Presentation on theme: "Ms. Stewart for the PowerPoint"— Presentation transcript:
1Ms. Stewart for the PowerPoint RenaissanceSpecial Thanks ToMs. Stewart for the PowerPoint
2APS StandardsWHI.13 The student will demonstrate knowledge of developments leading to the Renaissance in Europe in terms of its impact on Western civilization by:identifying the economic foundations of the Italian Renaissance;sequencing events related to the rise of Italian city-states and their political development, including Machiavelli’s theory of governing as described in The Prince;citing artistic, literary, and philosophical creativity, as contrasted with the medieval period, including Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Petrarch;comparing the Italian and the Northern Renaissance, and citing the contributions of writers.
3Write a definition for the word, ‘rebirth’ Do NowWrite a definition for the word, ‘rebirth’
4Lesson 1 ObjectivesSWBAT identify factors that contributed to the beginning of the Renaissance
5Factors that Contributed to the Beginning of the Renaissance Trade and commerce increasedCities grew larger and wealthierNewly wealthy merchants and bankers supported the growth of the arts and learningThe Renaissance was an age of recovery from the disasters of the 14th century, such as the plague, political instability, and a decline of Church powerRecovery went hand-in-hand with a rebirth of interest in ancient culture (e.g., ancient Greece and Rome)A new view of human beings emerged as people in the Italian Renaissance began to emphasize individual ability
6Do NowWhat was one of the factors that contributed to the beginning of the Renaissance?
7Lesson 2 ObjectivesSWBAT discuss what the Renaissance was and where it began.SWBAT sequence events related to therise of Italian city-states and their political development, includingMachiavelli’s theory of governing as described in The Prince.
8What was the Renaissance? The Renaissance was a cultural movement and a time of renewal (Europe was recovering from the Dark Ages and the Black Death/Bubonic Plague)Renaissance means “rebirth” of classical knowledge and “birth” of the modern world (new intellectual and artistic ideas that developed during the Renaissance marked the beginning of the modern world)
9Where did the Renaissance begin? ItalyItalian CitiesUrban SocietiesMajor Trading CentersSecular MovementPeople lost their faith in the church and began to put more focus on human beings and material possessions
10When did the Renaissance Take Place? Roughly the 14th to the 17th century
11How did the Crusades contribute to the Renaissance? Crusades (1095 – 1291) = Religiously sanctioned military campaigns waged by Roman Catholics against Muslims who had occupied the near east since the Rashidun Caliphate (founded after Muhammad’s death in 632, the Rashidun Caliphate was one of the largest empires of the time period)Increased demand for Middle Eastern productsStimulated production of goods to trade in Middle Eastern marketsEncouraged the use of credit and banking
12The Black Death: Bubonic Plague 1330s - An outbreak of deadly bubonic plague occurred in ChinaMainly affects rodents, but fleas can transmit the disease to peopleOnce people are infected, they infect others very rapidlyPlague causes fever, painful swelling of the lymph glands, and spots on the skin that are red at first and then turn black = Black DeathSince China was one of the busiest of the world's trading nations, it was only a matter of time before the outbreak of plague in China spread to western Asia and EuropeIn 1347, Italian merchant ships returned from a trip to the Black Sea, one of the key links in trade with China. When the ships docked in Sicily (Italy), many of those on board were already dying of plague.Within days the disease spread to the city and the surrounding countryside
13Bubonic Plague Continued After five years 25 million people were dead--one-third of Europe's population.Even when the worst was over, smaller outbreaks continued, not just for years, but for centuries. The survivors lived in constant fear of the plague's return, and the disease did not disappear until the 1600s.The disease took its toll on the church as well. People throughout Christendom had prayed devoutly for deliverance from the plague. Why hadn't those prayers been answered? A new period of political turmoil and philosophical questioning lay ahead.
15Political Ideas of the Renaissance Niccolò Machiavelli ( )An Italian Philosopher and Writer based in Florence during the RenaissanceThe Prince (Published in 1532)Machiavelli believed:“One can make this generalization about men: they are ungrateful, fickle, liars, and deceivers, they shun danger and are greedy for profit”Machiavelli observed city-state rulers of his day and produced guidelines for how to gain and maintain power.Absolute RuleHe felt that a ruler should be willing to do anything to maintain control without worrying about conscience.
16Better for a ruler to be feared than to be loved Ruler should be quick and decisive in decision makingRuler keeps power by any means necessaryThe end justifies the meansBe good when possible, and evil when necessaryToday, the term “Machiavellian” refers to the use of deceit in politics
17“The Politics of The Prince” Video ClipDiscovery Education“The Politics of The Prince”
18Guided Practice Excerpts from Machiavelli’s, The Prince Chapter XVII Whether it is better to be loved than fearedChapter XVIIIHow rulers should keep their promises
19How did Italian city-states influence the Renaissance? Do Now: Lesson 3AHow did Italian city-states influence the Renaissance?
20Lesson 3 Objectives SWBAT sequence events related to the rise of Italian city-states and their political development andidentify the economic foundations of the Italian Renaissance (e.g., explain the importance of the growth of towns, the rise of a money economy, and the development of independent city-states to the birth and spread of Renaissance ideas)
21Major Italian City-States MilanOne of the richest cities, it controls trade through the Alps.Major Italian City-StatesVeniceLocated on the Adriatic Sea, it is a major trade route between Asia & Europe.MilanVeniceFlorenceControlled by the Medici Family, who became great patrons of the arts.GenoaFlorenceAdriatic SeaGenoaHad Access to Trade RoutesRomeRomeHeadquarters of the Catholic ChurchTyrrhenian SeaAll of these cities:Had access to trade routes connecting Europe with Middle Eastern markets• Served as trading centers for the distribution of goods to northern Europe
23Italian City-StatesBecause Italy failed to become united during the Dark Ages, many independent city-states emerged in Italy.Each city-state was controlled by a powerful family and dominated by a wealthy merchant class. Their interest in art and emphasis on personal achievement helped to shape the Italian Renaissance.Example: The Medici family of Florence ranked among the richest merchants and bankers in Europe; they ruled Florence for over 70 years.
24Centralized PowerOne governing authority (ex. U.S. Federal Government; principals) controls power over several smaller entities (ex. State governments; teachers)
25ReminderRenaissance means “rebirth” of interest in ancient culture (Greece and Rome)
29Activity: Act-It-Out Work in groups Each group will receive role cards Review role cards and use info. from the Reading (28.3) to generate ideas for how to accurately bring your character to lifeTake a few minutes to prepare and practiceEach group will conduct the ‘Act-It-Out’
30Why do you think art was so influential during the Renaissance? Do NowWhy do you think art was so influential during the Renaissance?
31Lesson 4 ObjectivesSWBAT cite artistic, literary, and philosophical creativity, as contrasted with the medieval period, by:Learning about the elements of classical, medieval, and Renaissance artIdentifying the period – classical, medieval, or Renaissance – in which six artworks were created
32The Renaissance produced new ideas that were reflected in the arts, philosophy, and literature. Patrons, wealthy from newly expanded trade, sponsored works which glorified city-states in northern Italy. Education became increasingly secular.
33Medieval art and literature focused on the Church and salvation Classical art showed the importance of people and leaders, as well as gods and goddessesMedieval art and literature focused on the Church and salvationRenaissance art and literature focused on the importance of people and nature, along with religion
34Activity: Classical, Medieval, or Renaissance? Think, Pair, ShareLook at each piece of artwork and determine which period the artwork is from: Classical, Medieval, or RenaissanceList three reasons for your choiceUse your notes and the information from your reading (History Alive! 28.2) for help
36Share Now, let’s see how we did! Classical = Raise 1 Finger Medieval = Raise 2 FingersRenaissance = Raise 3 Fingers
37Classical Art History Alive! Pg. 316 ‘Discobolus’ Figures were lifelike but often idealized (more perfect than in real life)Figures were nude or draped in togas (robes)Bodies looked active, and motion was believableFaces were calm and without emotionScenes showed either heroic figures or real people doing tasks from daily life
38Medieval Art History Alive! Pg. 317 ‘Narthex Tympanum' Most art was religious, showing Jesus, saints, people from the Bible, and so onImportant figures in paintings were shown as larger than others around themFigures looked stiff, with little sense of movementFigures were fully dressed in stiff-looking clothingFaces were serious and showed little feelingPaint colors were bright
39Renaissance Art History Alive! Pg. 317 ‘The School of Athens’ Artists showed religious and nonreligious scenesArt reflected a great interest in natureFigures were lifelike and three-dimensional, reflecting an increasing knowledge of anatomyBodies looked active and were shown movingFigures were either nude or clothedScenes showed real people doing everyday tasksFaces expressed what people were thinkingPaintings were often symmetrical (balanced, with the right and left sides having similar or identical elements)
40Do NowDescribe similarities and differences between Medieval art and Renaissance art
41Lesson 5 Objectives SWBAT: Cite artistic, literary, and philosophical creativity, as contrasted with the medieval period, including Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and PetrarchCompare the Italian and the Northern Renaissance, and citing the contributions of writers
42New Techniques also emerged. Renaissance artists embraced some of the ideals of ancient Greece and Rome in their art.The purpose of art would no longer be to glorify God, as it had been in Medieval Europe. Artists wanted their subjects to be realistic and focused on humanity and emotion.New Techniques also emerged.
43Art and PatronageItalians patrons (financial supporters) were willing to spend a lot of money on artArt communicated social, political, and spiritual values and therefore, the consumption of art was used as a form of competition for social & political status.
44What was different in the Renaissance? RealismPerspectiveEmphasis on individualismGeometrical arrangement of figuresLight and shadowingSoftening of edgesArtist able to live from commissions
461. Realism & Expression Expulsion from the Garden Masaccio 1427 First nudes since classical times.
472. Perspective First use of linear perspective! Perspective! The TrinityMasaccio1427Perspective!Perspective!Perspective!Perspective!Perspective!Perspective!Perspective!First use of linear perspective!What you are, I once was; what I am, you will become.
484. Emphasis on Individualism Batista Sforza & Federico de Montefeltre: The Duke & Dutchess of UrbinoPiero della Francesca,
495. Geometrical Arrangement of Figures Leonardo da Vinci1469The figure as architecture!The Dreyfus Madonna with the Pomegranate
506. Light & Shadowing/Softening Edges Sfumato:gradual blending of one area of color into another without a sharp outlineChiaroscuro:use of lightand shadeGinevra de' Benci, a young Florentine noblewoman who, at the age of sixteen, married Luigi Niccolini in 1474.
51Born in 1475 in a small town near Florence, is considered to be one of the most inspired men who ever lived; he was a sculptor, painter, engineer, architect, and poet.
52Michelangelo created his masterpiece David in 1504. The Biblical shepherd, David (who killed Goliath) recalls the harmony and grace of ancient Greek tradition
54Sistine ChapelAbout a year after creating David, Pope Julius II summoned Michelangelo to Rome to work on his most famous project, the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.Depicts the biblical history of the world from the Creation to the Flood
55Separation of Light and Darkness Creation of AdamCreation of EveThe Last JudgmentSeparation of Light and Darkness
56Pieta 1499 Marble Sculpture Captures the sorrow of the Virgin Mary as she cradles her dead son, Jesus on her knees
63An imaginary gathering of great thinkers and scientists The School of AthensPerspectiveSubjects are mainly secular, but can be religiousFigures look idealized, but can also look like everyday ordinary peopleBodies are activeClothed or unclothedFaces are expressiveDetail1510 FrescoVatican CityAn imaginary gathering of great thinkers and scientists
66The Renaissance in northern Europe (outside Italy) Northern RenaissanceThe Renaissance in northern Europe (outside Italy)There was increased cultural exchange between European countriesPrinted materials helped to spread ideasCentralization of political power made the northern Renaissance distinct from the Italian Renaissance (e.g., nation-states instead of Italian city-states)
67• Growing wealth in Northern Europe supported Renaissance ideas. • Northern Renaissance thinkers merged humanist ideas with Christianity.• The movable type printing press and the production and sale of books (Gutenberg Bible) helped disseminate ideas and allowed more people to become educated.
68Cultural and educational reform The study of classical culture (ancient Greece and Rome), in contrast with the study of things related to the church and religionCelebrated the individualWas supported by wealthy patrons (financial supporters)
69Literature flourished during the Renaissance and spread Renaissance ideas, which can be greatly attributed to Johannes Gutenberg.In 1455 Gutenberg printed the first book produced by using moveable type, The Bible, and started a printing revolution that would transform Europe.Literacy rates increased
70Petrarch Poet, Humanist scholar Francesco PetrarchAssembled Greek and Roman writingsWrote:Sonnets to Laura(Love poems in the Vernacular)Influenced William Shakespeare
71William Shakespeare 1564-1616 English poet and playwright Well-known plays include:Hamlet, Macbeth, Romeo and JulietInfluence and Impact on the Renaissance:He expanded the dramatic potential of characterization (hischaracters were very complex), plot, language (creative), and genre
72Erasmus (1466-1536) Dutch humanist Pushed for a Vernacular form of the Bible“I disagree very much with those who are unwilling that Holy Scripture, translated into the vernacular, be read by the uneducated As if the strength of the Christian religion consisted in the ignorance of it”Wanted to reform the Catholic ChurchWrote: The Praise of FollyUsed humor to show the immoral and ignorant behavior of people, including the clergy. He felt people would be open minded and be kind to others.
73Sir Thomas More (1478-1535) English Humanist Wrote: Utopia A book about a perfect society in which men and women live in harmony, there is no private property, no one is lazy, all people are educated and the justice system is used to end crime instead of executing criminals
74BibliographyImages from:Corbis.comWeb Gallary of Art
75Important to RememberAccomplishments in the visual arts – Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, RaphaelAccomplishments in literature (sonnets, plays, essays) – Petrarch, ShakespeareAccomplishments in intellectual ideas (humanism) – Erasmus