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Exodus 7:1-6 “So the L ORD said to Moses, ‘See I have made you as God to Pharaoh, and Aaron your brother shall be your prophet. You shall speak to Pharaoh.

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Presentation on theme: "Exodus 7:1-6 “So the L ORD said to Moses, ‘See I have made you as God to Pharaoh, and Aaron your brother shall be your prophet. You shall speak to Pharaoh."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exodus 7:1-6 “So the L ORD said to Moses, ‘See I have made you as God to Pharaoh, and Aaron your brother shall be your prophet. You shall speak to Pharaoh all that I command you. And your brother shall speak to Pharaoh that he must send the children of Israel out of his land…”

2 Exodus 7:1-6 “ … And I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, and multiply My signs and My wonders in the land of Egypt. But Pharaoh will not heed you, so that I may lay My hand on Egypt and bring My armies and My people, the children of Israel, out of the land of Egypt by great judgments…”

3 Exodus 7:1-6 “…And the Egyptians shall know that I am the L ORD, when I stretch out My hand on Egypt and bring out the children of Israel from among them.’ Then Moses and Aaron did so; just as the L 4 ORD commanded them, so they did.” (NKJV).

4 The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart Some say that God made Pharaoh do all that he did: “God made Pharaoh wicked; that is from wicked seed” Martin Luther, Bondage of the Will, Section 83

5 Some say that God made Pharaoh do all that he did: Speaking of Pharaoh and others who rebelled against God, claimed that God… “…bends them to do his judgments, just as if they carried their orders engraved on their minds…all the counsels and actions of men must be held to be governed by his providence, so that he not only exerts power in the elect…but also forces the reprobate to do him service” John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, Bk. I, 18.2) The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

6 Section One God’s Instructions to Moses Through the Fifth Plague “I will harden” The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

7 What God Says: “I am sure that the king of Egypt will not let you go” (3:19). “I will harden his heart” so that he will not let the people go” (4:21). FOREKNOWLEDGE Isaiah 46:10; Psalm 139:4 DETERMINED COUNSEL Acts 2:23 The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

8 “Harden” (Exodus 4:21) Heb. chatzaq ( qzj ) “to be or grow firm, strong, strengthen” (Hebrew-English Lexicon of the Old Testament Brown, Driver, Briggs, p. 304) Can apply to the effect someone’s word has upon another: Judges 7:11; I Samuel 23:16; II Samuel 2:7; Nehemiah 2:18 The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

9 What God Says: “I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, and multiply My signs and wonders in the land” (7:3). The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

10 “Harden” (Exodus 7:3) Heb. qashah ( hvq ) “to be hard, severe, fierce…stiff, stubborn” (Hebrew-English Lexicon of the Old Testament Brown, Driver, Briggs, p. 904) Can be used of stubbornness: Deuteronomy 10:16; II Chronicles 36:13; Proverbs 28:14; Jeremiah 19:15 The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

11 Whatever this “hardening” is it is intended to cause Egypt to know that the LORD is God – not to prevent this knowledge. What God Says: “I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, and multiply My signs and wonders in the land” (7:3). “Pharaoh will not heed you so that I may lay my hand on Egypt” (7:4). “And the Egyptians shall know that I am the L ORD, when I stretch out my hand on Egypt ” (7:5). DETERMINED COUNSEL The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

12 What God Says: “Pharaoh’s heart is hard” (7:14a). “He refuses to let the people go” (7:14b). What Happened: “Pharaoh’s heart grew hard…” (7:13a). “…he did not heed them” (7:13b). “…As the L ORD had said” (7:13c). What God Said Would Happen -- Happened The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

13 What Happened: The First Plague- Water to Blood “Pharaoh’s heart grew hard and he did not heed them as the L ORD had said” (7:22). “Neither was his heart moved by this” (7:23). This is what the Lord said would happen – and what God called “hardening” Pharaoh’s heart The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

14 What Happened: The Second Plague- Frogs “When Pharaoh saw there was relief, he hardened his heart and did not heed them as the L ORD had said” (8:15). This also is what the Lord said would happen – and what God called “hardening” Pharaoh’s heart This shows that God saying – “I will harden Pharaoh’s heart” = “[Pharaoh] hardened his heart” The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

15 What Happened: The Third Plague- Lice “Pharaoh’s heart grew hard, and did not heed them just as the L ORD had said” (8:19). This also is what the Lord said would happen – and what God called “hardening” Pharaoh’s heart This shows that God saying – “I will harden Pharaoh’s heart” = “Pharaoh’s heart grew hard” The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

16 What Happened: The Fourth Plague- Flies “Pharaoh hardened his heart at this time also, neither would he let the people go” (8:32). The same thing that happened here is what happened before – which God called “hardening” Pharaoh’s heart This shows again that – “Pharaoh hardened his heart” = God saying - “I will harden Pharaoh’s heart” The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

17 What Happened: The Fifth Plague- Diseased Livestock “The heart of Pharaoh became hard, and he did not let the people go” (9:7). This again is what the Lord said would happen – and what God called “hardening” Pharaoh’s heart The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

18 What Have We Seen So Far? The FOREKNOWLEDGE of God God knew that Pharaoh would not let them go. The DETERMINED COUNSEL of God God determined how He would use this situation. God saying – “I will harden Pharaoh’s heart” = “Pharaoh hardened his heart” = “Pharaoh’s heart grew hard” The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

19 Section Two The Sixth & Seventh Plagues “The L ORD hardened” The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

20 What Happened: The Sixth Plague- Boils “The L ORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh; and he did not heed them, just as the L ORD had spoken to Moses” (9:12). The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

21 Some say to this point God had not yet “hardened” Pharaoh: “…Pharaoh was given five chances to repent (in connection with the first five plagues) but hardened his own heart, and only after that did God confirm Pharaoh’s decision by hardening Pharaoh’s heart…God does not harden the heart of anyone but a confirmed rebel” David Stern, Jewish Commentary on the New Testament, p. 391 The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

22 However, the text says… “I will harden his heart” (4:21). “I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, and multiply My signs and wonders in the land” (7:3). “Pharaoh’s heart grew hard…As the L ORD had said” (7:13). “Pharaoh’s heart is hard” (7:14). The “hardening” which God promised is already in operation. The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

23 What God Says: “For this purpose I have raised you up, that I may show My power in you…” (9:16). “As yet you exalt yourself against My people in that you will not let them go” (9:17). What Happened: The Sixth Plague- Boils “The L ORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh; and he did not heed them, just as the L ORD had spoken to Moses” (9:12). The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

24 God says to Pharaoh… “you exalt yourself” “you will not let them go” If God’s “hardening” of Pharaoh’s heart prevents Pharaoh from being able to let them go, why would God attribute to Pharaoh what God Himself is doing? God says Pharaoh does this himself. The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

25 What Pharaoh Says: “I have sinned this time” (9:27a). “The L ORD is righteous…” (9:27b). “…and my people and I are wicked” (9:27c). What Happened: The Seventh Plague- Hail “He who feared the word of the LORD among the servants of Pharaoh made his servants and livestock flee to the houses” (9:20). “He who did not regard the word of the LORD left his servants and his livestock in the field” (9:21). The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

26 What Pharaoh Says: “I have sinned this time” (9:27a). “The L ORD is righteous…” (9:27b). “…and my people and I are wicked” (9:27c). What Moses Says: “As for you and your servants, I know that you will not yet fear the L ORD God” (9:30). Their sin was that they did not fear or regard God’s word – they were “hardened” by it. The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

27 The Parable of the Sower “…The Seed is the word of God” (Luke 8:11) “Now he who received seed among the thorns is he who hears the word, and the cares of this world and the deceitfulness of riches choke the word, and he becomes unfruitful” (Matthew 13:22) The Difference is the condition of the Heart The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

28 Is God’s Word Ineffectual? “So shall My word be that goes forth from My mouth; it shall not return to Me void, but it shall accomplish what I please, and it shall prosper in the thing for which I sent it” (Isaiah 55:11 ) God’s word is intended to soften the good and honest heart and harden those rebellious to it. The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

29 What Happened: “And when Pharaoh saw that the rain the hail and the thunder had ceased, he sinned yet more; and he hardened his heart, he and his servants” (9:34). The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

30 “Harden” (Exodus 9:34) Heb. kabed ( dbk ) “to be heavy, weighty, burdensome, honored” (Hebrew-English Lexicon of the Old Testament Brown, Driver, Briggs, p. 457) Can apply what one does to themselves: I Samuel 6:6 “Why then do you harden your hearts as the Egyptians and Pharaoh hardened their hearts?” The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

31 What Have We Seen So Far? God says Pharaoh “exalts” himself. The Holy Spirit says they did not “regard” the word of God. Pharaoh says “I have sinned.” Moses says they do not “yet fear” God. Text says Pharaoh “hardened his heart.” Exalting self, refusing to fear & regard God’s word and sinning against God -- is having a “hardened” heart – is being “hardened” by God. The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

32 Section Three The Eighth through the Tenth Plagues “I have hardened” The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

33 What God Says: “I have hardened his heart and the hearts of his servants (10:1a). What Happened: “And when Pharaoh saw that the rain the hail and the thunder had ceased, he sinned yet more; and he hardened his heart, he and his servants” (9:34). The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart God considers these the same thing

34 What God Says: “…that I may show these signs of Mine before him (10:1b). “…that you may tell in the hearing of your son’s son the mighty things I have done in Egypt…” (10:2a) “…that you may know that I am the L ORD ” (10:2b). Why Did God Allow This? The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

35 What Happened: The Eighth Plague- Locusts “The L ORD hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not let the children of Israel go” (10:20). The Ninth Plague- Darkness “The L ORD hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he would not let them go” (10:27). What God Says: “How long will you refuse to humble yourself before Me? Let my people go that they may serve me (10:3). The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart If God’s “hardening” of Pharaoh’s heart prevents Pharaoh from being able to let them go… … why, again, would God attribute to Pharaoh what God Himself is doing?

36 What Happened: “The L ORD hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not let the children of Israel go out of his land (11:10). The Tenth Plague- Death of the Firstborn What God Says: “I will bring yet one more plague on Pharaoh and on Egypt” (11:1b). “Afterward he will let you go from here” (11:1b). The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart FOREKNOWLEDGE DETERMINED COUNSEL What God Said Would Happen – Happened Israel Left Egypt

37 Section Four The Red Sea Crossing “I will harden” The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

38 Whatever this “hardening” is it is intended to cause Egypt to know that the LORD is God – not to prevent this knowledge. What God Says: “I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, so that he will pursue them” (14:4a). “…that the Egyptians may know that I am the L ORD ” (14:4b). “I indeed will harden the hearts of the Egyptians, and they shall follow them…then the Egyptians shall know that I am the L ORD ” (14:17-18). Like 7:3-5 – “That they may know that I am the L ORD” The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

39 What Have We Seen? God allowed Pharaoh to “exalt himself.” He did so to demonstrate His power and show Israel and the Egyptians that He is God. Pharaoh “hardened his heart” by failing to “regard” God’s word. The effect which God’s word had on Pharaoh is what is called God “hardening” his heart. God did not cause Pharaoh to sin, but used Pharaoh’s rebellion for His own purposes. The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

40 Early Christian Writers “Pharaoh and his host and all the rulers of Egypt, their chariots and their horsemen, were overwhelmed in the depths of the Rea Sea, and perished for none other reason but because their foolish hearts were hardened after that the signs and the wonders had been wrought in the land of Egypt by the hand of Moses the servant of God” Clement of Rome (ca. 96 AD), To the Corinthians, 51 The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

41 Early Christian Writers “God, knowing the number of those who will not believe, since He foreknows all things, has given them over to unbelief, and turned away His face from men of this stamp, leaving them in the darkness which they have themselves chosen for themselves…He did also at that time give over to their unbelief, Pharaoh, who never would have believed, along with those who were with him” Irenaeus (c AD), Against the Heresies, Bk. 4, 29.2 The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

42 Early Christian Writers “For if he is hardened by God, and commits sin in consequence of being hardened, he is not the cause of sin to himself; and if so, then neither does Pharaoh possess free-will. And some one will say that, in a similar way, they who perish have not free-will, and will not perish of themselves.” Origen (ca AD), De Principis, Bk. 3, 1.7 The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

43 Early Christian Writers “And as if the sun, uttering a voice, were to say, ‘I liquefy and dry up,’ liquefaction and drying up being opposite things, he would not speak falsely as regards the point in question; wax being melted and mud being dried by the same heat…” The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

44 Early Christian Writers “…so the same operation, which was performed through the instrumentality of Moses, proved the hardness of Pharaoh… the result of his wickedness…” Origen (ca AD), De Principis, Bk. 3, 1.11 The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

45 James 1:13-14 “Let no one say when he is tempted, ‘I am tempted by God’; for God cannot be tempted by evil, nor does He Himself tempt anyone. But each one is tempted when he is drawn away by his own desires and enticed”

46 Habakkuk 1:13a “You are of purer eyes than to behold evil, and cannot look on wickedness” The God whose pure eyes do not behold evil and who tempts no man – did not, does not and will not harden anyone directly so as to cause them to sin!

47 Exodus 9:27 “…I have sinned” “…the L ORD is righteous”


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