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Objective 19: Europe Before 1492 Revival, Renaissance, Reconnaissance.

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Presentation on theme: "Objective 19: Europe Before 1492 Revival, Renaissance, Reconnaissance."— Presentation transcript:

1 Objective 19: Europe Before 1492 Revival, Renaissance, Reconnaissance

2 14 th century crises Mongol Invasions Great Schism The Plague Hundred Years War

3 The Mongol successor states. After the death of Chinggis Khan’s grandson Mongke in 1259, the Mongol world devolved into four successor states. Kublai Khan’s emerged as the most powerful, but only after a long struggle with Song China. In Central Asia, the Chagatai dominated the eastern steppe; the Golden Horde became established in southwest Russia; and the Il-Khan in Persia ruled from Kabul to Anatolia.

4 The routes of the plague. The central and east Asian stability imposed by Mongol rule— the “Mongol Peace”—brought mixed benefits. Trade flourished, and travelers such as Ibn Battuta and Marco Polo were able to write remarkable accounts of the lands they visited. At the same time, however, vectors for other travelers, such as the rats that carried bubonic plague, also opened up. The Black Death, originating in Central Asia, was one of a succession of plagues that followed the trade routes by land and sea, decimating parts of Europe and China.

5 Consequences of the Plague Depopulation of Europe Church lost authority Erosion of serfdom as the labor shortage enabled serfs to demand wages and better working conditions

6 Population Decline (millions)

7 Hundred Years War A conflict between the king of France and England, a vassal state Triggered by a succession dispute Joan of Arc fought for the French

8 Recovery – 15th century: The end of feudalism and the emergence of Europe Reintegration into hemispheric trading networks Resurgence of trade and a money economy Creation of new towns and cities Reemergence of monarchies and regional states

9 Long-term consequences of the Hundred Years War Strengthened monarchies and national armies New weapons transformed warfare Political consolidation: France and Britain became independent monarchies

10 Town life Organization of merchant and craft guilds Guilds and towns challenged the authority of feudal lords and manors

11 The Renaissance Renaissance = “rebirth” Humanism, secularism A 15th century cultural, artistic, and philosophical movement Centered in powerful city-states of Northern Italy, particularly Florence Brunelleschi’s dome on the cathedral of Florence

12 Renaissance in Italy, 1300– From 1300–1570 in Italy, artists and intellectuals worked to fuse the Christian tradition (originating in antiquity but developed during the Middle Ages) with the Greco-Roman tradition in a movement fundamental for the later evolution of the modern civilization of the West: the Renaissance. This map shows the principal places that are associated with the names of important figures. Three Stages: Literary and artistic revival Civic Humanism Christian Humanism

13 The recovery of classic texts Hundreds of Greek and Roman texts were recovered and translated Recovery of “pagan classics” of secular philosophy as well as religious works Francesco Petrarca [ ] traveled throughout Europe searching for ancient texts

14 Creation of Adam by Michelangelo

15 Michelangelo’s David Pieta by Michelangelo

16 The Sistine Chapel painted by Michelangelo

17 The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci

18 Hands sketched by Leonardo da Vinci Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci

19 The growth of universities Europe’s first universities were built in the 11 th and 12 th centuries “Universities” were guilds of scholars and students Latin was the language of scholarship 1300  a dozen universities 1500  almost 100

20 Explosion in printing and literacy Introduction of moveable type and printing press c The Gutenberg Bible was the first book in the West printed with moveable type By 1500 ten million printed books were in circulation in Europe

21 The Gutenberg Press and Bible

22 Reconnaissance European Voyages OBJECTIVES: “God, Gold, Glory”? To avoid travel over land To bypass the Middle East and find easy passage to Asia To enter directly lucrative trade networks in the Indian Ocean To convert people to Christianity Pepper from the “Spice Islands” was a highly desired commodity in Europe

23 Enabling technologies Lateen and square sails Rudders Magnetic compasses and astrolabes Knowledge of wind and currents

24 The astrolabe measured latitude. Developed by Greeks and Persians, reintroduced to Europe by Arabs The compass was developed by the Chinese in the 7 th century; widely used in Indian Ocean by 11 th century

25 Wind and current patterns in the world's oceans.

26 How does Europe rise to world dominance? Theory of the “retarding lead” Southernization Economic recovery after the Plague Nation states Rise of capitalism Intellectual growth in the Renaissance Contact with the Mongols Contact with the Muslim Empire through Spain and the Crusades


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