Y. pseudotuberculosis Feature of morphology: polymorphic gram- negative rods, motile at 22 0 C and non-motile at 37 0 C Features of cultivation: it grows slowly and scanty onto the solid media (MPA, MacConkey agar) with formation R or S- colony Biochemical features: it is H 2 S (-), urease (+) and rhamnose (+)

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13 Epidemiology and pathogenesis The source of infection is infected rodent. Humans may be infected by ingestion of contaminated row vegetables or by drinking of contaminated water. Clinical forms of pseudotuberculosis: 1.Fatal typhoid like illness with hepatosplenomegaly and purpura (generalized form) 2.Mesenteric lymphadenitis simulating acute appendicitis (local form)

14 Y.enterocolitica Clinical forms: 1.Self-limited gastroenteritis or enterocolitis (young children) 2.Mesenteric adenitis and terminal ileitis (older children) 3.Systemic disease with bacteremia, meningitidis, arthralgia or erythema nodosum (adults)

15 Laboratory diagnostics 1.Culture method 2.Serology

16 Francisella tularensis Taxonomy and classification: Family: Brucellaceae Genes: Francisella Species: F.tularensis Biovars : type A – tularensis (non-arctic or American type; high virulent) type B – palearctika (European and Asian type; low virulent)

17 Francisella tularensis

18 Cultivation It is obligate aerobe, nutritionally exacting and slowly growing bacteria 1.Fransis blood agar with dextrose and cystine 2.Yolk blood agar

19 Virulent factors 1.Capsule 2.Vi-antigen 3.Endotoxin 4.Allergens

20 Epidemiology Reservoirs: wild rodents, squirrels, hedgehogs, and rabbits (source of infection). Human may be infected by: 1.Biting of infected ticks 2.Direct contact with infected animal 3.Ingestion of contaminated food or water 4.Inhalation of infective aerosols or dried feces

21 Pathogenesis and immunity Clinical forms: 1.Skin-bubonic form 2.Anginose form 3.Pneumonic form 4.Enteric form 5.Septic form

22 Bubonic form of tularemia

23 Laboratory diagnostics 1.skin allergic test 2.Serology. 3.Experimental infection. Prevention : specific

24 Brucella Taxonomy: Family:Brucellaceae Genus: Brucella Medical important species: B. melitensis B. abortus B. suis

25 Morphology

26 Cultivation and cultural properties Brucella are strict aerobs, but B. abortus is capnophilic (it requires 5-10% of CO 2 for propagation ) The media for cultivation of Brucella: 1.Liver infusion media (broth and agar); 2.Serum potato infusion agar 3.Serum dextrose agar with addition of polymyxin, bacitracin and cycloheximide

27 Epidemiology The source of infection is infected domestic animal (cattle, goats, sheep, pigs) The human may be infected by: 1.Ingestion 2.Direct contact 3.Inhalation

28 Pathogenesis Human infection may be three types: 1.Latent infection; 2.Acute or subacute brucellosis 3.Chronic brucellosis

29 Enlarged lymph nodes at brucellosis

30 Laboratory diagnose 1.Culture method 2.Serology

31 Bacillus anthracis Taxonomy Family:BacillaceaeGenus: Bacillus Medical important species: B. anthracis

32 B.anthracis

33 Cultivation It is aerobe and facultative anaerobe and easily cultivated onto the ordinary nutrient media Nutrient media: 1.Nutrient agar 2.Blood agar 3.Gelatin stab culture (“inverted fir tree”) 4.Penicillin media (“string of pearles”)

34 Antigen structure and virulent factors Antigens: 1.Capsular antigen 2.Cell wall antigen 3.Somatic antigen 4.Exotoxin:oedema factor (OF), protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF).

35 Epidemiology The source of infection is ill animal (cattle, sheep, horses, and swine). Human may be infected by: 1.Direct contact 2.Inhalation 3.Ingestion

36 Pathogenesis 1.Cutaneous form 2.Pulmonary anthrax 3.Intestinal anthrax 4.Septicemia

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38 Cutaneous form of anthrax

39 Laboratory diagnostics 1.Microscopy 2.Culture method 3.Experimental infection 4.Allergic skin test 5.Ascoli`s thermoprecipitin test

40 Prevention Animals and human are protected by active immunization


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