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Chapter 13: European Visions The Atlantic

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1 Chapter 13: European Visions The Atlantic
North Atlantic was home of raiders and sailors rather than traders (8th-12th centuries) Vikings were the major actors Were explorers and raiders Settled new areas and established cities such as Dublin Swedes (Vikings) moved eastward into Russia Became more peaceful after 1000 No records of non-Viking activities

2 Decline of Trade in the Mediterranean
By 950, Mediterranean was “Muslim Lake” but consisted of different cultural zones Mediterranean now a war zone Trade continued but was affected by fluctuations in European economy European merchants frustrated by lack of link from Mediterranean to Indian Ocean Europeans seek alternative routes

3 Trade and Social Change in Europe
Guilds/City-States Confront Rural Aristocrats Trade organized by guilds that controlled wages, prices, production, and job training Most were local; exception was Hanseatic League of Germany Controlled trade from London to Novgorod Faded with rise of new states such as Netherlands, England, and Sweden

4 Trade and Social Change in Europe
Economic and Social Conflicts within the City Textile manufacturers dominated some cities Capitalist traders organized manufacture based on estimates of market demands Production organized hierarchically with lower pay for tasks at bottom of production process Women and children got even less pay Class antagonism led to revolts

5 Trade and Social Change in Europe
New Directions in Philosophy and Learning Renaissance based on new urban wealth Church renaissance from 11th century stressed intellectual dimension of faith Anselm, Abelard, and Bernard of Clairvaux New monastic orders sought ties to early church Intellectual opening to Arab world in 11th century Links through Spain Philosophers: Avicenna, Averroes, and Maimonides

6 Trade and Social Change in Europe
New Directions in Philosophy and Learning [cont.] University emerged and promoted practical knowledge such as medicine, law, and theology St. Thomas Aquinas ( ) paved way for Renaissance (accepted ideas of Aristotle) Assemblage of bright minds promoted wide range of ideas, criticism of status quo and its leaders

7 Trade and Social Change in Europe
Disasters of the 14th Century: Famine, Plague, and War Italian prosperity brought population growth and strain on natural resources Rural depopulation followed by mid-13th century Plague reduced European population from 70 million (1300) to 45 million (1400)

8 Trade and Social Change in Europe
Social Unrest Follows the Plague Depopulation benefited survivors with higher wages and ability to buy land Ciompi (lowest class in Florence) demanded access to guilds, right to unionize, and participation in government Successes were short-lived

9 The Renaissance Motivating philosophy was humanism, the belief that the proper study of man is man Asserting importance of individual challenged authority of the Church Strong belief in God tied to belief that God gave mankind the power to shape its own destiny

10 The Renaissance New Artistic Styles
Religious themes influenced by humanistic and commercial values Masaccio, Trinity with the Virgin (1427) Van Eyck, The Arnolfini Wedding Portrait (1434) Florence and Medici family influenced art Michaelangelo, sculptor and painter Da Vinci, inventor and painter Machiavelli, political philosopher

11 Developments in Technology
The Renaissance Developments in Technology Improvements in sailing aided merchants Caravel and lateen sails Astrolabe Cannon Printing From China but better suited for alphabetic writing Decimal system

12 Church Revises its Economic Policies
The Renaissance Church Revises its Economic Policies Had been critical of quest for private profit Opposition to money-lending led to Jewish role as lenders and bankers who were segregated from rest of society Rise of commerce led Church to be more open to commercial practices Economic growth in secular city-states of Flanders and Italy

13 A New World Portugal situated to lead exploration
First goal was to gain supremacy over Muslims Second goal was oceanic route to India Prince Henry the Navigator, Outflanked Muslims by sailing around Africa Interested in oceanic exploration Circumnavigated Africa to reach India Explorations around African coast opened commercial opportunities in slaves, ivory, grain, and gold

14 A New World Portugal [cont.]
Bartolomeu Diaz rounded southern tip of Africa in 1488 Portuguese rejection of Columbus’ services led him to sail for Spain and connect Europe to what he initially believed was China Vasco da Gama made Europe-to-India voyage Defeated some Muslims and left armed force in India

15 A New World Columbus funded by Spanish monarchy
Underestimated size of globe Larger second voyage not a commercial success Third voyage confirmed discovery of “new world” Later voyages of Amerigo Vespucci and Vasco Nunez de Balboa confirm “new world” finding; discover the Pacific Ocean Magellan circumnavigated the globe

16 Oceana Australia largely untouched by European voyages
Abel Tasman circumnavigated Australia for Dutch East India Company (1642) British sent James Cook and Joseph Banks to Australia (and also Antarctica) These voyages completed the process of gaining understanding of the globe and its land masses

17 Participants had different goals
Legacies to the Future Participants had different goals Chart the unknown Pressure to find a new home Quest for profit Desire to proselytize the world Lust for conquest and global supremacy Eastern and Western Hemispheres now connected

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