Presentation on theme: "The Restoration Our objectives are: What were some of the challenges faced by Charles II in his early reign? You will be able to identify the main cause."— Presentation transcript:
Our objectives are: What were some of the challenges faced by Charles II in his early reign? You will be able to identify the main cause of the Dutch/English Wars Describe how the conflict between the Catholics and Protestants played out in the monarch of Charles II. Judge for yourself—was it a good thing that William and Mary took the throne of England?
When Charles II crossed the Channel to return to England in 1660, he took up the throne that had been vacant since his father was executed.
Charles knew he had to be careful not to disturb Parliament too much, so he was never a strong, effective ruler.
Charles II had a French mother, Henrietta Maria, the sister of Louis XIII. Charles admired French taste and was very cosmopolitan in his outlook.
Charles had numerous mistresses and illegitimate children who would grow up and meddle with the government
London was a “swinging” place during the restoration. Though it had a sizeable Puritan population, Theaters were re-opened and lively parties ensued. Women were allowed to be actresses—no longer did young men take that role.
Trade continued to grow, and it can be safe to say that England ships dominated the traffic in the English Channel.
Charles II, having spent years in France, tended to be pro-Catholic. He married a Portuguese Princess. Though he grew to love her, they never had an heir. It was just a matter of time before religion became an issue.
To discuss Charles II’s reign we must examine his religious leanings and his relationships with other countries. Let’s examine the English/Dutch Wars first.
The First Dutch War (1652-1654) actually occurred during Cromwell’s time. Parliament had passed the Navigation Acts which required that all ships in the English Channel salute English Warship. The Acts also placed limits on goods entering England. The Acts precipitated conflicts with the Dutch.
The first Dutch War ends when their commander is killed. The English are victorious.
The Second Dutch War begins in 1664. Charles II is now on the throne. It also began over trade conflicts—in the colonies, the Dutch were underselling the English in the slave trade. And in America, the English take New Amsterdam (New York) from the Dutch. Start spreading the news, New York is ours!
Charles’ brother, James, the Duke of York commands the navy and wins a major battle against the Dutch at Lowestoft. But the next battle rages for four days and the English lose 5,000 men. The English continue with more naval victories.
Despite these victories—England is hit by two disasters which weaken England and distract the King. The Plague -and- The Great Fire of London
An outbreak of the Bubonic Plague begins in London in 1656 and kills thousands
Historical Side note: during this time, a student, Isaac Newton, retreats to the countryside to escape the plague While there, he lays down the laws of the universe: gravity, force, action, and develops calculus
A year later, almost all of London is burned to the ground. This was the Great Fire 1666.
The Dutch take advantage of this event. They harass and burn English ships, and, at one point, move up the Thames River towards London.
The second Dutch War ends with the Treaty of Breda in July of 1667.
The Third Dutch War (1662-1674). This is the most interesting of the three wars, because it now involves two other major players who have emerged as leaders of their countries:
Charles is related to both of these kings—he is first cousin to Louis XIV and uncle to William III!
Charles signs a secret treaty with France (1670) and agrees to support France in its war against the Dutch. In exchange, Charles will receive millions of dollars.
This third Dutch war begins 1672, when the English support the French in their war against the Dutch—the Dutch are only saved when they break the dikes and flood the country around Amsterdam
But the Dutch, the underdogs, manage some victories. De Ruyter is the great naval commander. He defeats the English and French in numerous sea battles.
Still, the Dutch are left to fight off both of these great powers. This time, the Spanish come to the rescue—they form an alliance with the Dutch to withstand the English/French alliance. This war ends with the Treaty of Breda
The last Dutch War ends in 1674, but with the end of the Dutch wars—we must go immediately to England and follow events there.
James, Charles’ brother, converts to Catholicism. Charles shows that he favors Catholicism by loosening restrictions on dissenters (as Catholics were known). Now let us turn to political affairs during this time…
In 1673, Parliament retaliates by passing the Test Act, which requires all those who are government officials must take the communion (sacrament) of the Church of England.
Therefore—it is a test of whether you are Catholic or Protestant. Many Catholics didn’t want to take the communion— therefore, this “Test” excluded Catholics from holding public office.
There were much plotting underway to support both sides—an Anglican priest named Titus Oakes said that there was a Popish (Catholic) Plot to turn England Catholic. Many men were executed under false witness—this undermines the King.
No doubt, Charles II was under Catholic influence. And he never had a legitimate son with Catherine of Portugal, despite fathering many sons out of wedlock.
The big problem, however, was his brother James II. He was a known Catholic. He had married Anne Hyde and had two daughters. At least those daughters were Protestant. But England did not want another Catholic King !
Therefore, many in Parliament came up with the idea to “exclude” James from the line of succession, and support his Protestant daughters. These were called Whigs. The Tories supported the King.
Charles II died in 1688 after a brief illness. He actually converted to Catholicism on his deathbed! His brother—his Catholic brother—became King! King James II.
Let’s get the succession right: James I Charles I (executed) Charles II and James II (both brothers) (Charles dies without heir—throne goes to his brother, James, a Catholic) Mary and Anne (both Protestant)
James liberalized laws against Catholics. Parliament would have none of this. So James began to go back to the pre-civil war idea that a King could make or unmake laws. This was most unpopular. England would not have another “divine right” monarch dictating terms.
Hadn’t they already executed a King over this issue?
James had only been on the throne for two years when another huge complication developed. You see, after Anne Hyde died, leaving two daughters (who were raised Protestant), James had married a Catholic. She became pregnant shortly thereafter-- Breaking News— a son is born to James II!
A son! Never had the arrival of a baby shook England than the birth of that son. So their Catholic King now had a Catholic son who would take precedent over his half- sisters.
That was too much—and Parliament unites to bypass both James II and his son, and offer the throne to Mary, James’ Protestant daughter.
Mary, at the time, was not living in England. She was now married to William of Holland, or known as William of Orange (for his family’s ruling house).
William and Mary were first cousins: James I was Mary’s father, and his sister, Mary Stuart, was William III’s mother. In fact, William’s mother had died of smallpox when she went to see her brother’s coronation when he returned to England as Charles I.
Mary is invited with her husband, William, to be co-rulers of England. Both William and Mary are grandchildren of the executed Charles I, so they technically both have claims on the throne.
William lands with his army in England and moves toward London
James II is forced into exile in France with his family—insisting he will return someday and his son will claim his rightful throne.
A year later, Parliament enacts one of its most important documents: The English Bill of Rights. This was the condition for them to take the throne.
And in 1701, things are made final when the Act of Settlement says that no King or Queen of England can ever be Catholic, and all heirs lose their place in the succession if they become Catholic or marry a Catholic.
The French and Irish Catholics try to put James back on the throne immediately, but they are defeated at the Boyne River in Ireland.
Parliament persuades Scotland to merge with England and become the United Kingdom of England and Scotland (1707)
The landed classes dominated Parliament and greatly influenced the decisions that led to this revolution.
Mary died in 1604, and William ruled alone until. We will learn about his great conflict with Louis XIV shortly.
The Acceptance of the Bill of Rights, the “peaceful” takeover of the throne by William and Mary, and the idea of a limited monarchy (constitutional) without Catholic influence is called: THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION
Our objectives were: What were some of the challenges faced by Charles II in his early reign? You will be able to identify the main cause of the Dutch/English Wars Describe how the conflict between the Catholics and Protestants played out in the monarch of Charles II. Judge for yourself—was it a good thing that William and Mary took the throne of England?