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Late Middle Ages c. 1300 – c. 1500. Late Middle Ages an age of plague, famine, war, social uprisings plague: first appeared in Italy in 1347 and spread.

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Presentation on theme: "Late Middle Ages c. 1300 – c. 1500. Late Middle Ages an age of plague, famine, war, social uprisings plague: first appeared in Italy in 1347 and spread."— Presentation transcript:

1 Late Middle Ages c – c. 1500

2 Late Middle Ages an age of plague, famine, war, social uprisings plague: first appeared in Italy in 1347 and spread to the rest of Europe. It killed more than a third of Europe’s seventy million people. It is also called “black death” by the 16th century historians. War: the Hundred Years’ War between England and France ( ); the heroic figure of Joan of Arc ( )

3 Late Middle Ages Result of plague, war, and famine: –Depopulation –Decline of the towns –Migration of rich to the country and poor to the cities –Peasants leave the land to meet labor demand in the towns

4 Late Medieval Religion Response to plague results in: –Increase in piety, though in many forms –Extreme asceticism –Criticism of the church from dissidents –Rise of the Inquisition

5 Late Middle Ages The devotio moderna, a lay movement with an ideal of a pious lay society, disappointed with traditionally trained priests, engaged in ascetic practices; the flagellants the Inquisition, born in the aftermath of the Albigensian heresy in the 12th century. Forbidden by the Bible to shed blood, the leaders of the Inquisition burned convicted heretics. The debate in theology and philosophy

6 Debate in Theology/Philosophy Separation of reason and faith via moderna Rationalists (Latin Averroists, Peter Abelard) William of Ockham Nominalism combination of reason and faith via antiqua Thomism Duns Scotus Dominican friars Realism

7 Duns Scotus

8 John Duns Scotus (c ) is one of the most important thinkers in the history of Christian thought, and an aspect of that thought is crucially relevant to our world today. More known as a philosopher of great insight and perception, his primary contribution to theology is little known outside the Franciscan order, yet is one of the most dynamically creative moments in the development of Franciscan theology and spirituality.

9 Duns Scotus Though a profound theological and philosophical thinker, Scotus was first and foremost a Franciscan. His doctrine of the Incarnation (more fully known as the Doctrine of the Absolute Primacy of Christ in the Universe) is firmly rooted in the Franciscan intellectual and spiritual tradition

10 Duns Scotus In the Absolute Primacy, Christ is the beginning, middle and end of creation. He stands at the centre of the universe as the reason for its existence. In this schema, the universe is for Christ and not Christ for the universe


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