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Renaissance Special Thanks To Ms. Stewart for the PowerPoint
APS Standards WHI.13 The student will demonstrate knowledge of developments leading to the Renaissance in Europe in terms of its impact on Western civilization by: a.identifying the economic foundations of the Italian Renaissance; b.sequencing events related to the rise of Italian city-states and their political development, including Machiavelli’s theory of governing as described in The Prince; c.citing artistic, literary, and philosophical creativity, as contrasted with the medieval period, including Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Petrarch; d.comparing the Italian and the Northern Renaissance, and citing the contributions of writers.
Do Now Write a definition for the word, ‘rebirth’
Lesson 1 Objectives SWBAT identify factors that contributed to the beginning of the Renaissance
Factors that Contributed to the Beginning of the Renaissance Trade and commerce increased Cities grew larger and wealthier Newly wealthy merchants and bankers supported the growth of the arts and learning The Renaissance was an age of recovery from the disasters of the 14 th century, such as the plague, political instability, and a decline of Church power Recovery went hand-in-hand with a rebirth of interest in ancient culture (e.g., ancient Greece and Rome) A new view of human beings emerged as people in the Italian Renaissance began to emphasize individual ability
Do Now What was one of the factors that contributed to the beginning of the Renaissance?
Lesson 2 Objectives SWBAT discuss what the Renaissance was and where it began. SWBAT sequence events related to the rise of Italian city-states and their political development, including Machiavelli’s theory of governing as described in The Prince.
The Renaissance was a cultural movement and a time of renewal (Europe was recovering from the Dark Ages and the Black Death/Bubonic Plague) “rebirth” “birth” Renaissance means “rebirth” of classical knowledge and “birth” of the modern world (new intellectual and artistic ideas that developed during the Renaissance marked the beginning of the modern world) What was the Renaissance?
Where did the Renaissance begin? Italy Italian Cities Urban Societies Major Trading Centers Secular Movement People lost their faith in the church and began to put more focus on human beings and material possessions
When did the Renaissance Take Place? Roughly the 14 th to the 17 th century
How did the Crusades contribute to the Renaissance? Crusades (1095 – 1291) = Religiously sanctioned military campaigns waged by Roman Catholics against Muslims who had occupied the near east since the Rashidun Caliphate (founded after Muhammad’s death in 632, the Rashidun Caliphate was one of the largest empires of the time period) Increased demand for Middle Eastern products Stimulated production of goods to trade in Middle Eastern markets Encouraged the use of credit and banking
The Black Death: Bubonic Plague 1330s - An outbreak of deadly bubonic plague occurred in China Mainly affects rodents, but fleas can transmit the disease to people Once people are infected, they infect others very rapidly Plague causes fever, painful swelling of the lymph glands, and spots on the skin that are red at first and then turn black = Black Death Since China was one of the busiest of the world's trading nations, it was only a matter of time before the outbreak of plague in China spread to western Asia and Europe In 1347, Italian merchant ships returned from a trip to the Black Sea, one of the key links in trade with China. When the ships docked in Sicily (Italy), many of those on board were already dying of plague. Within days the disease spread to the city and the surrounding countryside
Bubonic Plague Continued After five years 25 million people were dead--one-third of Europe's population. Even when the worst was over, smaller outbreaks continued, not just for years, but for centuries. The survivors lived in constant fear of the plague's return, and the disease did not disappear until the 1600s. The disease took its toll on the church as well. People throughout Christendom had prayed devoutly for deliverance from the plague. Why hadn't those prayers been answered? A new period of political turmoil and philosophical questioning lay ahead.
Political Ideas of the Renaissance Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527) An Italian Philosopher and Writer based in Florence during the Renaissance The Prince (Published in 1532) Machiavelli believed: “One can make this generalization about men: they are ungrateful, fickle, liars, and deceivers, they shun danger and are greedy for profit” Machiavelli observed city-state rulers of his day and produced guidelines for how to gain and maintain power. Absolute Rule He felt that a ruler should be willing to do anything to maintain control without worrying about conscience.
Better for a ruler to be feared than to be loved Ruler should be quick and decisive in decision making Ruler keeps power by any means necessary The end justifies the means Be good when possible, and evil when necessary Today, the term “Machiavellian” refers to the use of deceit in politics
Video Clip Discovery Education “The Politics of The Prince”
Guided Practice Excerpts from Machiavelli’s, The Prince Chapter XVII Whether it is better to be loved than feared Chapter XVIII How rulers should keep their promises
Do Now: Lesson 3A How did Italian city-states influence the Renaissance?
Lesson 3 Objectives SWBAT 1)sequence events related to the rise of Italian city- states and their political development and 2)identify the economic foundations of the Italian Renaissance (e.g., explain the importance of the growth of towns, the rise of a money economy, and the development of independent city-states to the birth and spread of Renaissance ideas)
Major Italian City-StatesMilanVenice Florence Milan One of the richest cities, it controls trade through the Alps. Venice Located on the Adriatic Sea, it is a major trade route between Asia & Europe. Florence Controlled by the Medici Family, who became great patrons of the arts. Genoa Had Access to Trade Routes All of these cities: Had access to trade routes connecting Europe with Middle Eastern markets Served as trading centers for the distribution of goods to northern Europe Rome Headquarters of the Catholic Church Rome
Italian City-States Because Italy failed to become united during the Dark Ages, many independent city-states emerged in Italy. Each city-state was controlled by a powerful family and dominated by a wealthy merchant class. Their interest in art and emphasis on personal achievement helped to shape the Italian Renaissance. Example: The Medici family of Florence ranked among the richest merchants and bankers in Europe; they ruled Florence for over 70 years.
Centralized Power One governing authority (ex. U.S. Federal Government; principals) controls power over several smaller entities (ex. State governments; teachers)
Reminder Renaissance means “rebirth” of interest in ancient culture (Greece and Rome)
Activity: Act-It-Out Work in groups Each group will receive role cards Review role cards and use info. from the Reading (28.3) to generate ideas for how to accurately bring your character to life Take a few minutes to prepare and practice Each group will conduct the ‘Act-It-Out’
Do Now Why do you think art was so influential during the Renaissance?
Lesson 4 Objectives SWBAT cite artistic, literary, and philosophical creativity, as contrasted with the medieval period, by: 1.Learning about the elements of classical, medieval, and Renaissance art 2.Identifying the period – classical, medieval, or Renaissance – in which six artworks were created
The Renaissance produced new ideas that were reflected in the arts, philosophy, and literature. Patrons, wealthy from newly expanded trade, sponsored works which glorified city-states in northern Italy. Education became increasingly secular.
Classical art showed the importance of people and leaders, as well as gods and goddesses Medieval art and literature focused on the Church and salvation Renaissance art and literature focused on the importance of people and nature, along with religion
Activity: Classical, Medieval, or Renaissance? Think, Pair, Share –Look at each piece of artwork and determine which period the artwork is from: Classical, Medieval, or Renaissance –List three reasons for your choice –Use your notes and the information from your reading (History Alive! 28.2) for help
Share Now, let’s see how we did! Classical = Raise 1 Finger Medieval = Raise 2 Fingers Renaissance = Raise 3 Fingers
Classical Art History Alive! Pg. 316 ‘Discobolus’ Figures were lifelike but often idealized (more perfect than in real life) Figures were nude or draped in togas (robes) Bodies looked active, and motion was believable Faces were calm and without emotion Scenes showed either heroic figures or real people doing tasks from daily life
Medieval Art History Alive! Pg. 317 ‘Narthex Tympanum' Most art was religious, showing Jesus, saints, people from the Bible, and so on Important figures in paintings were shown as larger than others around them Figures looked stiff, with little sense of movement Figures were fully dressed in stiff-looking clothing Faces were serious and showed little feeling Paint colors were bright
Renaissance Art History Alive! Pg. 317 ‘The School of Athens’ Artists showed religious and nonreligious scenes Art reflected a great interest in nature Figures were lifelike and three-dimensional, reflecting an increasing knowledge of anatomy Bodies looked active and were shown moving Figures were either nude or clothed Scenes showed real people doing everyday tasks Faces expressed what people were thinking Paintings were often symmetrical (balanced, with the right and left sides having similar or identical elements)
Do Now Describe similarities and differences between Medieval art and Renaissance art
Lesson 5 Objectives SWBAT: 1.Cite artistic, literary, and philosophical creativity, as contrasted with the medieval period, including Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Petrarch 2.Compare the Italian and the Northern Renaissance, and citing the contributions of writers
Renaissance artists embraced some of the ideals of ancient Greece and Rome in their art. The purpose of art would no longer be to glorify God, as it had been in Medieval Europe. Artists wanted their subjects to be realistic and focused on humanity and emotion. New Techniques also emerged.
Art and Patronage Italians patrons (financial supporters) were willing to spend a lot of money on art –Art communicated social, political, and spiritual values and therefore, the consumption of art was used as a form of competition for social & political status.
What was different in the Renaissance? Realism Perspective Emphasis on individualism Geometrical arrangement of figures Light and shadowing Softening of edges Artist able to live from commissions
1. Realism & Expression Expulsion from the Garden Masaccio 1427 First nudes since classical times.
2. Perspective Perspective! Perspective ! Perspective! First use of linear perspective! Perspective ! The Trinity Masaccio 1427 What you are, I once was; what I am, you will become.
4. Emphasis on Individualism Batista Sforza & Federico de Montefeltre: The Duke & Dutchess of Urbino Piero della Francesca, 1465-1466.
5. Geometrical Arrangement of Figures Leonardo da Vinci 1469 The figure as architecture! The Dreyfus Madonna with the Pomegranate
6. Light & Shadowing/Softening Edges Chiaroscuro: use of light and shade Sfumato: gradual blending of one area of color into another without a sharp outline Ginevra de' Benci, a young Florentine noblewoman who, at the age of sixteen, married Luigi Niccolini in 1474.
Born in 1475 in a small town near Florence, is considered to be one of the most inspired men who ever lived; he was a sculptor, painter, engineer, architect, and poet.
David Michelangelo created his masterpiece David in 1504. The Biblical shepherd, David (who killed Goliath) recalls the harmony and grace of ancient Greek tradition
Sistine Chapel About a year after creating David, Pope Julius II summoned Michelangelo to Rome to work on his most famous project, the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Depicts the biblical history of the world from the Creation to the Flood
Creation of Eve Creation of Adam Separation of Light and Darkness The Last Judgment
Pieta 1499 Marble Sculpture Captures the sorrow of the Virgin Mary as she cradles her dead son, Jesus on her knees
The School of Athens 1510 Fresco Vatican City An imaginary gathering of great thinkers and scientists Perspective Subjects are mainly secular, but can be religious Figures look idealized, but can also look like everyday ordinary people Bodies are active Clothed or unclothed Faces are expressive Detail
Northern Renaissance The Renaissance in northern Europe (outside Italy) There was increased cultural exchange between European countries Printed materials helped to spread ideas Centralization of political power made the northern Renaissance distinct from the Italian Renaissance (e.g., nation-states instead of Italian city-states)
Growing wealth in Northern Europe supported Renaissance ideas. Northern Renaissance thinkers merged humanist ideas with Christianity. The movable type printing press and the production and sale of books (Gutenberg Bible) helped disseminate ideas and allowed more people to become educated.
Cultural and educational reform The study of classical culture (ancient Greece and Rome), in contrast with the study of things related to the church and religion Celebrated the individual Was supported by wealthy patrons (financial supporters)
Literature flourished during the Renaissance and spread Renaissance ideas, which can be greatly attributed to Johannes Gutenberg. In 1455 Gutenberg printed the first book produced by using moveable type, The Bible, and started a printing revolution that would transform Europe. Literacy rates increased
Petrarch Poet, Humanist scholar Francesco Petrarch 1304-1374 Assembled Greek and Roman writings Wrote: Sonnets to Laura (Love poems in the Vernacular) Influenced William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare 1564-1616 English poet and playwright Well-known plays include: Hamlet, Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet Influence and Impact on the Renaissance: He expanded the dramatic potential of characterization (his characters were very complex), plot, language (creative), and genre
Erasmus (1466-1536) Dutch humanist Pushed for a Vernacular form of the Bible “I disagree very much with those who are unwilling that Holy Scripture, translated into the vernacular, be read by the uneducated... As if the strength of the Christian religion consisted in the ignorance of it” Wanted to reform the Catholic Church Wrote: The Praise of Folly Used humor to show the immoral and ignorant behavior of people, including the clergy. He felt people would be open minded and be kind to others.
Sir Thomas More (1478-1535) English Humanist Wrote: Utopia A book about a perfect society in which men and women live in harmony, there is no private property, no one is lazy, all people are educated and the justice system is used to end crime instead of executing criminals
Bibliography Images from: Corbis.com Web Gallary of Art www.wga.hu
Important to Remember Accomplishments in the visual arts – Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael Accomplishments in literature (sonnets, plays, essays) – Petrarch, Shakespeare Accomplishments in intellectual ideas (humanism) – Erasmus