Presentation on theme: "Bring Out Your Dead! The Bubonic Plague. Impact of the Black Death in Europe Demography: –1/3 of the population died (20 million) –Displacement of the."— Presentation transcript:
Impact of the Black Death in Europe Demography: –1/3 of the population died (20 million) –Displacement of the population Jews fled to Eastern Europe Peasants settled abandoned lands Families abandoned Cities grew as economic centers
In Europe Politically: –Peasant Revolt of 1381 in England (political instability) –Power of monarchies increased as countries became urbanized: security –Traditional authority figures challenged –Scapegoats
Still in Europe Economically: –Wages increased for labor –Wealth distribution changed –Monarchies increased tax base & armies –Prices increased & commercial activity decreased –Extended work days (clocks) –Labor shortage: invention of machinery to help –Peasants & workers became aware of value
And still in Europe Religiously: –Papacy became more secular & occupied w/ fiscal gain & universal power –Disillusionment with church led to:
Disillusionment with Church: Increase in religious fervor: –Increase in number of religious holidays –Increase in religious pilgrimages –Increase in indulgences by the Pope Increase in hedonism: –People lived for the moment –Turned to drink, sex, and materialism –Questioning of Church authority; set stage for Protestant Reformation
Impact of Black Death in the Islamic Middle East Inflation: –High cost of medicines & ingredients: Incense, cardamom, camphor, white sugar, watermelons, Syrian pears, molasses, pumpkin seeds –Cost of silver rose because of use as magic talismans and amulets –Shortage of funeral cloths and burial shrouds
Still in the Middle East Economically: –High cost of labor due to population decline –Doctors, druggists, herb sellers, and blood- letters became wealthy
Yup…still there Society: –Mosques closed due to deaths of caretakers –Crafts disappeared because of decreased demand: artists could earn more by transporting the dead Number of weavers in Alexandria dropped from 13,000 in 1394 to 800 in 1434
And more Middle East Governmentally: –Increased endowments for religions, educational, and charitable purposes –Government funds increased due to death duties and confiscation of victims’ property –Technological stagnation –Decline of Middle East as a trade center
Medical Treatments in Europe Flight: prefer low sites away from wind Pope Clement VI went to Avignon where he slept between 2 bonfires Avoided the coast Houses built facing north with windows covered in waxed cloth Aromatic items burned to keep away the miasma Religious relics/magic amulets/talismans/hex signs Sleep first on right and then on left side to keep body steady Don’t sleep on back: vapors will get you through your nose and erase your memory
More medical stuff “Bad cures bad” Bloodletting Soothing potions: apple, syrup, lemon, rosewater, & peppermint Emerald, gold, pearls = medicinal Eating eggs w/ vinegar “Ring Around the Rosie” Ring around the rosie, Pocket full of posies, Achoo! We all fall down!
Medical Treatments in the Middle East Few people in the streets No flight b/c must preserve society from disruption & disorder Clean & fumigate house Letter magic Renewed enforcement of Muslim laws, esp. against alcohol and moral laxity Have patience, piety, & visit the sick Curses were discouraged Burning fires Sweet smelling shrubs planted around the cities Avoid congested areas No sleeping after eating, avoid missing meals
More Middle Eastern medical treatments Sleep with room opened to the north Bloodletting Keep morale high w/ joy, serenity, relaxation, hope Plague buboes were pierced & soaked w/ vinegar & oil of roses, apples and myrtle Dried egg yolk applied to boils Items to strengthen the heart: fruit juice, fragrant foods, lentils, meat in vinegar Beds covered with flowers Plasters on the hearts Drink sour liquids Seek pleasant & attractive company
List the reactions of: Europe: –Religion –Superstition –Folk belief & tradition –Science or medicine: Middle East: –Religion –Superstition –Folk belief & tradition –Science or medicine:
Points to ponder: How might people, while meaning well, accidentally spread the plague? Sometimes, during a crisis, things of little value an suddenly seem precious and vice versa. Do you see any evidence of this in either culture? If plague were to strike today, what things do you think would escalate in value today? Any similarities?