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ADAPTATION TO DISEASE STRESS Human/Microbe Interactions Co-Evolution of Disease Sickle Cell Anemia Black Death Polio.

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Presentation on theme: "ADAPTATION TO DISEASE STRESS Human/Microbe Interactions Co-Evolution of Disease Sickle Cell Anemia Black Death Polio."— Presentation transcript:

1 ADAPTATION TO DISEASE STRESS Human/Microbe Interactions Co-Evolution of Disease Sickle Cell Anemia Black Death Polio

2 INTERSPECIFIC CO-ADAPTATION Host-microbe interaction A well adapted microbe lives in the host for a long time A successful disease does not kill its host HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

3 PARASITE: an organism that derives nourishment from a living plant or animal Escherichia coli Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus mutans Pneumocystic carinii Neisseria meninigitidis HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress INTERSPECIFIC CO-ADAPTATION

4 ZOONOSES: animal disease transmissible to humans tapeworm hookworm anthrax brucellosis encphalopathy Lyme disease tuberculosis ? HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress INTERSPECIFIC CO-ADAPTATION

5 ENDEMIC: peculiar to or occurring constantly in a population goiter yellow fever chicken pox hookworm herpes HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress INTERSPECIFIC CO-ADAPTATION

6 EPIDEMIC: a sudden increase in the incidence rate of a disease over a wide area HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress INTERSPECIFIC CO-ADAPTATION

7 EVOLUTION OF HUMAN DISEASE Hunting/Gathering populations Settled Villages Pre-Industrial Cities Industrialized Cities Today HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

8 “Homo sapiens (have) been vulnerable to microbial assults over the millennia…each catastrophic epidemic event in human history (was) the ironic result of humanity’s steps forward. As humans improve their lots, they actually increase their vulnerability to disease. We’ll never escape the limits of the ecosystem. We are caught in the food chain, whether we like it or not, eating and being eaten.” Garrett, Laurie (1994). The Coming Plague. New York: Penguin Books, pp HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress EVOLUTION OF HUMAN DISEASE

9 99% of human history small groups isolated, well dispersed parasitic & zoonotic rabies, sleeping sickness, tetnus Hunter/Gatherers HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress EVOLUTION OF HUMAN DISEASE

10 Settled Villages began with the Neolithic ‘revolution’ about 10,000 BP food production brings settlement populations increase 16 fold disposal problems & animals nearby zoonotic disease intensity increases anthrax, brucellosis, bovine TB HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress EVOLUTION OF HUMAN DISEASE

11 Preindustrial Cities ~5,000 yr BP endemic diseases small pox, TB, measles, influenza 1st epidemics HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress EVOLUTION OF HUMAN DISEASE

12 Industrialized Cities increased population density increased squalid conditions epidemics, viruses, endemic, pandemics HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress EVOLUTION OF HUMAN DISEASE

13 Today “global village” antibiotic resistance age-related degeneration emerging disease HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress EVOLUTION OF HUMAN DISEASE

14 CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress “We are engaged in a type of race, enmeshing our ecologic circumstances with evolutionary changes in our predatory competitors...We have crowded together a hotbed of opportunity for infectious agents…Affluent and mobile people are ready, willing, and able to carry afflictions all over the world within 24 hours' notice. This condensation, stratification, and mobility is unique, defining us as a very different species from what we were 100 years ago…But despite many potential defenses—vaccines, antibiotics, diagnostic tools—we are intrinsically more vulnerable than before, at least in terms of pandemic and communicable diseases.” Lederberg, Joshua. (1997). “Infectious disease as an evolutionary paradigm.” Emerging Infectious Diseases, 3(4).

15 HUNTER/GATHERERSparasites, zoonoses SETTLED VILLAGESintensified zoonoses, infection PREINDISTRIALIZE CITIESendemic, beginnings of epidemics INDUSTRIALIZED CITIESendemic, epidemic, pandemics TODAYage-related disease, emerging diseases HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

16 Polio HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

17 Polio virus WWII American & Egyptian soldiers antiseptic conditions childhood form adult immunity HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

18 HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress Sickle Cell Anemia low O 2 tension capillary blockage CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

19 HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress Sickle Cell Anemia point mutation SS, Ss, ss = genotypes African & Mediterranean groups Anopheles gambiae mosquito 150 bites per year 100% infection rate in kids 25% greater survivability = Ss CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

20 The Black Death HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress particularly virulent strain of plague by 1350, 20,000,000 dead CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

21 HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress arrived in Britain via Bristol in 1349 CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

22 HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress caused by Yersinia pestis from animal vector to flea to humans begins in bubonic form, becomes pneumonic form pneumonic plague spreads from person to person CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

23 FLU QUESTIONS HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress Younger people are more social & mobile Older people immunized by previous exposure to less virulent strains. Viruses mutate in unpredictable ways. Kill the host or leave it immune, therefore it died out. When it resurfaces, less ‘candidates’ available. Still not sequenced, tho’ they do have the DNA from samples at the AFIP.

24 HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress 1918 Spanish Flu: 500,000 in the US, between 20 and 50 million worldwide. Over half young healthy adults Asian Flu: 70,000 in the US Hong Kong Flu: 34,000 in the US Swine Flu scare 1977 Russian Flu scare 1997,99Avian Flu scare FLU PANDEMICS

25 HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress Chicken pox/herpes Varicella-zoster virus (VZC) “Shingles is sometimes called “herpes zoster” but it is not caused by a herpes virus” “Part of the Herpes family, for which there are over 100 types” FLU QUESTIONS

26 HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress city life stopped harvests were uncollected bodies piled up in the streets no sanitation no bread baked famine, lawlessness houses abandoned Societal changes CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

27 HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress eat lettuce alternate sleep on left & right sides to keep liver balanced apply paste of gum resin, white lillies & human excrement don’t think about it thin blood with leeches burn fires to purify the air “Cures” CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

28 HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress moral pollution; 1/3 of Cardinals died “Causes” opportunity to get rid of debts, Jews were money lenders Jewish plot to destroy Christendom Jews were killed before plague arrived in many towns image of a witch CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

29 HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress macabre art becomes common labor shortage results in end of feudal system recurring outbreaks last for another 300 years the Renaissance is born Results CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

30 HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress cases/yr in the US cases worldwide northern New Mexico, northern Arizona, southern Colorado California, southern Oregon, far western Nevada Plague Today CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

31 “Human destiny is bound to remain a gamble, because at some unpredictable time and in some unforseeable manner, nature will strike back.” Dubos, Rene. (1959). Mirage of Health. EVOLUTION OF HUMAN DISEASE HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

32 A & B alleles are co-dominant proteins (antigens) on outer surface Blood Types -- ABO System Genotype Phenotype AA or AA A BB or BO B ABAB OO O CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

33 HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress Joan Barry, actress “white slavery” 1941, 1946 ruling child support till 18 “looked like him” Blood Types -- ABO System Baby type B Mother type A Chaplin type 0 Supreme Court did not admit blood typing evidence CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

34 HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress Blood Types -- ABO System O O AA AO O O AO OO AOOO CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

35 HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress natural immunity antibodies to other allele Type O = universal donor (no protein to cause reaction) Type AB = universal recipient (no antibodies to either allele) Blood Types -- ABO System Genotype Antibodies AA or AAanti-B BB or BOanti-A AB none OO both CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

36 HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress H-antigen is similar to protein on Yersinia pestis lives in blood type O individuals longer, gains a foothold killed huge numbers of blood type O as a result easily rebounded as a result of heterozygotes Blood Types and Disease CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

37 Today type A is ~43% Today type B is ~9% Today type AB is ~ 3% Today type O is ~45%

38 RECOMMENDED READINGS HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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